SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR111

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					      SCIENTIFIC CALCULATOR




SUBMITED TO:               SUBMITED BY:
Ms. Sukhdilpreet Kaur   Name: Anuj Sharma &Naman
                        Roll NO.:R246A16 & R246A11
                        Regn.No.: 10802451 &10800991
           AKNOWLEDGMENT
First and the foremost I would like to thank to my almighty
for giving me courage to bring up this term assignment.
At the outset, I would like to propose a word of thanks to
my teacher, friends and other sources that gave an
unending support and helped me in numerous ways from
the first stage of my term assignment conceived.
I would also like to thank my family members for their
whole hearted support and cooperation.
I duly acknowledge the contribution of Ms.Sukhdilpreet
Kaur for invaluable help. Coding scientific calculator is an
uphill task and would have not been possible without
proper and timely assistance of Ms.Sukhdilpreet Kaur.
I would also thanks to all my friends for forwarding their
suggestions to make necessary modifications.

Special thanks to Ms.Sukhdilpreet Kaur for her
able guidance in my term assignment.
                  INTRODUCTION

Scientific Calculator
          0.




The calculator was written by Rolf Howarth in early 1996.

A fully featured scientific calculator with proper operator precedence is
implemented, including trig functions and logarithms, factorials, 12
levels of parentheses, logs to base 2 (a handy function for information
entropists!), bitwise logical operators, hex, octal, binary and ASCII
display.

The calculator is written in JavaScript and you are welcome to view the
JavaScript source (visible within the HTML page) for personal
educational purposes as long as you recognize that it is copyrighted and
not in the public domain. This calculator is now available as part of
Hummingbird's Enterprise Information Portal. All enquiries regarding
licensing the calculator should be directed to Hummingbird Ltd.
                         Basic Functions
Addition

The addition (sum function) is used by clicking on the "+" button or using the keyboard. The
function results in a+b.

Subtraction

The subtraction (minus function) is used by clicking on the "-" button or using the keyboard. The
function results in a-b.

Multiplication

The multiplication (times function) is used by clicking on the "x" button or using the keyboard
"*" key. The function results in a*b.

Division

The division (divide function) is used by clicking on the "/" button or using the keyboard "/" key.
The function results in a/b.

Sign

The sign key (negative key) is used by clicking on the "(-)" button. The function results in -1*x.

Square

The square function is used by clicking on the "x^2" button or type "^2". The function results in
x*x.

Square Root

The square root function is used by clicking on the "x" button or type "sqrt()". This function
represents x^.5 where the result squared is equal to x.

Raise to the Power

The raise to the power (y raised to the x function) is used by clicking on the "y^x" button or type
"^".
Natural Exponential

The natural exponential (e raised to the x) is used by clicking on the "e^x" button or type "exp()".
The result is e (2.71828...) raised to x.

Logarithm

The logarithm (LOG) is used by clicking on the "LOG" button or type "LOG()".

Natural Logarithm

The Natural logarithm (LN) is used by clicking on the "LN" button or type "LN()".

Inverse

Multiplicative inverse (reciprocal function) is used by pressing the "1/x" button or typing "inv()".
This function is the same as x^-1 or dividing 1 by the number.

Exponent

Numbers with exponents of 10 are displayed with an "e", for example 4.5e+100 or 4.5e-100.
This function represents 10^x. Numbers are automatically displayed in the format when the
number is too large or too small for the display. To enter a number in this format use the
exponent key "EEX". To do this enter the mantissa (the non exponent part) then press "EEX" or
type"e" and then enter the exponent.

Factorial

The Factorial function is used by clicking the "!" button or type "!".

PI

PI is a mathematical constant of the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter.
    TABLE OF CONTENTS
      INTRODUCTION
      CODING
   APPLICATIONS & FUTUREPROSPECTIVE
   REFERENCES
                             CODING
#include<string.h>
#include<mouse.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<math.h>
#include<graphics.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<alloc.h>

#define pi 3.1415265

union REGS i,o;
int sr,dpf;
char *no[]={"1","2","3","4","5","6","7","8","9","0",".","+/-"},
     *cal[]={"+","-","*","/","=","ã"},

*sci[]={"Sin","Cos","Tan","Sinh","Cosh","Tanh","Exp","ln","log","xrty","1/x",
"x^2","x^y","sqrt","fact","Hypot","eqn","DEG",},
     *ms[]={"AC","HEX","BIN","OCT","BKSP"};

long com(long,int);
long double back(long double),equ(),alg(long double,int);
double ns(long double,int);
int box(int,int,int,int,int);
char *z2;
long double *z1;
int xy1[3];

void draw()                          //-----DRAW THE BODY OF CALCULATOR
{
  int gm,gd=DETECT;
  int x,y,x1,y1,i,j;

 initgraph(&gd,&gm,"c:\\tc\\bgi");             //INITIALISE GRAPHICS

  z2=(char * ) malloc(sizeof(char)*10);        /*ALLOCATE MEMORY TO z2*/

  x=getmaxx();y=getmaxy();

 setcolor(DARKGRAY); setfillstyle(1,CYAN);       //CYAN outer body
 floodfill(5,5,DARKGRAY);

 setcolor(BLACK);setfillstyle(1,LIGHTGRAY);
 rectangle(20,20,x-20,y-20);                       //grey calculator body
 floodfill(50,50,BLACK);

 setcolor(BLACK);                     //black outline
line(20,20,x-20,20);
line(20,20,20,y-20);

setcolor(BLUE);setfillstyle(1,BLUE);
rectangle(21,20,x-21,40);
floodfill(25,25,BLUE);                    /* blue quit rectangle*/

setcolor(BLACK);
outtextxy(x/5,8,"Scientific Calculator by-: Akash(02512) & Akhil(02514)");

initmouse();
showmouse();
setmouse(0,0);

setcolor(WHITE);setfillstyle(1,WHITE);
rectangle(30,55,x-30,70);                 //---white i/o box
floodfill(32,59,WHITE);

outtextxy(x-220,27,"Press Any Key To Quit.");      //---Quit
 setcolor(DARKGRAY);

line(235,95,235,y-30);                    //grey partition line
setfillstyle(1,LIGHTGRAY);

/*------------------printing nos.---------------------*/

i=0;
for(x1=40;x1<150;x1+=30)
{ j=0;
    for(y1=100;y1<450;y1+=40)
  {
     box(x1,y1,40,WHITE,BLACK);
     setcolor(BLUE);
     if(i==1&&j==10)
      outtextxy(x1+10,y1+20,no[i+j]);
     else
      outtextxy(x1+15,y1+20,no[i+j]);
     y1+=20; j+=2;
  }
    i++;
    x1+=40;
}

/*---------------------------------------------------------------*/

/*--------printing simple algebric functions:(+,-,*,/)----------*/

for(x1;x1<=180;x1+=40)
{ j=0;
    for(y1=100;y1<450;y1+=40)                /*x1=180*/
  {
     box(x1,y1,40,WHITE,BLACK);
     setcolor(BLUE);
     outtextxy(x1+15,y1+20,cal[j]);
     y1+=20;
     j++;
  }
 }
 x1+=30;
/*-----------------------------------------------------------------*/

/*--------------------print scientific functions-------------------*/
 i=0;
 for(x1;x1<501;x1+=30)
 { j=0;
     for(y1=100;y1<450;y1+=40)
   {
       box(x1,y1,70,WHITE,BLACK);                                  /*x1=220*/
       setcolor(BLUE);
       outtextxy(x1+15,y1+20,sci[i+j]);
       y1+=20; j+=3;
   }
     xy1[i]=x1;                            /*store X coordinates*/
     i++;
     x1+=70;
 }
/*-----------------------------------------------------------------*/

/*------------------print MATHEMATICAL SYSTEMS: BIN,HEX-------------*/
  for(x1;x1<=550;x1+=30)
  { j=0;
      for(y1=100;y1<450;y1+=40)               /*x1=550*/
    { if(j==5)
       break;
       box(x1,y1,55,WHITE,BLACK);
       setcolor(RED);
       outtextxy(x1+15,y1+20,ms[j]);
       y1+=20;
       j++;
    }
  }
  mouse();
}

void main()                          //MAIN DECLARATION
{
  password();
  draw();
}

/*-----------MOUSE PROGRAMMING------------*/

mouse()
{
  int button,x,y;
  char s[13]={" "};
  int x1,y1,i,j,flag=1,l;
  long double n,k;

  while(!kbhit())
  { Again:
      getmouse(&button,&x,&y);
      while(button==1)
      {
  getmouse(&button,&x,&y);
  sr=1;
  }

if(sr==1)
 {
   i=0;
   sr=0;
   if(x>=xy1[0]&&x<=(xy1[0]+70))                   /*fourth column check*/
   {
   colm1(n,y);
   dpf=0;
   strcpy(s," ");
   }
   if(x>=xy1[1]&&x<=(xy1[1]+70))                   /*fifth column check*/
   {
   colm2(n,y);
   dpf=0;
   strcpy(s," ");
   }
   if(x>=xy1[2]&&x<=(xy1[2]+70))                   /*sixth column check*/
   {
   colm3(n,y);
   dpf=0;
   strcpy(s," ");
   }
   for(x1=40;x1<150;x1+=30)                          //1st & 2nd column check
      {     j=0;        setcolor(DARKGRAY);
            for(y1=100;y1<450;y1+=40)
          {      if(x>=x1 && y>=y1 && x<=x1+40 && y<=y1+40)
                   { box(x1,y1,40,BLACK,WHITE);
                    delay(200);
                     box(x1,y1,40,WHITE,BLACK);
                   if((strcmp(no[i+j],no[11]))==0)
                      { if(flag==1)
                        { n*=-1;                          // +/- sign
                           s[0]='-';
                           flag=0;
                        }
                          else
                        { n*=-1;
                           s[0]=' ';
                           setcolor(LIGHTGRAY);
                           setfillstyle(1,WHITE);
                           floodfill(32,59,LIGHTGRAY);
                           flag=1;
                        }
                          goto NEXT;

                    }

                   if(strlen(s)>=11)
                     goto Again;

                  if((strcmp(no[i+j],no[10]))==0)
                    {
                      if(dpf==0)
                         {
                       strcat(s,no[i+j]);              //save no. to string s
                       dpf=1;
                         }
                       }
                     else
                         strcat(s,no[i+j]);             //save no. to string
s
                    NEXT:
                    n=_atold(s);                       //array to long double
                    setcolor(DARKGRAY);
                    outtextxy(30,60,s);          // display no. in i/o box

                   goto Again;
                 }
               y1+=20; j+=2;
          }
          i++;
          x1+=40;
      }

    if(x>550 && x<605 && y>340 && y<380)              //BACKSPACE
     { delay(100);
        setcolor(LIGHTGRAY);
        setfillstyle(1,WHITE);
        floodfill(32,59,LIGHTGRAY);
        l=strlen(s);
        if(s[l-1]=='.')
          dpf=0;
        s[l-1]=s[l];
        setcolor(DARKGRAY);
        outtextxy(30,60,s);
        goto Again;
      }

    if(x>550 && x<605)                        // 7th column
     {    setcolor(LIGHTGRAY);
       setfillstyle(1,WHITE);
       floodfill(32,59,LIGHTGRAY);
         dpf=0;
         ns(n,y);
         strcpy(s," ");
         goto Again;
     }

     if(x>180 && x<220)                            // 3rd column
      {
        setcolor(LIGHTGRAY);
        setfillstyle(1,WHITE);
        floodfill(32,59,LIGHTGRAY);
        dpf=0;
        if(y>400 && y<440)                        // pi value
         {

          box(180,400,40,BLACK,WHITE);
          delay(200);
          box(180,400,40,WHITE,BLACK);
                    n=pi;
                    setcolor(DARKGRAY);
                    outtextxy(30,60," 3.1415265");
                    goto Again;
                  }
                  alg(n,y);
                  strcpy(s," ");
                  goto Again;
              }
         }
       }
    return;
}

/*-------perform algebric calculations---------*/

long double alg(long double n, int y )
{
  int y1;
  static int i;
  long double r;
   z1[i]=n;                   //copy no. to z1

 if(y>100 && y<140)                                  //--add
   { box(180,100,40,BLACK,WHITE);
      delay(200);
      box(180,100,40,WHITE,BLACK);                                          // add(n);
     z2[i]=43;
     i++;
     return 0;
   }
 if(y>160 && y<200)                                            //subtract
   { box(180,160,40,BLACK,WHITE);
      delay(200);
      box(180,160,40,WHITE,BLACK);                                            //
sub(n);
     z2[i]=45;
     i++;
     return 0;
   }
 if(y>220 && y<260)                                                 //multiply
   { box(180,220,40,BLACK,WHITE);
      delay(200);
      box(180,220,40,WHITE,BLACK);                                           //mul(n);
     z2[i]=42;
     i++;
     return 0;
   }
 if(y>280 && y<320)                                                   //divide
   { box(180,280,40,BLACK,WHITE);
      delay(200);
      box(180,280,40,WHITE,BLACK);                                          //div(n);
       z2[i]=47;
       i++;
       return 0;
   }
    if(y>340 && y<380)                                      //equal
      { box(180,340,40,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(180,340,40,WHITE,BLACK);
        z1[i+1]=z2[i]='\0';
         equ();
         i=0;
         return 0;
      }
    return 0;
}

/*---------solve algebric functions--------*/

long double equ()
{

    int i,j;
    char ch[50]={" "};

    for(i=0;z2[i]!='\0';)
     {
       if(z2[i]=='/')                   /*------perform division------*/
         { z1[i]/=z1[i+1];
            for(j=i;z2[j]!='\0';j++)
             { z1[j+1]=z1[j+2];
             z2[j]=z2[j+1];
             }
         }
       else
           i++;
       }                                   /*--------------*/

    for(i=0;z2[i]!='\0';)
     {
       if(z2[i]=='*')                   /*------perform multiplication------*/
         {
           z1[i]*=z1[i+1];
           for(j=i;z2[j]!='\0';j++)
             { z1[j+1]=z1[j+2];
             z2[j]=(int)z2[j+1];
             }
         }
           else
         i++;                                     /*--------------*/
       }

         for(i=0;z2[i]!='\0';)
     {
         if(z2[i]=='+')                 /*------perform addition------*/
          {
            if(z2[i-1]=='-')
            z1[i+1]*=-1;

          z1[i]+=z1[i+1];

            for(j=i;z2[j]!='\0';j++)
                { z1[j+1]=z1[j+2];
                z2[j]=z2[j+1];
                }
             }
             else
             i++;                                    /*--------------*/
         }

         for(i=0;z2[i]!='\0';)
     {
         if(z2[i]=='-')                    /*------perform subtraction------*/
           {
              z1[i]-=z1[i+1];
              for(j=i;z2[j]!='\0';j++)
              { z1[j+1]=z1[j+2];
              z2[j]=z2[j+1];
              }
           }
             else
           i++;
         }                                     /*--------------*/

         if(z2[1]=='r')                    /*------find yth roots------*/
            z1[0]=pow(z1[2],1/z1[0]);


             if(z2[1]=='p')                 /*------find yth power------*/
               z1[0]=pow(z1[2],z1[0]);


             if(z2[1]=='h')                 /*------find hypotenuse------*/
               z1[0]=hypot(z1[2],z1[0]);


 gcvt(z1[0],15,ch);                             /*------copy result to array--------
--*/
 setcolor(DARKGRAY);
 outtextxy(35,60,ch);                           //display result

    press();
    return 0;
}

/*-------perform numeric system calculations--------*/

double ns(long double b, int y )
{ int y1;
   long n;
   n=b;
   if(y>100 && y<140)                      // AC function
    {
      box(550,100,55,BLACK,WHITE);
      delay(200);
      box(550,100,55,WHITE,BLACK);
      return 0;
      }
   if( y>160 && y<200)                         // HEX function
       {
           box(550,160,55,BLACK,WHITE);
           delay(200);
           box(550,160,55,WHITE,BLACK);
           com(n,16);
       }
      if( y>220 && y<260)                    // BINARY function
       {
         box(550,220,55,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(550,220,55,WHITE,BLACK);
         com(n,2);
         }
      if( y>280 && y<320)                     //OCTAL function
         {
         box(550,280,55,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(550,280,55,WHITE,BLACK);
         com(n,8);
         }
    return 0;
}
/*---------common for HEX, BINARY & OCTAL-------------*/

long com(long b,int k)
{
  char *str;
  int i=0;
  itoa(b,str,k);                 // integer to array
  if(k==16)
  {
      while(str[i]!='\0')
        {
        if(str[i]>96 && str[i]<103)
          str[i]-=32;
          i++;
        }
    }
  setcolor(DARKGRAY);
  outtextxy(35,60,str);

     press();
     return 0;
}

/*Program to find roots of a Quad. Eqn. */

roots( )
{
  float a,b,c,disc,r1,r2,s,x,y;
  int k=253;

    closegraph();
    restorecrtmode();

    printf("Input values of a, b, c in ax%c+bx+c\n ",k);
    scanf("%f%f%f",&a,&b,&c);
    disc= b*b-4*a*c;
    if(disc<0)
     {
          printf("\n roots are IMAGINERY \n");
          s=-disc;
          x=sqrt(s)/(2*a);
          y=-b/(2*a);
         printf("\n r1=%f+i%f",y,x);
         printf("\n r2=%f-i%f",y,x);
     }
    else
     {
       r1=(-b+sqrt(disc))/(2.0*a);
       r2=(-b-sqrt(disc))/(2.0*a);
       printf("\n r1=%f \n r2=%f \n",r1,r2);
     }
    getch();
    return;
}

/*---------------BUTTONS------------------------*/

int box(int x1,int y1,int l,int c1,int c2)
{
  setcolor(c1);
  setfillstyle(1,LIGHTGRAY);
  rectangle(x1,y1,x1+l,y1+40);
  floodfill(x1+3,y1+10,c1);
  setcolor(c2);
  line(x1+l,y1,x1+l,y1+40);
  line(x1,y1+40,x1+l,y1+40);
  return 0;
}

/*password at start screen*/

password()
{
  int i,x=270,gm,gd=DETECT;
  char ch,pass[10];
  initgraph(&gd,&gm,"c:\\tc\\bgi");
  rectangle(15,15,615,465);
  setcolor(LIGHTBLUE);
  setfillstyle(1,LIGHTBLUE);
  floodfill(50,50,15);
  settextstyle(1,HORIZ_DIR,3);
  setcolor(BLACK);
  outtextxy(200,50,"Enter the password");
  for(i=0;i<=10;i++,x+=10)
  {
    ch=getch();
    if(ch==13)
    break;
    outtextxy(x,150,"*");
    sound(300);
    delay(50);
    nosound();
       pass[i]=ch;
     }
    pass[i]='\0';
    if(!strcmp(pass,"as"))         //compare entered string with password
     return 0;
    else
     cleardevice();
     rectangle(15,15,615,465);
     setcolor(LIGHTBLUE);
     setfillstyle(1,LIGHTBLUE);
     floodfill(50,50,15);
     settextstyle(1,HORIZ_DIR,3);
     setcolor(RED);
     outtextxy(220,50,"Wrong Password");
     outtextxy(80,150,"This program will terminate in 5 seconds");
    for(i=5;i>=0;i--)
         {
             setcolor(LIGHTBLUE);
             setfillstyle(1,LIGHTBLUE);
             bar(300,240,330,300);
             setcolor(RED);
             outtextxy(310,250,itoa(i,pass,10));
             sound(1000*i+500);
             delay(300);
             nosound();
             delay(700);
           }
    exit(0);
    return 0;
}


/*-----------solving scientific functions------------*/

               //---the no. entered is in RADIANS

/*-----------check for first column------------------*/
colm1(long double a,int y)
{
  double cal;
  char *str;
  z1[2]=a;

    setcolor(WHITE); setfillstyle(1,WHITE);
    bar(30,55,610,70);

    if(y>=100 && y<=140)                    // SINE of entered no.
      {
          box(xy1[0],100,70,BLACK,WHITE);
          delay(200);
          box(xy1[0],100,70,WHITE,BLACK);
          cal=sin(a);
        }
    if(y>=160 && y<=200)                    // HYPERBOLIC SINE of entered no.
        {
          box(xy1[0],160,70,BLACK,WHITE);
          delay(200);
         box(xy1[0],160,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         cal=sinh(a);
       }
    if(y>=220 && y<=260)                  // EXPONENTIAL of entered no.
       {
         box(xy1[0],220,70,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(xy1[0],220,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         cal=exp(a);
       }
    if(y>=280 && y<=320)                      // Yth ROOT of entered no.
       {
         box(xy1[0],280,70,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(xy1[0],280,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         z2[1]='r';
         return 0;
       }
    if(y>=340 && y<=380)                      // Yth POWER of entered no.
       {
         box(xy1[0],340,70,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(xy1[0],340,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         z2[1]='p';
         return 0;
       }
    if(y>=400 && y<=440)                 // HYPOTENUSE of entered no.
       {
         box(xy1[0],400,70,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(xy1[0],400,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         z2[1]='h';
         return 0;
       }

    setcolor(DARKGRAY);
    gcvt(cal,10,str);
    outtextxy(35,60,str);

    press();
    return(0);
}

/*-----------check for second column------------------*/
colm2(long double a,int y)
{
  double cal;
  int i;
  char *str;

    setcolor(WHITE); setfillstyle(1,WHITE);
    bar(30,55,610,70);

    if(y>=100 && y<=140)                      // COSINE of entered no.
      {
        box(xy1[1],100,70,BLACK,WHITE);
        delay(200);
        box(xy1[1],100,70,WHITE,BLACK);
        cal=cos(a);
       }
    if(y>=160 &&y<=200)                      // HYPERBOLIC COSINE of entered no.
       {
         box(xy1[1],160,70,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(xy1[1],160,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         cal=cosh(a);
       }
    if(y>=220 && y<=260)                 // NATURAL LOG of entered no.
           {
           box(xy1[1],220,70,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(xy1[1],220,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         cal=log(a);
         }
    if(y>=280 && y<=320)                       // INVERSE of entered no.
           {
           box(xy1[1],280,70,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(xy1[1],280,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         cal=1/a;
           }
    if(y>=340 && y<=380)                   // SQRT of entered no.
           {
           box(xy1[1],340,70,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(xy1[1],340,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         cal=sqrt(a);
         }
    if(y>=400 && y<=440)                   // QUADRATIC EQN.
         {
         box(xy1[1],400,70,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(xy1[1],400,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         roots();
         draw();
         return 0;
         }

    setcolor(DARKGRAY);
    gcvt(cal,10,str);
    outtextxy(35,60,str);

    press();
    return 0;
}

/*-----------check for third column------------------*/
colm3(long double a,int y)
{
  double cal;
  char *str;

    setcolor(WHITE); setfillstyle(1,WHITE);
    bar(30,55,610,70);
    if(y>=100 && y<=140)                      // TANGENT of entered no.
       { box(xy1[2],100,70,BLACK,WHITE);
           delay(200);
           box(xy1[2],100,70,WHITE,BLACK);
           cal=tan(a);
       }
    if(y>=160 && y<=200)                     //HYPERBOLIC TANGENT of entered no.
       {
         box(xy1[2],160,70,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(xy1[2],160,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         cal=tanh(a);
       }
    if(y>=220 && y<=260)                 // LOG TO THE BASE 10 of entered no.
       {
         box(xy1[2],220,70,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(xy1[2],220,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         cal=log10(a);
       }
    if(y>=280 && y<=320)                   // SQUARE of entered no.
       {
         box(xy1[2],280,70,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(xy1[2],280,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         cal=pow(a,2);
       }
    if(y>=340 && y<=380)                     // FACTORIAL of entered no.
       {
         box(xy1[2],340,70,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(xy1[2],340,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         cal=1;
         for(;a>=1;a--)
             cal=cal*a;
       }
    if(y>=400 && y<=440)                // conversion of DEGREES to RADIANS
           {
           box(xy1[2],400,70,BLACK,WHITE);
         delay(200);
         box(xy1[2],400,70,WHITE,BLACK);
         cal=(180*a)/pi;
         }
    setcolor(DARKGRAY);
    gcvt(cal,10,str);
    outtextxy(35,60,str);

    press();
    return(0);
}

//Changing the blue rectangle contents

press()
{
  int x;
    x=getmaxx();
    setcolor(BLACK);
    setfillstyle(1,RED);
    bar(21,20,x-21,40);
    floodfill(25,25,BLACK);                  /* blue rectangle*/
    setcolor(WHITE);
    outtextxy(x-250,27,"Press Any Key To Continue");     /*---Continue---*/
    getch();

    setcolor(LIGHTGRAY);
    setfillstyle(1,WHITE);
    floodfill(32,59,LIGHTGRAY);
    setcolor(BLACK);setfillstyle(1,BLUE);
    rectangle(21,20,x-21,40);
    floodfill(25,25,BLACK);                  /* blue rectangle*/
    setcolor(WHITE);
    outtextxy(x-220,27,"Press Any Key To Quit.");     /*---Quit---*/
}

/*-----------------------END--------------------------------------*/
                 APPLICATIONS
In most countries, students use calculators for schoolwork.
There was some initial resistance to the idea out of fear that
basic arithmetic skills would suffer. There remains disagreement
about the importance of the ability to perform calculations "in
the head", with some curricula restricting calculator use until a
certain level of proficiency has been obtained, while others
concentrate more on teaching estimation techniques and
problem-solving. Research suggests that inadequate guidance in
the use of calculating tools can restrict the kind of mathematical
thinking that students engage in. Others have argued that
calculator use can even cause core mathematical skills to
atrophy, or that such use can prevent understanding of advanced
algebraic concepts.
There are other concerns - for example, that a pupil could use
the calculator in the wrong fashion but believe the answer
because that was the result given. Teachers try to combat this by
encouraging the student to make an estimate of the result
manually and ensuring it roughly agrees with the calculated
result. Also, it is possible for a child to type in −1 × −1 and
obtain the correct answer '1' without realizing the principle
involved. In this sense, the calculator becomes a crutch rather
than a learning tool, and it can slow down students in exam
conditions as they check even the most trivial result on a
calculator.
                         REFERENCES

1. Thomas J. Bing, Edward F. Redish, Symbolic Manipulators Affect Mathematical Mindsets,
    December 2007
2. ^ Mike Sebastian's calculator forensics algorithm is an example of such rounding errors -- the
    algorithm's arcsin(arccos(arctan(tan(cos(sin(9)))))) should come out 9 on standard floating point
    hardware, but for CORDIC it's a pathological case that produces different rounding errors on each
    chip that it is implemented on. The algorithm is primarily used to identify the manufacturer of a
    particular calculator's CPU, since it is usually reproducible between chips of the same model.
3. ^ Georges Ifrah notes that humans learned to count on their hands. Ifrah shows, for example, a
    picture of Boethius (who lived 480–524 or 525) reckoning on his fingers in Ifrah 2000, p. 48.
4. ^ According to Schmandt-Besserat 1981, these clay containers contained tokens, the total of
    which were the count of objects being transferred. The containers thus served as a bill of lading or
    an accounts book. In order to avoid breaking open the containers, marks were placed on the
    outside of the containers, for the count. Eventually (Schmandt-Besserat estimates it took 4000
    years) the marks on the outside of the containers were all that were needed to convey the count,
    and the clay containers evolved into clay tablets with marks for the count.
5. ^ Lazos 1994
6. ^ Ancient Discoveries, Episode 11: Ancient Robots, History Channel,
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxjbaQl0ad8, retrieved on 6 September 2008
7. ^ A Spanish implementation of Napier's bones (1617), is documented in Montaner i Simon 1887,
    pp. 19-20.
8. ^ Kells, Kern & Bland 1943, p. 92
9. ^ Kells, Kern & Bland 1943, p. 82, as log(2)=.3010, or 4 places.
10. ^ Schmidhuber
11. ^ As quoted in Smith 1929, pp. 180-181
12. ^ Slide Rules
13. ^ Smart Computing Article - Calculating Clock to Carnegie Mellon University
14. ^ IBM Archives: IBM 608 calculator
15. ^ "Simple and Silent", Office Magazine, Dec. 1961, p1244
16. ^ "'Anita' der erste tragbare elektonische Rechenautomat" [trans: "the first portable electronic
    computer"], Buromaschinen Mechaniker, Nov. 1961, p207
17. ^ Texas Instruments Celebrates the 35th Anniversary of Its Invention of the Calculator Texas
    Instruments press release, 15 Aug 2002.
18. ^ Electronic Calculator Invented 40 Years Ago All Things Considered, NPR, 30 Sept 2007.
    Audio interview with one of the inventors.
19. ^ "Single Chip Calculator Hits the Finish Line", Electronics's', Feb. 1 1971, p19

				
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