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Political Parties Chapter 8

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									 Political Parties
   Chapter 8




How Strong are They?
                          Political Party Defined

                                        Group of People
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                General Agreement on Issues

                Main Goal is Electing Officials
     3 General Roles of Parties

• Party in the
  Electorate

• Party as an
  Organization

• Party in the
  Government
        Big Picture Reminder
• Formal Institutions
  – Executive Branch
  – Legislative Branch
  – Judicial Branch
• Linkage Institutions
  – Media
  – Political Parties
  – Elections
  – Interest Groups
             Party Checklist
 Recruit Candidates
  – Impact of Primaries
 Run Campaigns
  – Impact of Television
 Cue Voters
  – Still #1 identifier in
    voting
 Articulate Policy
  – Platforms
 Coordinate Policy-Making
  – Partisan support
        Party in the Electorate
• Label
   – 35%, 40%, 25%
• Rise of Independents
• Ticket Splitting
   – On the rise
• Divided Government
   – More often than not
   – Impact
       Party Organization
    Fragmented and Decentralized

• National Committee
  –National Convention and Platform
  –National Committee and National
   Chairperson


 RUN
          National
         Convention




Fragmented and Decentralized?
        Party Organization
    Fragmented and Decentralized
• State Organization
  –Some states strong, some weak
  –Power in running elections
     • Closed Primary
     • Open Primary
     • Blanket Primary
  –Types of Ballots
        Party Organization
    Fragmented and Decentralized

• Local Organization
  –Party Machines
    • Tweed
    • Daley
         No longer powerful
     Party in the Government
• Nominate Candidates…Or Do They?
• Therefore- less dedication to the Party
  once elected
• Parties are still judged by performance
   Do Promises and Platforms
        Become Policy?
Who Said This?
• “I will not send American
  boys to do an Asian boy’s
  job”
• Promise to Balance the
  Budget by 1984
• “Read my lips—no new
  taxes.”
         Party History


• Party Era
• Critical Election
• Party Realignment
         First Party System
• 1796-1824
• Federalists
   – New England Merchants
   – Advocates of a Strong Central
     Government
   – Loose Constructionists
• Jeffersonian Republicans
   – Farmers
   – States’ Rights
   – Strict Constructionists

Political Notables, Congressional Caucus.
       Second Party System
• 1828-1846
• Critical Election 1828
• Democrats
   – Common Man
   – Laissez Faire
• Whigs
   – Anti-Jackson
   – Government support for Commerce

Van Buren View of Parties
         Third Party System
• 1860-1928
• Critical Election 1860
• Democrats
   – The South
• Republicans
   – The North

Election of 1896- New
  Coalitions
 Republicans- Business
 interest and NorthEast
 Democrats- Farming Interest
 West and South
         Fourth Party System
• 1932-1964
• Critical Election 1932
• Democrats (New Deal
  Coalition)
   – Urbanites, Labor Unions,
     Catholics, Jews, poor,
     Southerners, African
     Americans, Intellectuals
• Republicans
   – Business Interests, Upper
     Class
        Current Party System
•   1968-Present
•   McGovern-Frasier Commission
•   Divided vs. Unified Government
•   Party Dealignment, Party Neutrality
•   Floating Voters
•   Reagan Democrats
•   Current Republicans, More
Divided Government
Who is Who Today?
      The Two Party System
1)Winner Take All




2)Plurality vs. Proportional voting System
                                                        Winner-Take-All vs. Proportional Systems
The state of Cougarville has 10 seats in the country’s national legislature. It also has 10 voting districts. There are five political parties vying to fill the 10
seats. The following table represents how voters in each district voted for the candidates of each party. Who will actually get to represent the state?


                                                                                                                                                   District     Total for
                     District 1    District 2    District 3    District 4    District 5   District 6    District 7    District 8    District 9
                                                                                                                                                     10         the State

Conservatives           35%           40%           35%           55%          50%           30%           55%           30%           25%          45%           40%


    Liberals            40%           35%           20%           25%          30%           40%           20%           35%           35%          30%           31%


  Reformers             20%           15%           25%           15%          10%           25%           15%           15%           20%          20%           18%


   Socialists            5%           10%           15%           5%            5%            5%           10%           20%           15%           5%           9.5%


      Nuts               0%            0%           5%            0%            5%            0%            0%           0%            5%            0%           1.5%



If the state uses winner-take-all system in each district to decide who will represent that district, how many representatives from each party will there
be? Fill in the pie-chart in the space to the right to reflect the percentage of the Cougarville delegates from each party.

Conservatives:
Liberals:
Reformers:
Socialists:
Nuts:



If the state uses the total state votes to allocate the 10 seats proportionally, how many representatives from each party will there be? Fill in the pie-chart
in the space to the right to reflect the percentage of the Cougarville delegates from each party.

Conservatives:
Liberals:
Reformers:
Socialists:
Nuts:
3) Laws Preventing Third Party Success
Under Montana law, independent and minor-party candidates can appear on the general election
ballot only if they submit the signatures of 5% of the total votes cast for the successful candidate
for the same office in the last general election. A 2007 state law also added a filing fee and moved
the petition deadline from June to March - more than 200 days before the election. Major-party
candidates, by contrast, do not have to submit any signatures in order to appear on the primary
ballot, and they appear on the general election ballot automatically when they win a primary
election.
         Minor Parties-Types
• Single Issue
  – Prohibition
• Ideological
  – Libertarian
• Splinter
  – Bull Moose, States’ Righters, American
    Independents,
  – Anderson, Perot, Nader
         Minor Parties-Role
• Bring New Groups into the Electorate
• Serve as a Safety Valve
• Create New Ideas that are adopted by
  other one of the Big Two parties
    Responsible Party Model?
1. Parties Must be Distinguishable
     • Are they?
2. Party Candidates must be Committed to
   the Program
     • Incentive to be committed?
3. Majority Party Implements, Minority Party
   Critiques and Offers Alternatives
     • Okay
4. Majority Party Accepts Accountability
     • Hmmm…
         Don’t Dis the Parties
• Parties still active in the elections.
• Still play an important role in organization—
  especially of Congress.




       Are Weakened, But Will Not Go Away
                             The Party Is Not Over
                      Political Parties will Survive
Political Party Song
                                               http://www.umich.edu/~nes/nesguide/graphs/g9b_2_2.gif
  http://www.drwc-stafford.com/elephant-
  donkey.jpg




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