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					                                                                                                                                                                                 ICELAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Dirty air: the silent killer
                             11               Polluted Cities:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Oulu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              FINLAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Kuopio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Average concentration of small particles (PM10)

                                              The Air Children Breathe                                                                                                                                                                                      NORWAY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                SWEDEN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Helsinki
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Tallinn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         in outdoor urban air by WHO sub-region
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3)
        “The widespread exposure of large                                                                                                                                                                        UNITED                                                                                   ESTONIA
numbers of children to heavily polluted air                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Gothenburg                                    RUSSIAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                KINGDOM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         LATVIA                 FED.                                  over 25
 in developing countries has skyrocketed.”                                                                                                                                                                            Glasgow
             World Resources Institute 1999                                                                                                                                                                                                              DENMARK                   Malmo            LITHUANIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 – 25                           11 – 15
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Dublin                        Leeds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hamburg

P    ower plants, factories and
     vehicles spew out harmful
gases and small particles that can
                                                                                                                                                                                                IRELAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Birmingham
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    London

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Brussels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  NETH.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Amsterdam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Rotterdam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      GERMANY Prague
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              POLAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Lodz
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Berlin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Wroclaw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Warsaw


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Krakow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BELARUS


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            UKRAINE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 – 20
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Average concentration of small particles (PM10)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        no data


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       BELGIUM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LUX.                                                                                                     in selected European cities
penetrate deep into children’s                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Stuttgart CZECH REP. Brno            Kosice
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Brest                                                    SLOVAKIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              REP.                                       2001
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Linz     Bratislava
lungs. In strong sunlight, oxides of                                                                                                                                                                                                  Paris Metz      Munich
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Graz HUNGARY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              MOLDOVA                                    micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               AUSTRIA
nitrogen from vehicle exhaust                                                                                                                                                                                                      FRANCE      SWITZ.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Zurich
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SLOVENIA    Ljubljana               ROMANIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      over 30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Brescia
fumes form ozone at ground level,                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Modena         CROATIA    B-H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        SERBIA &
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ruse
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Florence             MONTENEGRO                                                                       21 – 30
which can trigger asthma attacks.                                                                                                                                                                                      Burgos                    Toulon                                            BULGARIA    Burgas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Rome                    FYR MACEDONIA                                                20 and under
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ALBANIA
Air pollution does not respect                                                                                                                                                        PORTUGAL                         Guadalajara                                                ITALY                                                                  PM10 refers to particles less than 10 micrometres in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Thessaloniki
national borders. Heavy metals                                                                                                                                                                            SPAIN                                                                                                                                          diameter, which can penetrate deep into the lungs
                                                                                                                                                                                               Lisbon                      Albacete
and persistent organic pollutants                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Athens                                    and cause adverse health effects. The European
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Palermo                  GREECE                                         Union standard for 24-hour mean PM10 levels is set
are carried by winds,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    at 50 µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 35 days
contaminating water and soil far                                              C A N A D A                                                                                                                                                                                            MALTA                                                               per year.
from their origin. In the late
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   RUSSIAN FEDERATION
1990s, forest fires, mainly in
Indonesia, caused a haze of smoke
to hang for months over                                                                                                                                                                             see inset
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      KAZAKHSTAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      MONGOLIA
neighbouring South-East Asian
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DPR
countries. Schools and                                                U S A                                                                                                                                                                               GEORGIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       AZERBAIJAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      UZBEKISTAN      KYRGYZSTAN                                                                      KOREA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     JAPAN
kindergartens were forced to                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TURKEY         ARMENIA    TURKMENISTAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     TAJIKISTAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      REP.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      KOREA
close, while local hospitals                                                                                                                                                                                                               CYPRUS       SYRIAN ARAB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        REPUBLIC                                                                               C H I N A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LEBANON                                                AFGHANISTAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                             TUNISIA
reported large numbers of haze-                                                                                                                                                 MOROCCO                                                   ISRAEL                 IRAQ           ISL . RE P.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  IRA N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      WEST BANK         JORDAN
related illnesses in young                                                                        BAHAMAS                                                                                    ALGERIA                LIBYAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       AND GAZA                           KUWAIT                   PAKISTAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             NEPAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      BHUTAN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ARAB
children.                                                    MEXICO                                                                                                                                               JAMAHIRIYA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     BAHRAIN    QATAR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  UAE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           MARSHALL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ISLANDS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        KIRIBATI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 TOKELAU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          EGYPT
                                                                                        CUBA              DOMINICAN                                                                                                                                                                                                  INDIA           BANGLADESH                                                           NAURU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SAUDI ARABIA
The Great London Smog of 1952                                                  BELIZE
                                                                                     JAMAICA
                                                                                                   HAITI
                                                                                                          REP.
                                                                                                                                                            MAURITANIA                                                                                                                OMAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               MYANMAR     LAO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           PDR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    VIET NAM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               TUVALU

                                                                                                   ST KITTS & NEVIS       ANTIGUA & BARBUDA                                           MALI
focused the world’s attention on                                GUATEMALA       HONDURAS
                                                                                                                         DOMINICA             CAPE VERDE
                                                                                                                                                               SENEGAL                                   NIGER                                             ERITREA      YEMEN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         THAILAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      FIJI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               SAMOA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     NIUE
                                                                EL SALVADOR             ST VINCENT & GRENADINES         ST LUCIA                                                                                         CHAD
                                                                                                                                                           GAMBIA                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PHILIPPINES
the problem of air pollution, and                                             NICARAGUA
                                                                                                       GRENADA              BARBADOS
                                                                                                                                                   GUINEA-BISSAU
                                                                                                                                                                                     BURKINA
                                                                                                                                                                                      FASO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        SUDAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CAMBODIA                                    VANUATU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             TONGA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         COOK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ISLANDS
                                                                        COSTA RICA                                      TRINIDAD & TOBAGO                                                                                                                            DJIBOUTI
since then there has been a




                                                                                                                                                                                            BENIN
                                                                                                       VENEZUELA
                                                                                                                                                                GUINEA          CÔTE                 NIGERIA




                                                                                                                                                                                          GHANA
                                                                                                                                                                                           TOGO
                                                                                 PANAMA                                 GUYANA                                                                                                                                                                                                  SRI LANKA
                                                                                                                                                            SIERRA LEONE       D’IVOIRE                                     CENTRAL                        ETHIOPIA
marked improvement in air                                                                   COLOMBIA
                                                                                                                            SURINAME
                                                                                                                                                                     LIBERIA                                           AFRICAN REPUBLIC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     MALDIVES                                                           BRUNEI DAR.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             PALAU


quality in developed countries.                                                                                                                                                              EQUATORIAL CAMEROON                                                      SOMALIA                                                                                    MALAYSIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                GUINEA                                           UGANDA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                MICRONESIA,
Nevertheless, every year outdoor                                                ECUADOR                                                                                                     SAO TOME
                                                                                                                                                                                                           GABON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DEM. REP.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          KENYA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SEYCHELLES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         SINGAPORE                                                              FED. STATES OF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               RWANDA
                                                                                                                                                                                            & PRINCIPE
air pollution is responsible for the                                                                                                                                                                          CONGO              CONGO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               BURUNDI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     PAPUA
death of hundreds of children in                                                           PERU                                                                                                                                                       UNITED REP.                                                                                                              I N D O N E S I A                                      NEW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TANZANIA                                                                                                                                                                       GUINEA
                                                                                                                         BRAZIL                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SOLOMON
Europe, and of more than 24 000                                                                                                                                                                                        ANGOLA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    COMOROS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     TIMOR-LESTE                                 ISLANDS

globally.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ZAMBIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      MALAWI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The entire bus fleet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     MADAGASCAR
Industrial growth and rapid
                                                                                                              BOLIVIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ZIMBABWE                                   MAURITIUS              of New Delhi has converted to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   NAMIBIA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 BOTSWANA                                                                     compressed natural gas to ease
urbanization aggravate the                                                                             CHILE            PARAGUAY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 MOZAMBIQUE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the city’s infamous pea-soup
problem, with the pressure felt                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             smog.                                                               A USTR A LIA
most acutely in the megacities of              Health effects on children                                                                                                                                                    SOUTH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               SWAZILAND

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             AFRICA         LESOTHO
the developing world. Use of                   • Pneumonia and other lower
                                                                                                                                URUGUAY

cleaner fuels and technologies,                  respiratory infections                                               ARGENTINA

refined motor engines, and public              • Asthma
transport are crucial in ensuring              • Low birth weight
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       NEW
that children breathe clean air.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ZEALAND



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