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					         Green Trade and Investment in
       Climate Smart Energy Goods and
                          Technologies

Expert Group Meeting on Sustainable Energy Development
                                  in Asia and the Pacific

                         UNCC, Bangkok, 27-29 September 2011




                                     Joong-Wan Cho, Ph.D.
                                 Chief, Trade Policy Section
                             Trade and Investment Division
                    The Energy Challenge


Primary Energy Demand in Asia and the Pacific 2005–2030
                                           (Unit: MTOE)




      Source: Energy Outlook for Asia and the Pacific (ADB, 2009).
      Note: NRE refers to New and Renewable Energy
             The Energy Challenge


Primary Energy Demand by ADB Sub-regions (Unit: MTOE)




    Source: Energy Outlook for Asia and the Pacific (ADB, 2009).
     New Opportunities in Climate-Smart
     Goods and Technologies (CSGTs)

Asia-Pacific Trade and Investment Report 2011 (July,
  2011):
 Trade Potential in CSGTs is estimated to be about
  US$ 30 billion.
 China, Japan and Rep. of Korea lead the CSGT trade in
  the region.
 Several small economies of the region also have
  potential for capturing new opportunities/early mover
  advantage in CSGT production and trade.
 Additional investment of US$ 600 billion/year required
  during 2010-2050 for the A-P region to reduce
  emissions to desired levels (450ppm CO2).
     Trade of Climate-Smart Goods
                 (CSG)

          Top 10 Traders of CSG in 2008
(Unit: Percentage of ESCAP CSG Exports/Imports)
Country                   Exports Country                  Imports
China                        36.1     China                  30.0
Japan                        30.9     Republic of Korea      13.2
Republic of Korea            7.4      Japan                  10.2

Hong Kong, China             7.2      Hong Kong, China       7.5

Singapore                    4.2      Russian Federation     5.7
Malaysia                     3.1      Singapore              5.1
India                        2.6      Thailand               4.3
Thailand                     2.5      India                  4.1
Turkey                       1.4      Australia              3.8
Indonesia                    1.2      Turkey                 3.5
Source: ESCAP Commissioned Study (Crawford, 2010).
          Trade in Selected Climate-Smart/
              Green Energy Technology

        Wind Power Generation Import-Export Ratio
in ESCAP High-Income vs. Low- and Middle-Income Economies




        Source: WITS Database.
    Trade in Wind Power
    Technology


Top 10 ESCAP Trading Countries in the Wind Energy in 2008

        Rank     Importers            Exporters
          1      China                Japan
          2      Russian Federation   China
          3      Rep. of Korea        India
          4      Turkey               Rep. of Korea
          5      Australia            Singapore
          6      Japan                Vietnam
          7      Viet Nam             Turkey
          8      Thailand             Russian Federation
          9      India                Hong Kong, China
          10     Indonesia            Australia

       Source: WITS Database.
          Trade in Wind Power
          Technology
              Average Applied Tariffs on Wind Technology
                in Top20 ESCAP GHG Emitting Countries
                             Industrial                                       Industrial
Rank      Country   Tariff     Goods      Year   Ran
                                                          Country    Tariff     Goods      Year
                              Average             k
                                                                               Average

 1     China        7.65       8.57       2008   11    Malaysia      4.39       5.91       2007
 2     Indonesia    4.81       5.84       2007   12    Myanmar       1.00       4.12       2007
                                                 13    Pakistan      31.80     14.04       2008
 3     Russian Fed. 4.14       8.19       2008
                                                 14    Philippines   0.84       5.00       2007
 4     India        7.28       9.74       2008
                                                 15    Kazakhstan    4.60       3.91       2008
 5     Japan        0.00       2.61       2008
                                                 16    Viet Nam      11.80     11.68       2007
       Rep. of
 6                  5.50       8.29       2007   17    Bangladesh    5.00      14.52       2007
       Korea
                                                 18    Singapore     0.00       0.00       2008
 7     Australia    6.88       3.93       2008
                                                 19    Cambodia*     12.65     12.45       2007
 8     Iran         5.78      24.78       2008
                                                       Turkmenista
 9     Turkey       0.47       2.41       2008   20                  0.00       5.43       2002
                                                       n
 10    Thailand     6.59      10.97       2006
                                                       Mean          6.06       8.12
Source: WITS Database.
           Trade in Solar Photovoltaic
                   Technology

        Solar Power Generation Import-Export Ratio
in ESCAP High-Income vs. Low- and Middle-Income Countries




      Source: WITS Database.
              Trade in Solar Photovoltaics
                      Technology

Top 10 ESCAP Trading Countries in Solar Photovoltaics in 2008
     Rank       Importers            Exporters
        1       China                China
        2       Rep. of Korea        Japan
        3       Hong Kong, China     Malaysia
        4       Japan                Hong Kong, China
        5       Thailand             Singapore
        6       Russian Federation   Rep. of Korea
        7       Singapore            Thailand
        8       Malaysia             India
        9       India                Australia
       10       Australia            Russian Federation
  Source: WITS Database.
                        Trade in Solar Photovoltaic
                                Technology

           Average Applied Tariffs on Solar Photovoltaic Technology
                  in Top 20 ESCAP GHG Emitting Countries
 Ran                                 Industrial                                            Industrial
       k
              Country     Tariff                   Year   Rank      Country     Tariff                   Year
                                   Goods Average                                         Goods Average

  1        China            4.16       8.57        2008    11    Malaysia         7.51       5.91        2007
  2        Indonesia        5.93       5.84        2007    12    Myanmar          2.69       4.12        2007
  3        Russian Fed.     4.33       8.19        2008    13    Pakistan        19.39       14.04       2008
  4        India            5.41       9.74        2008    14    Philippines      4.97       5.00        2007
  5        Japan            0.00       2.61        2008    15    Kazakhstan       1.27       3.91        2008
           Rep. of                                         16    Viet Nam        14.91       11.68       2007
  6            Korea        4.64       8.29        2007
                                                           17    Bangladesh      11.13       14.52       2007
  7        Australia        1.91       3.93        2008
                                                           18    Singapore        0.00       0.00        2008
  8        Iran           33.19        24.78       2008
                                                           19    Cambodia*       18.59       12.45       2007
  9        Turkey           0.47       2.41        2008
                                                           20    Turkmenistan     3.62       5.43        2002
  10       Thailand         6.82       10.97       2006
                                                                 Mean             7.55       8.12

*Note: Ranking of countries by GHG emissions is based on 2005 data from Climate Analysis
     Indicators Tool (CAIT) Version 7.0. (Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 2010).
Source: WITS.
     Trade in Clean Coal Technology


        Clean Coal Technology Import-Export Ratio
in ESCAP High-Income vs. Low- and Middle-Income Countries




     Source: WITS Database.
  Trade in Clean Coal Technology


        Top 10 ESCAP Trading Countries
    in Clean Coal Technology Components in 2008
   Rank     Importers            Exporters
     1      Singapore            Japan
     2      Japan                Singapore
     3      Rep. of Korea        China
     4      Indonesia            India
     5      China                Thailand
     6      Australia            Russian Federation
     7      India                Turkey
     8      Malaysia             Hong Kong, China
     9      Thailand             Rep of Korea
    10      Russian Federation   Australia

Source: WITS Database.
               Trade in Clean Coal Technology

               Average Applied Tariffs on Clean Coal Technology
                   in Top 20 ESCAP GHG Emitting Countries
                               Industrial                                         Industrial
Rank     Country      Tariff     Goods      Year   Rank     Country      Tariff     Goods      Year
                                Average                                            Average
 1     China           8.03       8.57      2008    11    Malaysia        0.00       5.91      2007
 2     Indonesia       0.00       5.84      2007    12    Myanmar         1.00       4.12      2007
 3     Russian Fed.    8.85       8.19      2008    13    Pakistan        4.63      14.04      2008
 4     India           7.25       9.74      2008    14    Philippines     2.07       5.00      2007
 5     Japan           0.00       2.61      2008    15    Kazakhstan      0.00       3.91      2008
       Rep. of                                      16    Viet Nam        0.00       11.68     2007
 6                     5.35       8.29      2007
           Korea
                                                    17    Bangladesh      5.00      14.52      2007
 7     Australia       0.69       3.93      2008
                                                    18    Singapore       0.00       0.00      2008
 8     Iran            6.38      24.78      2008
                                                    19    Cambodia*       7.00      12.45      2007
 9     Turkey          0.46       2.41      2008
                                                    20    Turkmenistan    0.00       5.43      2002
 10    Thailand        0.89      10.97      2006
                                                          Mean            2.88       8.12
Note: Ranking of countries by GHG emissions is based on 2005 data from Climate Analysis
      Indicators Tool (CAIT) Version 7.0 (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2010).
Source: WITS.
                 Trade in Energy Efficient
                         Lighting

Import-Export Ratio of Energy Efficient Lighting in ESCAP High-Income vs. Low-and
                            Middle-Income Countries




     Source: WITS Database.
          Trade in Energy Efficient
                          Lighting

     Top 10 ESCAP Trading Countries
   in Energy Efficient Lighting in 2008
 Rank     Importers            Exporters
   1      Japan                China
   2      Hong Kong, China     Indonesia
   3      Turkey               Hong Kong, China
   4      Indonesia            Thailand
   5      Russian Federation   Japan
   6      RoK                  India
   7      Australia            Rep. of Korea
   8      China                Singapore
   9      India                Russian Federation
   10     Singapore            Malaysia
Source: WITS Database.
                Trade in Energy Efficient
                Lighting

       Average Applied Tariffs on Energy Efficient Lighting
            in Top 20 ESCAP GHG Emitting Countries
                                 Industrial Goods                                         Industrial Goods
Rank          Country   Tariff                      Year   Rank      Country     Tariff                      Year
                                     Average                                                  Average

 1     China            8.03          8.57          2008   11     Malaysia       25.11         5.91          2007
 2     Indonesia        7.63          5.84          2007   12     Myanmar        1.00          4.12          2007
 3     Russian Fed.     0.00          8.19          2008   13     Pakistan       19.97        14.04          2008
 4     India            9.39          9.74          2008   14     Philippines    9.88          5.00          2007
 5     Japan            0.00          2.61          2008   15     Kazakhstan     0.00          3.91          2008
 6     Rep. of Korea    6.98          8.29          2007   16     Viet Nam       32.22        11.68          2007
 7     Australia        3.97          3.93          2008   17     Bangladesh     18.24        14.52          2007
 8     Iran             29.80        24.78          2008   18     Singapore      0.00          0.00          2008
 9     Turkey           0.52          2.41          2008   19     Cambodia*      6.27         12.45          2007
10     Thailand         17.00        10.97          2006   20     Turkmenistan   0.00          5.43          2002
                                                                  Mean           9.80          8.12

Source: WITS Database.
                Investment in Climate-Smart
                  Goods and Technologies

              Financial Investment in Clean/Renewable Energy




Source: Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2010: Issues in the Financing of Renewable
Energy and Energy Efficiency, Bloomburg New Energy Finance, 2010.
                      Investment in Climate-Smart
                          Goods/Technologies

                                   G-20 Top 10 Performers
   Investment           Investment           5-year Growth in      Renewables          5-year Growth
       (Billions of         Intensity (%)        Investment (%)       Capacity (GW)        Installed
       US$)                                                                                Capacity (%)
   China         34.6   Spain         0.74   Turkey          178   U.S.         53.4   Rep. of Korea      249
   U.S.A.        18.6   U.K.          0.51   Brazil          148   China        52.5   China               79
   U.K.          11.2   China         0.39   China           148   Germany      36.2   Australia           40
   RoEU-27       10.8   Brazil        0.37   U.K.            127   Spain        22.4   France              31
   Spain         10.4   RoEU-27       0.26   Italy           111   India        16.5   India               31
   Brazil         7.4   Canada        0.25   U.S.            103   Japan        12.9   U.K.                30
   Germany        4.3   Turkey        0.19   France           98   RoEU-27      12.3   Turkey              30
   Canada         3.3   Germany       0.15   Indonesia        95   Italy         9.8   U.S.                24
   Italy          2.6   Italy         0.14   Mexico           92   France        9.4   Canada              18
   India          2.3   Mexico        0.14   RoEU-27          87   Brazil        9.1   RoEU-27             17

Source: Adapted from the Pew Charitable Trusts 2010.
Note: RoEU-27 refers to the Rest of the European Union 27.
        Investment in Climate-Smart
        Goods/Technologies

Global new investment in sustainable energy (renewable energy and
          energy smart technologies), USD billion / year




       Source: World Economic Forum 2011.
         Investment in Climate-Smart
         Goods/Technologies

  Financial new investments in renewable technology in 2009
                        (USD billion)




Source: UNEP-SEFI / Bloomberg New Energy Finance, 2010.
            Investment in Climate-Smart
            Goods/Technologies

  Installed clean energy in 2009 in selected G-20 ESCAP countries

                      Total           Renewable
                                                                   5-year        Investment
                      installed       capacity as   Proportion
                                                                   growth in     in 2009
                      renewable       % of total    of G20 total
                                                                   capacity      (million
                      energy in       power         (%)
                                                                   (%)           USD)
                      2009 (MW)       capacity
Australia                     3300            3.1           1.2           40.0        1000
China                       52500             4.0          16.5           78.9       34900
India                       16500             9.0           6.6           31.0        2300
Indonesia                     1100            4.2           0.4            7.9          354
Japan                       12900             1.3           5.2            4.2          800
Republic of Korea              700            0.8           0.3         249.4            20
Turkey                         600            0.4           0.1           29.6        1600

Source: Pew Charitable Trusts 2010.
             Investment in Climate-Smart
                 Goods/Technologies

        Investment in Selected Asia-Pacific Countries in 2009

             Solar                         Wind                       Biofuels
   Country      USD million      Country      USD million    Country       USD million
China                   2770 China                  24600 China                   1250
Turkey                  1470 India                   1370 Australia                370
Japan                    206 Japan                    284 India                    138
India                     97 Turkey                   110 Indonesia                 52
Australia                 78 Australia                 41 Japan                     24
                              Indonesia               6.4



Source: The Pew Charitable Trusts 2010.
             Policy Options/Tools for
                 Promoting CSGT


     Renewable Energy (RE) Targets and Portfolio Standards; RE
      Certificates
     Feed-in-Tariffs
     Green Public Procurement.
     Improving Standards and Raising Public Awareness:
    - Energy Efficiency Standards;
    - Fuel Efficiency Standards;
    - Minimum Energy Performance Standards;
    - Green Building Codes;
    - Green or Carbon Labeling.
     Clean Development Mechanism; Green Bonds Financing
     Cap-and-Trade System
     Border Tax Adjustment (potential conflict with the WTO - Green
      Protectionism)
     Carbon Taxes and Other Fiscal Instruments
     Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA)
     Green Growth for SD (Environmentally-Sustainable Economic
      Growth) Legislation at the national level
        Conclusions and the Way
                Forward


 A “climate-smart world is within reach, if we act now,
  act together, and act differently from the past” – A
  Climate-Smart energy strategy is possible for
  countries in the A-P region – what is required is a
  paradigm shift to a low carbon (or even carbon-
  neutral) development path.
 Need to transform the energy sector toward much
  higher energy efficiency and more widespread
  deployment of low-carbon technologies.
 Need to scale-up research and development for new
  technologies in order to leapfrog to the clean energy
  revolution.
        Conclusions and the Way
                Forward

 Green Economy substitutes clean energy and low
  carbon technologies for fossil fuels addressing
  climate change, creating decent jobs and reducing
  oil import dependencies.
 New/Clean technologies promoting energy and
  resource efficiency provide growth opportunity in
  new directions, offsetting “brown economy” job
  losses.
 In the age of accelerating climate change, it’s time
  to rethink and redefine traditional measures of
  wealth, prosperity and well-being; the biggest risk
  of all may be remaining with the status quo / BAU.
Thank You for
Kind Attention


e-mail: choj@un.org

				
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