James Joyce (1882–1941)
James Joyce (1882–1941)
He was an Irish novelist. He revolutionized the
methods of depicting characters and
developing a plot in modern fiction.
James Joyce --Ireland
In the 20th c., Joyce
was deeply influenced
by Ireland and wrote
all his works about
Joyce, the childhood
The eldest of ten children
born in a Dublin suburb.
His family was quite well
off at first. But after the
father’s death, the Joyce
family fell into worse and
Religion and education
Like most Irish people, his parents were
religious Catholic. And Joyce’s education
came under the influence of priests.
Eventually he and his youngest brother were
admitted without paying to another school run
by Jesuit Priests. He was a very good student
and the leaders hoped he would become a
priest. But he left in disgrace because he lost all
faith in the religion during his last year at
Artist in exile
Dublin College (1899–1902),
where he studied languages.
When Joyce graduated in
1902, he knew he would
become a writer and an exile.
Joyce believes, the artist could
only work outside the
established social order. He
went to France, Italy and
In his early years abroad he began to write
poems, short stories and an autobiographical
novel about Stephen Hero.
But his book of short stories entitled The
Dubliners was not published until 1914.
His autobiographical novel was published in
1916 under the title of A Portrait of the
Artist as a Young Man.
How he loved his country and how he is loved by his people
• Most of his works were related
with Ireland and especially Dublin
• Revealed the real world and
especially the spiritual world of
Most of the stories and characters came from
his own experiences
He influenced many later writers like Samuel
Becket Waiting for Godot《等待戈多》
Dubliners mirrors the poverty-
stricken years of early exile. It is a
look back in anger.
Joyce portrays his countrymen as
drunks, cheats, boasters, gossips and
schemers: failures all, people who
cannot take the chances life offers
them and who, as in Araby, prevent
the young from taking theirs.
His summary judgment of Ireland appears
as a word on the very first page of the book:
One theme running through Dubliners is
that the best men are gone, that
Ireland’s golden age is past. They also
re-present the themes of frustrated
ambition –social, political, artistic, and
In Ireland only the dead are perfect; the
living are failure.
– A revolutionary movement encompassing all
of the creative arts that had its roots in the
1890s, a transitional period during which
artists and writers sought to liberate
themselves from the constraints and polite
conventions we associate with Victorianism.
Poets who write in open forms usually insist on the
form growing out of the writing process, i.e. the
poems follow what the words and phrase suggest
during the composition process, rather than being
fitted into any pre-existing plan. Some do employ
vestiges of traditional devices but most regard them
as a hindrance to sincerity or creativity.
the shaping of texts' meanings by other texts. It can
refer to an author’s borrowing and transformation of
a prior text or to a reader’s referencing of one text in
a stylistic device or trope, in which one refers covertly
or indirectly to an object or circumstance that has
occurred or existed in an external context
Allusion differs from the similar term intertextuality in
that it is an intentional effort.
Breakdown of social norms and cultural sureties
Dislocation of meaning and sense from its normal
Valorization of the despairing individual in the face
of an unmanageable future
Rejection of history and substitution of a mythical
past, borrowed without chronology
Product of the metropolis of cities and urbanscapes
Stream of consciousness
F. Scott Fitzgerald