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					   KK1CW's Excel Antenna Design Program For VHF / UHF High Gain and Narrow Band Width Beams
                Using Metallic Long Booms with Grounded or Insulated Elements / 50 Ohms                      By KK1CW W. Lau     rev. 3/15/2010   page 1 of 4

Enter 1, 2, or 3 ( Elements are ? )             Complete all boxes in yellow / Hit Enter / Its that easy
1 ) Insulated Thru Metal Boom                                                                                       Chart # 1
2 ) Insulated on top of Metal Boom                        Enter R for round & S for square Boom               Conversions for OD to wavelengths
3 ) Grounded on top of Metal Boom
                                                   3         20%      r     ( R or S )      38.38                           Mhz
                 82.000 82.000 18.00%                                                      Decimal to FractionsOD     432     222   144     50
             Enter Design Frequency                144    Mhz                               36.95 0.063 = 1/160.063 0.002 0.001
   Enter OD sizes in decimal form for             Boom and Ele. Correction Applied                            0.094 0.003 0.002 0.001
                                                                                                    0.094 = 3/32
 Please see                             Sizes      WL     insulated        bonded on top                      0.125 0.004 0.002 0.002 0.001
                                                                                                    0.125 = 1/8
  page 4 for          Reflector OD  0.188        0.0023     0.499    0.499       0.499                        0.188 0.007 0.003 0.002 0.001
                                                                                                    0.188 = 3/16
 instructions            Driven OD  0.500        0.0061     0.468    0.468       0.468                        0.250 0.009 0.005 0.003 0.001
                                                                                                    0.250 = 1/4
                      Directors OD  0.188        0.0023     0.457    0.457       0.457                        0.375 0.013 0.007 0.005 0.002
                                                                                                    0.375 = 3/8
  #      1         Boom section OD  1.000         0.012    0.1366 0.1366 0.0546               80              0.500 0.018 0.009 0.006 0.002
                                                                                                    0.500 = 1/2
  #      2         Boom section OD  1.125         0.014    0.1513 0.1513 0.0605                               0.750 0.027 0.014 0.009 0.003
                                                                                                    0.750 = 3/4
  #      3         Boom section OD  1.250         0.015    0.1654 0.1654 0.0662                     1.000 = 1 1.000         0.019 0.012 0.004
  #      4         Boom section OD  1.500         0.018    0.1921 0.1921 0.0769                               1.500
                                                                                                    1.500 = 1 1/2                         0.006
         Pre-match feedpoint resistance =           34    ohms                  0.0000
WL =    3.25        13.62 Dbd gain                                   Design
                                                Grounded on18 of Boom 1 KK1CW Special for Stacking - CW SSB - High Gain - ( Pre-M FP 34 ohms )
                                                              top      14.76      8.2                                                                  9%
  Enter         Reflector spacing = 25%          20.500 "            Design 0.287
                                                                             2 KK1CW Standard 1
                                                                        0                   20.50     Spacing2- SSB - 3
                                                                                                                      High Gain - ( Pre-M FP 32 ohms )
                                                                                                                             4        5      6     7    8
   Total number of Beam Elements      15        ( 3 - 31 ) 0.412             3 KK1CW Long Boom Design - CW SSB - ( Pre-M FP 32 ohms ) 12.30 14.76
                                                                     Design 0.156           20.50 20.500 20.500 20.500 16.400 16.400 14.760
                                                                     Design 4 Long Boom Standard - Close to wide spacing - ( Pre-M FP 28 ohms )
           First Director Spacing = 15%          12.300 "               0                   12.30 12.300 8.200 8.200 8.200 6.560 8.200 8.20 8.20
                                                                     Design 5 Good for Short to Long Booms - ( Pre-M FP 28.5 ohms )
              Enter Antenna Design 1 - 8            1                                        Designed for 16.400 8.200 ( Pre-M FP 26 8.200
                                                                     Design 6 Spacing 12.30 12.300 very long booms - 8.200 8.200 ohms ) 8.20 16.40
   Enter ( 0 ) for 1 to 8 program designs           1     0                                 16.40 16.400 Stacking - SSB 8.200 9.840 8.200 )
                                                                     Design 7 Short Boom Design for 16.400 8.200 FM - ( Pre-M FP 23 ohms 8.20 16.40
Or You can change element Taper here to           0.000                                       Short 20.500 20.500 16.400 16.400 - ( Pre-M FP 26 16.40
                                                                     0.000 8 Special -20.50 Boom - Wide spacing - SSB FM 16.400 16.400 ohms ) 31.98
                                                                     Design
  your taper per element ( .100 to .250" )                           37.611 0.000           20.50 20.500 31.980 20.500 24.600 24.600 26.240 16.40 31.98
           15 elements        3.25 WL Gain      13.74     Boom L       22.21 ft             20.50 20.500 31.980 31.980 31.980 31.980 31.980 16.4 31.98
            Chart # 2 For Visual Comparing                                         31.98 20.50 20.500 31.980 31.980 31.980 31.980 31.980 16.4 31.98
    Element       Grounded on top of Boom         Insulated Thru metal Boom Chart # 3 31.98                       Chart # 4
    In Boom                Element  Element      Element   Element Element        Corrections       Element diameter in wavelengths to Element lengths
     Section               Lengths   OD Size     Spacing   Lengths OD Size    For Boom       Ele    0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.009
         1    Reflector 40.966       0.188       20.500 41.055 0.188             0.1366 0.499        0.501 0.499 0.497 0.494 0.493 0.491 0.491 0.490
         1      Driven     38.383    0.500       20.500 38.472 0.500             0.1366 0.468        0.471 0.470 0.469 0.469 0.468 0.468 0.465 0.463
         1         D1      37.522    0.188       12.300 37.611 0.188             0.1366 0.457        0.459 0.457 0.452 0.447 0.442 0.439 0.437 0.434
         1         D2      36.948    0.188       12.300 37.037 0.188             0.1366 0.450        0.451    0.45 0.447 0.442 0.439 0.436 0.435 0.432
         1         D3      36.538    0.188       16.400 36.627 0.188             0.1366 0.445        0.449 0.445 0.440 0.439 0.435 0.433 0.430 0.425
         1         D4      36.128    0.188       20.500 36.217 0.188             0.1366 0.440        0.445 0.440 0.439 0.437 0.433 0.430 0.425 0.422
         1         D5      36.046    0.188       20.500 36.135 0.188             0.1366 0.439        0.440 0.439 0.437 0.435 0.430 0.425 0.422 0.419
         1        D6       35.882    0.188       20.500 35.971 0.188             0.1366 0.437        0.439 0.437 0.435 0.433 0.425 0.422 0.419 0.416
         1         D7      35.677    0.188       20.500 35.766 0.188             0.1366 0.435        0.437 0.435 0.433 0.430 0.422 0.419 0.416 0.414
         1         D8      35.554    0.188       20.500 35.643 0.188             0.1366 0.433        0.435 0.433 0.430 0.425 0.419 0.416 0.414 0.412
         1         D9      35.308    0.188       20.500 35.397 0.188             0.1366 0.430        0.433 0.430 0.425 0.422 0.416 0.414 0.412 0.410
         1        D10      34.898    0.188       20.500 34.987 0.188             0.1366 0.425        0.430 0.425 0.422 0.419 0.414 0.412 0.410 0.408
         1        D11      34.652    0.188       20.500 34.741 0.188             0.1366 0.422        0.425 0.422 0.419 0.416 0.412 0.410 0.408 0.406
         1        D12      34.406    0.188       20.500 34.495 0.188             0.1366 0.419        0.422 0.419 0.416 0.414 0.410 0.408 0.406 0.404
         1        D13      34.160    0.188       20.500 34.249 0.188             0.1366 0.416        0.419 0.416 0.414 0.412 0.408 0.406 0.404 0.402
         1        D14      33.996    0.188       20.500 34.085 0.188             0.1366 0.414        0.416 0.414 0.412 0.410 0.406 0.404 0.402 0.400
         1        D15      33.832    0.188       20.500 33.921 0.188             0.1366 0.412        0.414 0.412 0.410 0.408 0.404 0.402 0.400 0.398
         1        D16      33.668    0.188       20.500 33.757 0.188             0.1366 0.410        0.412 0.410 0.408 0.406 0.402 0.400 0.398 0.396
         1        D17      33.504    0.188       20.500 33.593 0.188             0.1366 0.408        0.410 0.408 0.406 0.404 0.400 0.398 0.396 0.394
         1        D18      33.340    0.188       20.500 33.429 0.188             0.1366 0.406        0.408 0.406 0.404 0.402 0.398 0.396 0.394 0.392
         1        D19      33.176    0.188       20.500 33.265 0.188             0.1366 0.404        0.406 0.404 0.402 0.400 0.396 0.394 0.392 0.390
         1        D20      33.012    0.188       20.500 33.101 0.188             0.1366 0.402        0.404 0.402 0.400 0.398 0.394 0.392 0.390 0.388
         1        D21      32.848    0.188       20.500 32.937 0.188             0.1366 0.400        0.402 0.400 0.398 0.396 0.392 0.390 0.388 0.386
         1        D22      32.684    0.188       20.500 32.773 0.188             0.1366 0.398        0.400 0.398 0.396 0.394 0.390 0.388 0.386 0.384
         1        D23      32.520    0.188       20.500 32.609 0.188             0.1366 0.396        0.398 0.396 0.394 0.392 0.388 0.386 0.384 0.382
         1        D24      32.356    0.188       20.500 32.445 0.188             0.1366 0.394        0.396 0.394 0.392 0.390 0.386 0.384 0.382 0.380
         1        D25      32.192    0.188       20.500 32.281 0.188             0.1366 0.392        0.394 0.392 0.390 0.388 0.384 0.382 0.380 0.378
         1        D26      32.028    0.188       20.500 32.117 0.188             0.1366 0.390        0.392 0.390 0.388 0.386 0.382 0.380 0.378 0.376
         1        D27      31.864    0.188       20.500 31.953 0.188             0.1366 0.388        0.390 0.388 0.386 0.384 0.380 0.378 0.376 0.374
         1        D28      31.700    0.188       20.500 31.789 0.188             0.1366 0.386        0.388 0.386 0.384 0.382 0.378 0.376 0.374 0.372
         1        D29      31.536    0.188       20.500 31.625 0.188             0.1366 0.384        0.386 0.384 0.382 0.380 0.376 0.374 0.372 0.371
                Stop Here and Check Above: To see if you have completed all the boom OD sizes for each element placements. Very Important, especially when
                the boom OD size vary in sizes. You will need to know how long each boom section is, its OD size and which elements are mount ed on it..




                Insulated above boom                     TV type element mount                High chair mount above boom      Element insulator buttons


                Page 2: Completed Yagi Calculations / Work Sheet                                                                                   page 2 of 4
              Design Frequency               144 MHz     Design # 1         Round boom OD        3.25 Wave length long         13.74 Dbd gain                    Program
          updated 3/15/2019                                                          1          printed 8/15/2012 cd4cfbd9-5243-4359-b5b8-52cf142276e7.xls       Program
                                                                                                                                                                  A) Ente
                                                                                                                                                               Program
                                                           Grounded on top of Boom                                                                             Program
                                                                                                                                                                A) Ente
                                                                                                                                                                A) Ente
    Dimensions are for elements mounted Grounded on top of Boom     144.00 MHz 1 wave-length in space =        82.0         Inches    Ele Boom
          15 Boom OD Ele. length     Ele. Spacing    Boom length                  1/2 wave-length in space =     41         Inches    OD    OD   Ele            B ) For
                                                                                                                                                                B ))For
                                                                                                                                                                C Ente
       40.97    1.00    40.966 Reflector Inches    Feet     Inches  Wavelengths                       DBD Gain              40.966   0.188 1.000 Refl           C )) Ente
                                                                                                                                                                D Ente
       38.38    1.00    38.383 Driven E. 20.500                             From DE          normal                         38.383   0.500 1.000 DE             D )) Ente
                                                                                                                                                                E Ente
       37.52    1.00    37.522 D1          12.300  2.73      32.800 0.40     12.30                     6.65                 37.522   0.188 1.000  1             E )) Ente
                                                                                                                                                                F Ente
       36.95    1.00    36.948 D2          12.300  3.76      45.100 0.55     24.60                     7.73                 36.948   0.188 1.000  1             F ) )Ente
                                                                                                                                                                G Ent
       36.54    1.00    36.538 D3          16.400  5.13      61.500 0.75     41.00                     8.78 DBD             36.538         1.000  1             G ) Ente
       36.13    1.00    36.128 D4          20.500  6.83      82.000 1.00     61.50                     9.75 DBD             36.128         1.000  1
       36.05    1.00    36.046 D5          20.500  8.54 102.500     1.25     82.00            10.00 10.51 DBD               36.046         1.000  1
       35.88    1.00    35.882 D6          20.500 10.25 123.000     1.50    102.50            11.50 11.12 DBD               35.882         1.000  1
       35.68    1.00    35.677 D7          20.500 11.96 143.500     1.75    123.00            11.75 11.65 DBD               35.677         1.000  1             H ) Ente
       35.55    1.00    35.554 D8          20.500 13.67 164.000     2.00    143.50            12.00 12.10 DBD               35.554         1.000  1             H ) Ente
                                                                                                                                                                  I ) Ente
       35.31    1.00    35.308 D9          20.500 15.38 184.500     2.25    164.00            12.25 12.50 DBD               35.308         1.000  1             J )) Ente
                                                                                                                                                                 I Ente
        34.9    1.00    34.898 D10         20.500 17.08 205.000     2.50    184.50            12.50 12.86 DBD               34.898         1.000  1             J ) Ente
       34.65    1.00    34.652 D11         20.500 18.79 225.500     2.75    205.00            12.75 13.18 DBD               34.652         1.000  1             K) Com
                                                                                                                                                                K) Com
       34.41    1.00    34.406 D12         20.500 20.50 246.000     3.00    225.50            13.00 13.47 DBD               34.406         1.000  1
       34.16    1.00    34.16   D13        20.500 22.21 266.500     3.25    246.00            13.25 13.74 DBD               34.160         1.000  1
          34
       33.83
       33.67
        33.5
       33.34
       33.18                                                                                                                                                      KK1C
       33.01
       32.85                                                                                                                                                      long y
       32.68                                                                                                                                                      perfor
       32.52                                                                                                                                                      standa
                                                                                                                                                                  spacin
       32.36
                                                                                                                                                                  to be i
       32.19                                                                                                                                                      Eleme
                                                                                                                                                                  part of
       32.03                                                                                                                                                      long b
       31.86                                                                                                                                                      on the
                                                                                                                                                                  fractio
        31.7                                                                                                                                                      imped
                                                                                                                                                                  and so
       31.54                                                                                                                                                      for ma
                                                                                                                                                                  contac
                                                                                                                                                                  Eleme
                                                                                                                                                                  eleme
                                                                                                                                                                  very c
                                                                                                                                                                  fractio
   Antenna Stacking                           266.500                                                         1 Radian =         #####
                                                                                                                                                                  and so
                                                         82.000                                                    144.0 mhz     ##### Effected Aperture for
                                                                                                                                                                  contac
                                                                                                                                                                  Very h
Remember; The ( E ) electrical wave plane is generated in the same plane as the driven element                                            2 Stacked Yagis         the cu
       ##### This Yagi 3 db beamwidth for H Plane 16.32 degrees ( Stacking Ant. ) Shown Horizontally Polarized                          Gain = 16.64 Dbd          eleme
                                                                                                                                                                  strong
        0.569 This Yagi 3 db beamwidth for E Plane 15.62 degrees                  2 Antennas                   4 Antennas                                         very c
                                                                                                                                                                  cause
                      Boom length in wave lengths = 3.25          WL
   ( KK1CW ) 2 horizontal beams over each other = 144.19 "                   128.07 144.19 " H          128.07           144.19 " H                    H          Info y
                                                                                                                                                                  The c
        ( KK1CW ) 2 horizontal beams side by side = 147.99 "
          ( W1JR ) 2 horizontal beams side by side = 133.81 "                                                                                                     boom
                                                                                                                                                                  inserts
     ( W1JR ) 2 horizontal beams over each other = 128.07 "                   Stacked Vertical                 E 147.99 "                         E
                                                                                                                                                                  and ag
  Boom Length                Gain For This Antenna = 13.74 Dbd                 in the H plane                     133.81 "        Beamwidth = 15.6 degrees
                                                                                                                                                                  compe
        22.21 ft          1 Yagi = 13.74 Dbd EP           31.2 degrees                                                                                            diame
               2 Stacked Yagis = 16.64 Dbd                15.6 degrees                 This Yagi design will give more gain per boom length
               4 Stacked Yagis = 19.49 Dbd                 7.8   degrees                                                                                          Eddy c
                                               31.24                                                                                                              Boom
                                                                                                                                                                  of plas
Computer generated cross checks / related to Boom WL, and Antenna Gain / Using Standard Formulas
       Approximant Beam Width H Plane = 31.24 degrees                       Comparing Stacking Distance Formulas                H plane E plane                   tempe
                                                                                                                                                                  the an
       Approximant Beam Width E Plane = 30.35 degrees                                   Per Aperture Just Touch Formula W1JR 128.07 133.81 " Comparing            in rece
                                                                                                                                                                  and th
     2 horizontal beams over each other = 143.77 "            or    11.98 ft            Per Aperture Just Touch Formula KK1CW 129.17 134.91 " Stacking            enlarg
                                                                                                                                                                  tempe
          2 horizontal beams side by side = 147.88 "          or    12.32 ft             Per Beamwidth degrees Formula DL6WU 144.23 150.65 " Distance in          expec
                                                                                                                                                                  antenn
       Cals Per Boom Length in ft.                  E Beam width                      Per Boom WL & Beamwidth degrees KK1CW 144.19 147.99 " inches                it nece
                                                                                                                                                                  anothe
Boom 22.21 ft                      Approx Gain        in degrees           Commercially made yagi                Degrees -3DB H plane E plane                     eleme
                                                                                                                                                                  loss in
                                                                                                                                                                  from 6
                                                                                                                                                                  above
                          1 Yagi = 13.74 Dbd EP           30.3     383.7      Enter Yagi's Gain in DBD 13.74 31.25         15.6 144.25 144.25 "
                                                                                                                                                                  booms
               2 Stacked Yagis = 16.64 Dbd                15.6              Or Yagi's Total Beam-width     31       31     15.5 145.38 145.38 "                   would
                                                                                                                                                                  correc
               4 Stacked Yagis = 19.49 Dbd                 7.8        Or Yagi's Total Boom Length (ft) 22.21 31.23         15.6 144.32          "                 0.4 dB
                                                                           ( Get data form commercial antenna companies to compare to ours )                      Now w
  (No stacking harness losses or H frame effects are included in the gain figures).                     13.744 31.23                                              insula
                                                                                                                                                                  it will h
Some Tested Antenna Designs To Compare To                                                                                                                         Becau
2M M2 2M 18XXX: 18 ele, 36ft boom, 5.29 wl, FB 26db, FG 15dbd; 3db beamwidth: E plane 2x13.2; H plane 2x13.85; Stacking H = 14' (168")                            increa
                                                                                                                                                                  have t
                                                                                                                                                                  buildin




          updated 3/15/2019                                                      2           printed 8/15/2012 cd4cfbd9-5243-4359-b5b8-52cf142276e7.xls
       Grounded on top of Metal Boom


                                                                                                                                page 3 of 4
                   KK1CW T match Design Sample 1: Is Shown Grounded below: Metal to Metal
                                  (If the Driven element is insulated through the boom the element length will be)    38.472 inches
                     To Complete The Driven Element T Match Program, Complete All Yellow Boxes below
                                                                Boom                Boom Shown grounded
                                                                                    to element
                  Driven Ele. OD size     0.500 "                                                          38.383 " long
                                                             N Connector                 1.200 "         between element spacing
                                                                                    Spacing                 0.375 T Arm OD
                                                                                               "
                                                 insulated mounting plate              grounded         Adjustable Shorting
                                                                                          5.76 "                   Bar
            1/2 wave coaxial Balun impedance =          50      ohms
         Your calculated coaxial balun length =       27.06     "                        7.677 "       T Arm Length
      T match = 200.03 ohm 4 to 1 match =             50.01    Ohms

                        You can make some changes here                          26       0.12       0.15      0.18       0.20        0.22      0.25
                     Some Data is already Collected From Page 1                            15         17        20         23          25        26
                         Just Complete All Yellow Boxes                         16       0.06       0.09      0.12       0.15        0.18      0.25
                                                                                34         11         12        13         16          20        25
                   Design Frequency      144.000 Mhz             5904
                      Driven Element        0.500 OD Size
 For the                        T Arm       0.375 OD Size
 1/2 wave coax Balun                         0.25 % Wave Length Spacing Between Driven Element & Reflector
 Enter the velocity factor and               0.15 % Wave Length Spacing Between Driven Element & Director
 the coax impedance ( 50 or 72 )               50 ohms           0.66    Velocity         200
                                    T Arm Element Lengths =        7.677 Inches
                         Spacing Between Driven & T Arms =         1.200 Inches          0.00
                           Grounded Driven Element Length =       38.383 Inches
                            1/2 Wave Coaxial Balun Length =       27.060 Inches long
                   T Arms to Driven Ele. Spacing: you have        200.03 Ohms for a 4 to 1 match to         50.01 ohms          Spacing OK
                                       (To adjust ) Adjust Spacing Here              #DIV/0!
                                                                   1.200 Inches    Spacing OK
                               Adjust Shorting Bars To About       5.757 Inches    and adjust for best SWR.


                   KK1CW Gamma Arm Design Sample 2: is shown Grounded below: Metal to Metal )
                    To Complete Gamma Arm Design Complete All Yellow Boxes

                                                              Boom                   Boom shown grounded to element

                                                 Driven Element                                              38.383 inches
                                                                                        1.350 "            between element spacing
         See Sample 3 Below     How to make a gamma match                             Spacing              Adj. Shorting Bar In and Out
                                                    SO239 Connecter                           "                     For Best SWR
                   ( Adj. SWR ) RG214 inner Conductor inside Length =                   5.682 "                     Gamma Arm
            Ref. 6.141           RG214 inner Conductor Total Length =                   6.682 "
                                                To Shorting Bar Length                  3.838 "
                                  Ref.    6.909 Gamma Arm Total Length                  7.682 "

                   Some Data is already Collected From Page 1
                         Just Complete All Yellow Boxes     Formula
                        Frequency     144.000 Mhz             5904
                   Driven Element        0.500 OD Size
               Gamma Arm tubing          0.375 OD Size
                           Spacing        0.25 % Wave Length Spacing Between Driven Element & Reflector
                           Spacing        0.15 % Wave Length Spacing Between Driven Element & Director
    Gamma Arm Capacitance needed         14.58 Pf for a Match at          144.00 Mhz
                    3/8 OD Gamma Arm Element Length =           6.909 Inches long
                       Spacing Between Driven & G Arm =         1.350 Inches
                                  Driven Element Length =      38.383 Inches long
                Your Impedance Step-up Transformation =        212.49 Ohms
                             Your Gamma Arm impedance           54.85 Ohms       ( To adjust impedance Adjust Spacing )
                                          1.35
                                 Adjust Spacing Here            1.350 Inches       Spacing OK Gamma arm to Driven Ele for a 50 ohm match
                           Adjust Shorting Bars To About        3.838 Inches       and adjust for best SWR.
         Ref. RG 214 =         30.8 pf per 1ft Polyethylene                            14.58      2.567        5.68 inches
              Sample 3: A 50 ohm Gamma Match That Can Be Made For a .500 Inch Element OD and 3/8 OD Tubing
                    Home made Variable capacitor is made with a piece of RG 214 50 ohms coax with the outer conductor removed.
              The insulated center conductor is placed inside a 3/8 OD aluminum tube with one end soldered to the antenna connector.
              This makes up the variable capacitor ( Gamma Arm )      For the frequency you entered you will need       14.58 Pf to make a match
              To adjust For 1.0:1 SWR: Adjust The Shorting Bar with the Home Made Capacitor.

                                                                                                                   page 4 of 4
Program Instructions For Page # 1 Complete all yellow boxes              Program Instructions Continued For Page # 1
                                                                                2
                                                                         Page # 3
           updated 3/15/2019
Program Instructions For Page # 1 Thru Metal Boom (2) Insulated                            printed 8/15/2012 cd4cfbd9-5243-4359-b5b8-52cf142276e7.xls
 A) Enter (1) For Insulated Elements Complete all yellow boxes           The Chart #2: Compares the differences elements and bonded elements.
                                                                         Your Completed Yagi Calculations / Dimensions / Work Sheet
Program Instructions For Page # 1 Complete all yellow boxes                       Program
                                                                                  Page # 2 Instructions Continued For Page # 1
 A) Enter (1) For Insulated Elements Complete all yellow boxes
Program Instructions For Page # 1 Thru Metal Boom (2) Insulated                    Your Completed Yagi Calculations / Dimensionsand bonded elements.
                                                                                   The Chart #2: Compares the differences elements / Work Sheet
       Elements on Insulated Elements (3) Metal Boom 2 ) Insulated
 A) Enter 1 ) For top of Metal Boom orThruGrounded Elements on top                Chart #3 and #4 Shows some of the applied element and boom
                                                                                   Plus:
        For Metal Boom; Metal Boom. 3 ) Grounded square Boom
 B )Elements on top of Enter (R) for round & (S) for Elements on top of           corrections. generated cross checks related to your total boom wave
                                                                                   Computer
 C Enter Design frequency R Yagi Antenna
 B ))For Metal Boom; Enter for for round & S for square Boom                      . length for stacking dimensions, beamwidth degrees, and DBD gain.
 C )) Enter Design frequency for Antenna
 D Enter Reflector Element OD (in decimal form)                                   Page # 2 toYour Completed Yagi Calculations / Dimensions
                                                                                   Things remember:
 E Enter Driven Element OD (in decimal form
 D )) Enter reflector element OD in decimal form)                                 1 Computer generated cross checks related to your total boom wave
                                                                                    ) All the beams that you want to stack together must be all made the
 F Enter Director Element OD decimal form
 E )) Enter driven element OD in (in decimal form)                                    same for stacking dimensions, beamwidth
                                                                                     length as well as all the same boom length.degrees, and DBD gain.
 G Enter Metallic Boom OD (in decimal form
 F ) )Enter director element OD in decimal form)                                    ) The electrical wave for Yagi Stacking:
                                                                                  2Things to remember E plane is generated in the same plane as the
       Enter metallic boom OD in decimal form
 G ) For boom input sections 1 to 4 you have 4 different OD sizes                     All the beams that you want to stack together must be all made the
                                                                                  1 ) driven element. So, if your beam is horizontally polarized then the
       that you can enter. This is provided, you have you have OD sizes
      Please note: In boom sections 1 to 4 because if 4 different a very long         same andwave is same boom length. beam width E degrees
                                                                                      electrical all the in the E plane. Your
       boom with different Boom OD sizes because if you have a very long
      that you can enter. This is provided, that will house elements and you          The electrical will be plane to side and in beam width H as the
                                                                                  2 ) measurement wave Efor sideis generated thethe same plane degrees
       want with right on OD sizes that will house elements and you
      boom to bedifferent the money with element lengths you will need                measurement will be for vertical stacking ( up and down ) then the
                                                                                      driven element. So, if your beam is horizontally polarized
       the Boom right on the money with Element corrections.
      want to be OD sizes inputed for the element lengths you will need               electrical wave is in the E plane. Your beam width E degrees
 H )this input entered.
        Enter the total number of beam elements                                       measurement will all yellow boxes
                                                                                  Page # 3 Completebe for side to side and the beam width H degrees
 H ) Enter the total number of beam elements want to use ( 1 to 8 )
   I ) Enter the Antenna Design number that you                                    T measurement will be used for vertical stacking ( up and down )
                                                                                      matching Design Calculations / Dimensions
  I Enter ( 0 ) for Design number you your element to 8 in
 J )) Enter Antennanarrow band-width orwant to use ( 1taper ) decimal                 Some of your input Data is collected from page 1 just complete the.
       form ( 0 for want to use.
 J ) Enter that)you narrow band-width or your element taper in decimal                 4 #3
                                                                                  Page yellow T matching Design Calculations / Dimensions
                                                                                                 boxes / to make any changes or adjustments
      Complete the yellow use.
 K) form that you want toboxes for Elements in Boom Section (1 to 4)                  Some match Design Calculations Dimensions
                                                                                   Gamma of your input Data is collected /from page 1 just complete the.
      The last thing you need to in Chart # 1
 K) Complete the yellow boxesdo on page 2 is to make sure that if you                  4 yellow boxes
                                                                                      Some of your input Data is collected from page 1 just complete the
       use a boom you need to do on page 1 is then you must enter the
     The last thingthat has different OD sectionsto make sure that if you          Gamma match Design Calculations / Dimensions
                                                                                       2 yellow boxes / to make any changes or adjustments
       right boom that has different OD 3, or 4 ) then you must enter the
      use aboom section number ( 1, 2, sections that the element will be              1 just complete the 2 yellow boxes
       mounted on or in. If the boom 2, 3, or is that the element will be
      right boom section number ( 1, OD size4 ) the same for all element
       locations; then If the boom OD element locations
      placed on or in. enter that # in all size is the same through out then      Page # 4 Element Mounting and Boom corrections:
      enter that in all sections for element locations



   KK1CW Design Standard, Element Mounting and Boom corrections:
        There are so many different antenna design results out there. Which ones can you depend on? One reason for these variatio ns is when you build a
   long yagi with high Q and narrow bandwidth the tuning gets very touchy,. Make one little change or add more elements and it w ill change the
   performance of the beam. Maybe you had to move some of the elements and re -adjust SWR just to get reasonable performance. Some sort of a
   standard needed to be set up here. My Standard Antenna Design Program was made to relate to the designed frequency and its re lated element
   spacing out to the 4 or 5 element directors which also included the reflector spacing. The T match and Gamma match for impeda nce matching also had
   to be included in this Standard. Knowing that impedance repeats itself every 1/2 wave -length along the boom from the driven element this had to be
   part of my design standard, I realized that when the 4 or 5th director is at least 1/2 wavelength from the driven element the tune up was much easer for
   Element Mounting and Boom corrections:
         Elements in Now if started boom tube yagi and tuned it up first and then add elements to the are very high at longer yagi contact. and; a
   long boom yagis. contactI with the with a smallrequires very good electrical contact since the currents boom to make athat point o f it now had less affects
   fraction of an ohm will cause significant ohmic losses. Some commercial builders will weld there elements to the boom to method good electrical contact
   on the SWR.and gain when using a unbalanced matching system like a gamma match. I have built many yagis using this prov ide wit h no problems with
   impedance matching orhigh chairsantenna same size for all their different process for a yagi building design the boom for me turne d good electrical tool
   and some will use little with poor (all the performance. This systematic band designs) mounted on top of standard that provided out to be a good
   contact.
   for maintaining and achieving accuracy again and again..
         The KK1CW Antenna Design Program
   Element Mounting and Boom correctionswill show and apply the boom OD and element length corrections for through the metal bo om insulated
         Elements in contact with the boom tube requires very good and elements mounted directly to the metal high at These elemen t corrections
   elements, insulated elements mounted on top of the metal boom electrical contact since the currents are very boom. ( that point o f contact. and; a are
   very close to ohm will cause significant ohmic losses. Some commercial builders will weld there
   fraction of an the current ones used among radio amateurs and commercial antenna builders ) elements to the boom to prov ide good electrical contact
   and some will use little high chairs (all the same size for all their different band designs) mounted on top of the boom that provided good electrical
   contact. gain yagi antennas will have a very high Q. The higher the Q the lower the impedance. When the impedance of a very high gain yagi is low,
   Very high
         The KK1CW Antenna Design Program will high. This means that very strong element length fields will for through the metal bo om insulated
   the currents flowing on the elements will be veryshow and apply the boom OD and electromagneticcorrectionsbe in the nea r zone. Because of these
   strong high currents in the near zone a yagi will the metal boom to any conductors or materials to the metal boom. ( These elemen t corrections are
   elements, insulated elements mounted on top ofbe very sensitive and elements mounted directly if placed or that comes ne ar the yagi. The high Q also
   very close to the current ones used among so be amateurs andtuning up yagis.
   causes large voltages at the element ends radio careful when commercial antenna builders )

   The copied from the Internet:
   Info yagi boom and its element mountings.
      Insulated elements: The electromagnetic field inside boom the element lengths will become shorter than inductance and tha t the wall thickness
    1)If the elements are mounted on a wood or insulated the boom tube gives a significant contribution to the the ones that are moun ted insulated onof the
       top of a affects the magnitude of the correction. The most popular system for mounting elements to a metal boom is to use in sulated shoulder
   boom tubemetal boom.
    2) If the elements are mounted bonded on top of metal boom all into the holes in the will have be made longer
   inserts. A tight squeeze and sliding the insert overathe element and the elements lengthsboom. A clamping or compression wa sher fits over the element
    3) If the elements are mounted and bonded through the The through-boom insulated mounting system will have to be made element length
   and against the insert to hold the element firmly in place. middle of a metal boom all the element lengths nevertheless requireslon ger then the ones
       that are mounted on top of a metal boom.
   compensation. As the element passes through the boom, the boom changes the magnetic field near the element center, in effect, acting like a variable
    4) If the expansion of the element. That is why insulated the middle of the the boom have element lengths will
   diameter elements are mounted through insulated holes inelements through metal boom the to be made longer. be shorter th en the ones that are
          Besides the unavoidable losses the to the finite but longer then the ones that are mounted insulated on top. This is because the metal boom
       bonded and through the middle of due metal boom conductivity of the element material there may be additional losses due to corrosion and due to
       has an influence on the tube and other metallic parts near the element midpoint. There may also be losses due to dielectric materials, a small piece
   Eddy currents in the boom element lengths.
   Boom Influence
   of plastic at the element tips may cause severe losses.
           obvious that the presence of a conductive the highest frequencies where yagi antennas influence on the Yagi elements l engths that the changes
     It isElement losses are particularly important atboom and its related diameter values have an are used for space communication because alsosky
   the antenna is very low. Very low feed point impedances. A thick conductive boom near the elements tends to shorten effective ve a much larger loss
   temperature radiation pattern and system noise temperatures may be reached and a small loss in the antenna would therefore gilength of the elements
   in receiver S/N performance of the antenna to a higher frequency. Bothincrease the system noise temperature since the losses would occur at room
   and thus shifts because besides loss of signal the ohmic losses would input resistance and reactance shift on higher frequen cy simultaneously with
   enlargement The lowest diameter. As a at 500 this, antenna 15 K and and curves of antenna input return loss also noise tempe rature of 15 K. The
   temperature. of the boomsky temperatureresult ofMHz is aroundresonancemodern low noise amplifiers may also have a shift t o a higher frequency. As
   expected, not perfect so some curves also picked up through frequencies. Boom influences on 15 antenna produce a could be shifts. Which makes
   antenna isbroadband directivity noise will be shift toward higher sidelobes. This might add anotheryagi K. The ohmic lossesfreque ncy 5% which would add
   another 15 Kto compensate If the ohmic losses arecorrections. Mounting methods, boom and other effect, the antennadistancewo uldeen boom and The
   it necessary (5% of 290K.) for the element length increased by 25% due to ageing or some elements diameter and losses betw become 7.5%.
   elements determine magnitude of a boom’s impact and the system noise would increase from correction. Length would chan ge the noise temperature
   loss in gain would be 0.1 dB only, but the contribution tovalue of the necessary elements length 15 K to 19 K which correction for elements mounted
   above the boom is proportional to the boom increase by 0.3 diameters and S/N of 0.4 dB.
   from 60 K to 64 K, causing the noise floor to and the element dB for a loss of distance between elements and boom. Higher correctio n percentage is for
          A with larger OD diameter, which show a might have 10% ohmic losses and antenna elements. Also, The higher element lo sses. The signal
   boomsyagi that is optimized for maximum gain more severe boom influence on thewould be more sensitive to increased the frequenc ies, the higher the
   correction percentage.
   would loose 0.2 dB for a 25% increase of the ohmic losses but the noise temperature would go from 75K to 82.5K causing the no ise floor to increase by
   0.4 dB for a total S/N loss of 0.6 dB. Just some things for you to think about. Good Luck.
   Now we know that the element lengths are influence by the size of the boom OD as well as where and how they are mounted. When the elements (
   insulated or not ) that have to be lengthened because of the influence of the metal boom by going through it. Even though whe n it has the same phase
   it will have a slightly different ratio between the amplitudes of incoming and outgoing waves. These amplitude errors will ca use small problems.
   Because; When the element lengths are increased to compensate for the lowered inductance, the coupling to free space is incre ased which causes an
   increased resistance. What we want in a yagi structure are: Elements that have the same phase between an incoming wave and ou tgoing wave that
   have the same ratio from and to the far field. It would be nice if you could make a long yagi using a non -metallic boom to achieve this.     73 have fun
   building. Walt KK1CW




             updated 3/15/2019                                                            4           printed 8/15/2012 cd4cfbd9-5243-4359-b5b8-52cf142276e7.xls

				
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