James Joyce _1882–1941_

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					James Joyce (1882–1941)
James Joyce (1882–1941)

    He was an Irish novelist. He revolutionized the
     methods of depicting characters and
     developing a plot in modern fiction.
    James Joyce --Ireland

   In the 20th c., Joyce
    was deeply influenced
    by Ireland and wrote
    all his works about
      Joyce, the childhood

   The eldest of ten children
    born in a Dublin suburb.
    His family was quite well
    off at first. But after the
    father’s death, the Joyce
    family fell into worse and
    worse poverty.
      Religion and education

   Like most Irish people, his parents were
    religious Catholic. And Joyce’s education
    came under the influence of priests.

   Eventually he and his youngest brother were
    admitted without paying to another school run
    by Jesuit Priests. He was a very good student
    and the leaders hoped he would become a
    priest. But he left in disgrace because he lost all
    faith in the religion during his last year at
    Artist in exile

   Dublin College (1899–1902),
    where he studied languages.

   When Joyce graduated in
    1902, he knew he would
    become a writer and an exile.
    Joyce believes, the artist could
    only work outside the
    established social order. He
    went to France, Italy and
   In his early years abroad he began to write
    poems, short stories and an autobiographical
    novel about Stephen Hero.

   But his book of short stories entitled The
    Dubliners was not published until 1914.

   His autobiographical novel was published in
    1916 under the title of A Portrait of the
    Artist as a Young Man.
How he loved his country and how he is loved by his people

                      • Most of his works were related
                        with Ireland and especially Dublin

                      • Revealed the real world and
                        especially the spiritual world of
                        the people
         Most of the stories and characters came from
          his own experiences

         He influenced many later writers like Samuel
          Becket    Waiting for Godot《等待戈多》
   Dubliners mirrors the poverty-
    stricken years of early exile. It is a
    look back in anger.

   Joyce portrays his countrymen as
    drunks, cheats, boasters, gossips and
    schemers: failures all, people who
    cannot take the chances life offers
    them and who, as in Araby, prevent
    the young from taking theirs.
   His summary judgment of Ireland appears
    as a word on the very first page of the book:

   One theme running through Dubliners is
    that the best men are gone, that
    Ireland’s golden age is past. They also
    re-present the themes of frustrated
    ambition –social, political, artistic, and
    In Ireland only the dead are perfect; the
    living are failure.

   MODERNISM (1900-1940)
    – A revolutionary movement encompassing all
      of the creative arts that had its roots in the
      1890s, a transitional period during which
      artists and writers sought to liberate
      themselves from the constraints and polite
      conventions we associate with Victorianism.
Formal characteristics

   Open form
    Poets who write in open forms usually insist on the
    form growing out of the writing process, i.e. the
    poems follow what the words and phrase suggest
    during the composition process, rather than being
    fitted into any pre-existing plan. Some do employ
    vestiges of traditional devices but most regard them
    as a hindrance to sincerity or creativity.
the shaping of texts' meanings by other texts. It can
refer to an author’s borrowing and transformation of
a prior text or to a reader’s referencing of one text in
reading another.

•Classical Allusions
a stylistic device or trope, in which one refers covertly
or indirectly to an object or circumstance that has
occurred or existed in an external context
Allusion differs from the similar term intertextuality in
that it is an intentional effort.
Thematic characteristics
   Breakdown of social norms and cultural sureties
   Dislocation of meaning and sense from its normal
   Valorization of the despairing individual in the face
    of an unmanageable future
   Disillusionment
   Rejection of history and substitution of a mythical
    past, borrowed without chronology
   Product of the metropolis of cities and urbanscapes
   Stream of consciousness
Canonical Modernist
   T.S. Eliot
   W.B. Yeats
   James Joyce
   Virginia Woolf
   Ernest Hemingway
   Franz Kafka
   Gertrude Stein
   F. Scott Fitzgerald
   Ezra Pound

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