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Papers EcosystemSaturday, January 16, 2010 | By Afriza, S.Pd
I.PENDAHULUANRear a.LatarThe concept of EcosystemIt is now thought by the ekoligiawan
that plants and animals, together with all lungkungannya form a system that works depends on
the role played by each component of the system.As far as relating to a specific ecosystem
structure has three components namely biological producers (autotrophs body) or green plants
are able to tie up the light energy, Animals (heterotrophs body) or a macro that uses consumers
and decomposers of organic material consisting of micro-organism which outlines the organic
material and release of dissolved nutrients.Levels of foodUseful way to mampelajari
interconnectedness of ecosystem components function is to study the basic way of life or to get
food, or food at all levels of the bodies were found in the ecosystem. This approach also allows
us to compare different types of ecosystems are some of them do not have this level of
food.ProducerProducers in a given ecosystem is the body of the food themselves or are
autotrophs. Jades basically consists of green plants.ConsumerIn addition to green plants and
baktiri kemosintetik, all the other bodies are not the kind of decomposing bodies marupakan
consumers or heterotrophs. Food is usually obtained from the individual lain.Konsumen
dikelompokkkan be babarapa levels, namely:Primary 1.KonsumenThis group mainly consists of
pamakan plants (herbivores) which in beberapahal presumably also includes the man himself.
Among pamakan typical plants are sheep, goats, squirrels, grasshoppers, and so on mosquito
larvae.Secondary 2.KonsumenThis group includes all sentient flesh-eating (carnivorous),
including several types of plant-eating insects and including humans. Examples of typical
carnivores are lions, eagles, great pakakak.Karnivora buirung such as an eagle then take a
smaller carnivores such as snakes or frogs, commonly called karnifora peak.Decomposers /
DecomposersThis decomposition is the main food of the last level in this ekosistem.Kelompok
mainly consist of soil microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi Waupun also includes
earthworms, termites, mites, beetles and other annthrophoda. (Ewusie.JY1990)

b.Tujuan Research:To find out the type and number of microorganisms present in an ecosystem
II.TINJAUAN REFERENCESIn estimating the population density of animals. It takes precision
and patience. The first thing done is to determine the place that will do an estimate, then count
and identify it, and the results can be created in the system list.Relative population density and
densityPupolasi density of one kind or group of animals can be expressed in the form of number
or biomass per unit, or a broad unity or unity or unity capture volume. Density is very important
pupolasi measured to calculate productivity, but to compare a community with other komnitas
this parameter is not so tapat. For the relative density was used. Relative density can be
calculated by comparing the density of a species with a density of all types contained in the unit.
Relative density is usually expressed as a percentage (Suin.NM1989)Among the features
common to the populations and individuals is the fact that the population had a history of life as
seen from the fact that populiasi grow, specialize and maintain himself and that the composition
of the population has a definite structure which can be administered in the same relationship as
individuals.Characteristic of the group includes a variety of patterns such as the birth rate /
mortality rate of breeding, the composition of genital / reproductive system, age structure,
distribution and social structure. (Ewusie.Y.1990)Knowledge of the influence of individual and
population growth are fundamental to understanding the structure and ecological dynamics. All
species have high growth potential in optimum condition.The number of births and deaths may
berfluktasi widely in response to different environmental influences, but the number was close to
balance in a long time.Species interactions such as predation, competition and herbivory will
shut rise and fall of population growth.The population consists of many individuals who are
scattered in stretch goegrafis. But the individual does not always spread evenly. There is a
pattern of spread, ie gather, random and scattered.This distribution pattern is caused by a type of
behavior of different individuals. On the one hand, gather as a result of the interest of individuals
in the same place, whether because a suitable environment or a gathering place for social
functions. For example, marriage, on the other hand spread as antagonistic interactions between
individuals. In the absence of any appeal together / social spread of other individuals in the
population.Examples of potential growth in human population that consists of lots of women
aged 15-35 years was greater in the population consisting of mostly older men / children.The
population growth rate that is as the end result of births and deaths, also affect the age structure
and population. (Hadisubroto.T.1989)Population size generally varies from time, usually follow
two patterns. Some populations maintain the size poulasi maintain population size, a relatively
constant while the other pupolasi berfluktasi large enough. The main difference is the
environment that stimulated an experiment to improve the grouse population. Investigation of
population dynamics, in fact the balance between kelehiran and mortality in a population in an
attempt to understand the nature mentioned. (Naughton.Mc.1973)A population can also be
interpreted sabagai the same group. A population can also be interpreted as a kolompok creatures
that inhabit the same species, and a special room at a particular time. Population can be divided
into Deme, or local populations, groups that can fertilize each other, the smallest unit of
collective animal or plant populations.Characteristics of the population has some form of
statistical measurements that can not be applied to individual members opulasi. Basic
characteristics of the population or population density is.Population density of the population
size is associated with a unit of space, which is generally studied and found chopped sabagai
individuals or biomass per unit area per unit of content. Sometimes it is important to distinguish
the rough density of ecological density (= specific density).Gross density or biomass is a count
of the total space of unity, whereas Ecological density is a count of individual biomass of unity
of space habitats.In the event that is not practical to implement a population density mutklak. In
the meantime it has been deemed sufficient if known kerapan relative of a population.
III.BAHAN AND METHODTime and place: Friday, December 14, 2007Edinburgh University
ForestsEnvironmental Lab.bahasaMendalo Army - EdinburghTools and Materials:A. Tweezers2.
Tali Rapia3. Stationery and table records the observations.
Working procedure:

DISCUSSION IV.HASIL BANA.HasilSpecies I II II IVA 2B 2C 1D 1E 1F 1G 1H 1I 1 3A 1K 1
1L 1M 1N 1O 1P 1Q 1R 1The number of 10 4 6 4

REFERENCES
Arnita, indriani.1990.Ekologi Umum.Gita Media Press: New York.
Ewusie JY1990.Ekologi Tropika.ITB.Bandung: Bandung.
Naughhton.1973. The second edition of General Ecology. Gadjah Mada University Press: New
York
Suin, nurdin Muhammad.1989. Land Animal Ecology. Earth Literacy: Jakarta

				
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