Revival and Reform by ewghwehws


									Revival and Reform
Standards & Essential Question

• SSUSH 7c: Describe the reform
  movements, specifically temperance,
  abolitionism and public school.
• E.Q. What are the underlying causes of
  the reform movement?
Take Five…

• What was the 2nd Great Awakening?
• What types of areas were targets for
  reformers during the early to mid 1800’s?
• Were most of the reformers men or
Religion in America

The Second Great Awakening
     Charles Grandison Finney
Camp meetings
Circuit riders
     Finis Ewing, Peter Cartwright
     New denominations
“Burned-over” district

People who believe in the second
       Advent of Jesus.
      Where did it originate…?
• It originated in New England in the United States
• It mainly spread through the United States,
  followed by missionaries who spread the religion
  throughout the world.
• Main founders and supporters include…
• William Miller: Preacher who launched the “Second Great
   Awakening” , Also predicted the Great Disappointment.
• James and Ellen White: After the great disappointment they rose
  and uplifted the spirits of the disappointed Adventist people. Jane
  White also became a well rounded author and also a respected
  religious leader.
• J.J Andrews: He was one of the first missionaries to venture over
  seas and was partly responsible for the spreading of the Adventist
  religion to other countries and cultures.
• George Storrs: Founded the Life and Advent Union.
              Adventists Beliefs…
• Main Beliefs include…
•   Importance of seeing God’s true character
•   They want to model themselves after God’s character.
•   They have symbols that they use to celebrate Jesus.
•   They include…
•   Washing of the feet – showing love to others
•   Drinking wine or grape juice- Jesus’ blood
•   Eating bread- Jesus’ flesh
            The remains…
• Adventists still remains today.
• It is part of the Christian domination.
• It is practiced world wide, mainly in the
  United States.
The “burned-over” district
The Adventists
    William Miller & Joshua V. Himes
    Halley’s comet
    Hiram Edson
William Miller
The Mormons

   Joseph Smith
   Moving west
        Nauvoo, IL
   Brigham Young
        Salt Lake City, UT
        Brigham Young = 55 wives & 56
Joseph Smith
Brigham Young
By: Allie Todd
2/3 period

 The fruitlands were founded by Amos Bronson Alcott.
 He discovered the fruitlands after seeing the shaker commune
  and visiting transcendental centers in England.
 Created his first “experimental” commune in Harvard,
  Massachusetts in the summer of 1842.
 He imagined it being the “new Eden”
 His main goals were to establish separate identities away from

   Must be abstinent from all worldly society.
   Cannot purchase land.
   Never try to produce more goods than you can consume.
   Not allowed to eat meat, drink milk, tea, or coffee.
   No animal substances are allowed to “corrupt” their bodies.
   Must be strict vegans.
   Only allowed to drink water and eat fruit.
   Cold showers only.
   Simple clothing only.
   Men and women live together not separately.

  Animals were less intelligent than humans so
  humans were suppose to protect them not kill them.
 Flesh is not a clean food so why not eat flesh of fruit.
 Based society of their own economy.
 Did not trade with the outside world.
The End
  The biggest challenge was farming.
  Not wanting to use animals hurt their farms and their economy.
  They did not make enough food to make it through the winter.
 It was also hampered by their structure.
 Lots of contradictions were made between leaders.
 Rules were to strict for living.
 Many member rebelled and left to become nudists, enter insane
  asylums, become criminals, and etc.
 The experiment only lasted seven months.

  Strongly impacted American communes and the
  Transcendentalist movement.
 Left a legacy of inspired authors and artists.
 The Fruitlands is now a Shaker and art museum.

By: G Costa
•   Present day NY
•   6 nations
•   5 nations
•   Adopted a new tribe from the south and
    became the 6 nations.

    Prophet and chief Handsome lake
    Had visions
    Longhouse religion
    Wrote codes (treated like sins).
   Believed in heaven on earth
   Outlawed drunkenness, gambling,
    quarreling, wife-beating and witchcraft.
   Had many Christian influence on the
    longhouse religion.
Utopian communities
Brook Farm
The Shakers
       Mother Ann Lee
New Harmony
       Robert Owen
       Bronson Alcott
       John Humphrey Noyes
             “Complex marriages”
Mother Ann Lee and the
The Oneida’s


   An orthodox
    Anabaptist sect that
    separated from the
    Mennonites in the late
    17th century and exists
    today primarily in Ohio
    and southeast

   Menno Simons (1496-1561)

             THEY DON’T BELIEVE IN
              SHOULD BE DONE
             Aaren Viars
             U.S. History
             Mrs. Stanley


• Founded by Menno Simons
• A form of Anabaptism
• Mennonites were persecuted during the
  protestant Reformation.
• Mennonites came to America in the 1700s
• Today there are over 1 million Mennonites

   No infant baptisms
   Pacifists
   No violence
   Salvation through faith in Jesus
   Adult believers baptized

•   Old Order Mennonites
     1. Rode on horses and in buggies
     2. Don’t participate in politics
     3. Children are taught by church operated schools
•   Conservative Mennonites
     1. Dress conservatively
     2. Use most technology
•   Progressive Mennonites
     1. Not strict with bible
     2. Women Pastors
     3. Practice a liberal agenda
The Anabaptist
by: Brittany Smith
The Anabaptists

  It was founded around 1522
  It was founded in Zurich, Switzerland .
  January 21, 1525, is considered the birth
   date of Anabaptism.
  "Anabaptist" comes from the practice of
   baptizing individuals who had been
   baptized previously, often as infants.
 They believed infant baptism is not valid,
  because a child cant commit to a religious
  faith, and they support what's called believer's
 The non-revolutionary Anabaptists of
  Switzerland, Austria, Germany, and the
  Netherlands, were some what of a trial to the
  leading reformers because of their radical
  views on the nature of the church and of the
  Christian ethic.

  The Anabaptists held that a person must first
   believe the gospel before they could be
   accepted into the Church with the sign of water
  One can not obtain or protect their rights by the
   use of force
  They could not have private property but must
   share all their goods in common with Christ's
   brothers and sisters.

  The Anabaptists taught, like Jesus did,
  that the way to the Kingdom of God is on
  a narrow path. Each of the Anabaptist
  beliefs make the path narrower.
    Believers Baptism
    Pacifism
    Community

Ralph Waldo Emerson--Nature
Henry David Thoreau—Civil Disobedience &
     Nathaniel Hawthorne—Brook Farm
     Margaret Fuller
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau
Other new fads and trends

• Phrenology
• Health fads—warm springs
• Smallpox vaccine discovered
• Ignaz Semmelweis
• Indian Reservation Reform
• Education reform
  – Horace Mann
Prison Reformers
  By: Ana Torres
Where and when were Prison
Reforms founded?
• First founded in Philadelphia
• Spread to other parts of Pennsylvania
• Later started spreading throughout the
  United States
• Started in the early 1800’s
Beliefs of Prison Reformers?

• Deterrence
• Rehabilitation
• Moral Improvement
• Most reformers were deeply religious
Do Prison Reforms still exist?

• Yes, there are still prison reforms in the
  United States
Evangelical Reformers

Gallaudet, Howe & Bridgman
Dorothea Dix
Prison reform
     Cesare Beccaria
     Pennsylvania System
     Auburn System
     Juvenile crime
Take Five…What do the following
political cartoons refer to?
 A             B
Temperance movement

          Carry Nation—”Scary Carry”
Moral and social reform
Early temperance movement
  Dr. Benjamin Rush
  Washington Temperance Society
  Sons of Temperance
      John B. Gough
            Fifteen Gallon Law
      New York
Problems with Immigration

 Customs and culture
 Anti-Catholicism movement
        Order of the Star Spangled Banner
         “Know-nothings” (American party)
               American Tract Society & American
               Bible Society
               American Board of Foreign Missions
                      Sandwich Islands, Hawaii
The Women’s Movement

Seneca Falls convention
      “Declaration of Sentiments & Resolutions”
     Lucretia Mott & Elizabeth Cady Stanton
           Grimke Sisters (Sarah & Angelina)
Grimke Sisters
Lucretia Mott
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Susan B. Anthony
Amelia Bloomer

• William Lloyd Garrison
• American Abolitionist Society
The Abolition Movement

By: Joi Bockstoce
When was the Abolition Movement?
• The Abolition movement happened in
    the 1800’s to end slavery.
•   The majority of abolitionists activity
    happened in the United States and
    Great Britain, but it also happened in
    other countries as well.
•   Antislavery began in the colonial days
    in the United States.
What was established during the
Abolition Movement?
• The African Colonization Society was a
  group founded in 1816 to return blacks
  to their home continent
• The American Anti-Slavery Society was
  founded in 1833
What were the religious views on the
Abolition Movement?
• The Society of Friends, otherwise known as the
  Quakers, stood almost alone in professing that
  slaveholding was opposed with Christian
• abolitionists pursued immediate emancipation
  through moral persuasion tactics and
  condemned it on moral grounds.
What happened to end the Abolition
• Amidst the Civil War, political abolitionists
  mustered public pressure to try and force, and
  succeeded in having, President Abraham
  Lincoln to adopt freedom as the war goal
• So with the end of the war, came the end of
The Changing Workplace
Year long work
Long hours
Little pay
Harsh conditions
Repetitive work
Lowell mills
   “mill girls”
   Beginnings of Unionization
Lowell Mills
Union is Power

• Abundant work force
• National Trades’ Union
  – Shoemakers strike 1806
  – 6 large industries join in 1834
     • Opposition by banks, owners, and courts
• Commonwealth v Hunt (1842)
  – Ruled in favor of striking workers

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