InternatIonal CIvIl avIatIon organIzatIon
Collaboration to Address
Efficiency and Safety
In this issue:
ADS-B Planning and Implementation • Bird Strike Coordination • Regional COSCAP Developments
Beijing Flight Procedure Programme • MET Advances • RASMAG—Airspace Safety Monitoring
MET/ATM Coordination • FIJI ATM Developments • CANSO Update
APAC / Regional Report
Message from the Regional Director
ICAO continues to provide important and effective assistance to all of APAC
Member States and aviation stakeholders through the various programmes
and mechanisms implemented by ICAO’s Bangkok (APAC) Office. APAC Regional
Director Mokhtar A. Awan reviews his Region’s challenges and progress . . . . . . . . . . 3
Moving Forward with APAC ADS-B Implementation
ADS-B capability features unique characteristics of scalability and adaptability
which help all States and Regions to realize this new navigation enhancement’s
APAC / REGIONAl REPORT – 2010
significant efficiency and safety gains. As Li Peng, APAC Regional Officer,
Communications Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) reports, newer and more
Editorial effective multilateral solutions will need to be implemented alongside the
ICAO Coordination, Revenue ADS-B technological improvements in order to realize the full potential of this
and Communications Office exciting new development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Tel: +01 (514) 954-8220
Web site: www.icao.int Airspace Safety Monitoring
Anthony Philbin Communications The APAC Regional Airspace Safety Monitoring Advisory Group (RASMAG) was
Senior Editor: Anthony Philbin established to facilitate the safe implementation of reduced separation minima
Tel: +01 (514) 886-7746 in the Asia-Pacific territories. Kyotaro Harano, ICAO APAC Regional Officer,
E-mail: email@example.com Air Traffic Management (ATM), reports on recent progress that has been achieved
Web site: www.philbin.ca
in this area in light of the Region’s unique airspace challenges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Production and Design Flight Procedure Advances
Bang Marketing The Asia-Pacific Flight Procedure Programme (APAC FPP), aims to provide the
Stéphanie Kennan tools, training and assistance necessary to accelerate PBN implementation and
Tel: +01 (514) 849-2264 achieve the goals set-out in Assembly Resolution A36-23. As David VanNess,
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ICAO’s FPP Manager in Beijing reports, achieving the A36-23 goals will move
Web site: www.bang-marketing.com aviation safety and efficiency much farther forward in the APAC Region . . . . . . . . . 16
Advertising Contingency Planning for Communicable Disease Threats
FCM Communications Inc. N.C. Sekhar, ICAO APAC Regional Officer, AGA, provides a progress report on
Yves Allard recent advances made in the APAC Region as it seeks to address concerns that
Tel: +01 (450) 677-3535 have arisen in recent years following the outbreaks of SARS and other communicable
Fax: +01 (450) 677-4445 diseases that pose a risk to international aviation and global populations. . . . . . . . 18
CANSO’s Asia-Pacific Priorities
Chiang Hai Eng, CANSO’s Director for Asia Pacific Affairs, reports on how, with
The Regional Report encourages submissions its significantly increasing amounts of air traffic, there are many challenges
from interested individuals, organizations and ahead for the APAC Region that will impact flight safety and efficiency, airspace
States wishing to share updates, perspectives capacity as well as the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
or analysis related to global and civil aviation.
For further information on submission deadlines COSCAP Developments
and planned issue topics for future editions COSCAPs are dedicated forums for cooperation in matters related to flight
of the Regional Report, please forward your safety, providing collaborative frameworks between developed and smaller
request to email@example.com. civil aviation administrations. Kim Trethaway, Flight Operations Expert for the
North Asia COSCAP in Beijing, reports on recent progress for his and two other
Published in Montreal, Canada. ISSN 0018 8778.
COSCAPs now serving the APAC Region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
The information published in the Regional Report
APAC/FAA Bird Strike Seminar
was correct at time of printing. The opinions
N.C. Sekhar reports on bird strike issues in general and previews a special
expressed are those of the authors alone and
do not necessarily reflect the opinions of ICAO
ICAO/FAA seminar in December 2010 on Wildlife Control and Management that
or its Member States. Reproduction of articles will address the more local APAC aspects of this worldwide safety issue. . . . . . . . . 26
in the Regional Report is encouraged. For
permission, please forward your request to MET Developments
firstname.lastname@example.org. The Regional Report must Christopher Keohan, APAC RO Aeronautical Meteorology, reports on how recent
be credited in any reproduction. MET initiatives in his Region are helping to foster a more globally-harmonized
and comprehensive MET system that numerous local stakeholders have been
Printed by ICAO helping to move forward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
APAC/WMO Meteorological Services in the Terminal Area (MSTA) Initiative
C.M. Shun and Sandy M.K. Song of the Hong Kong Observatory, Hong Kong,
China, report on how ICAO and the WMO are continuing to coordinate further
MSTA developments in advance of a projected 2014 endorsement for this
promising enhancement to current MET/ATM coordination capabilities . . . . . . . . . . 34
Belgium Mr. G. Robert Morocco Mr. A. Manar
Burkina Faso Mr. M. Dieguimde Paraguay Mrs. A. Torres de Rodríguez
Peru Mr. C.R. Romero Díaz
Colombia Mrs. G.R. de Higuera
Cuba Mr. J.A. López Falcón
Denmark Mr. K.L. Larsen Slovenia Mr. A. Krapez
Swaziland Mr. D. Litchfield
Guatemala Mr. L.F. Carranza
Mr. D. Woerth
REGIONAL DIRECTOR MESSAGE
Mokhtar A. Awan 2006, with cumulative growth of approximately 46 percent.
APAC Regional Report – 2010
Regional Director The Asia and Pacific Regions (APAC) were solid contributors to
ICAO APAC Regional Office this impressive achievement and could well overtake the
Bangkok European and North American Regions to become the world’s
largest air transport market in the next decade. Freight traffic
Worldwide, the annual growth in for the APAC Regions is already the second largest globally,
passenger and freight traffic has with an annual growth rate of 8.6 percent during 2006—two
been quite impressive during the percent above the world average.
10 year period from 1996 to
The hike in fuel prices in 2008, followed Inspectors. A Seminar/Workshop on technology. APANPIRG established an
by the global economic downturn and Wildlife Hazard Management is also ADS-B Study and Implementation Task
H1N1 pandemic, brought new challenges scheduled for December of this year. Force to facilitate State implementations
for the aviation industry. Scheduled in this regard.
passenger traffic declined some 3.1 Sustained increases in aircraft move-
percent overall in 2009 compared to ments have also placed considerable APAC has additionally developed
2008—the largest decline on record for pressure on airspace management. Communications, Navigation and
the industry reflecting the one percent The ICAO APAC office, located in Surveillance (CNS) strategies to provide
drop in the world gross domestic product Bangkok and operated with the guidelines to States for effective
for 2009. International traffic fell by support and cooperation of States implementation efforts in this regard.
3.9 percent, while domestic traffic fell and international organizations, has APAC States have been cooperating on
by 1.8 percent. The double-digit helped to improve airspace capacity related data sharing and the updating of
domestic passenger growth in the by facilitating enhancements such trunk circuits for applicable ground-to-
emerging markets of Asia and Latin as the implementation of Reduced ground networks to ensure effective
America, combined with the relatively Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) information flows between local States
strong performance of low-cost carriers and route restructuring. and neighbouring Regions. In the last
in North America, Europe and Asia, few years, more than twenty seminars
helped curtail the decline in total traffic. As part of its responsibilities, the ICAO have been conducted to facilitate
APAC’s Air Navigation Planning and planning and implementation of ATN,
The good news today is that, with the Implementation Regional Group ADS-B and PBN infrastructure and
improving economic situation in many (APANPIRG) has established a Target procedures. These initiatives and
parts of the world, a moderate recovery Level of Safety for en route airspace. The activities demonstrate the spirit of
is expected in 2010 and this momentum increasing complexity of air navigation cooperation and coordination between
should continue for a full recovery. procedures and requirements, coupled APAC’s States and established a
with essential interaction with States, foundation for a seamless ATM system
Increased aviation activity has brought also led APANPIRG to establish the in the APAC Region.
major challenges for States and civil Regional Airspace Safety Monitoring
aviation agencies. According to Airports Advisory Group (RASMAG), in order to Many improvements in the provision of
Council International (ACI), the Asia assist the safe implementation of RVSM meteorology for international aviation in
Pacific region has 96 members operating and CNS/ATM systems and ensure the APAC Region have also been made in
475 airports in 47 countries. In 2008, States achieve established levels of order to enhance air transport safety and
these airports handled 1.17 billion airspace safety. APANPIRG adopted four sustainability. Notable among these is:
passengers, 29.6 million tonnes of cargo metrics as a part of APAC Regional
and 10.8 million aircraft movements. performance monitoring. In recognizing ■■ OPMET availability has improved by
Some of these airports are amongst the the importance of the seamless sky 25 percent with regards to reception
busiest in the world and many must cope concept, ICAO will also conduct workshops of METAR at SADIS.
with the impact of ever-increasing traffic on future ATM system next year. ■■ SIGMET test participants increased by
in terms of airport capacity and 30 percent (eight States participating
infrastructure, constraints resulting from The APAC Region recognizes the for the first time).
the introduction of new large aircraft importance of cooperation and coordi- ■■ Bilateral agreement on the issuance
such as the A380, and increasing safety nation between civil and military on of SIGMET by China, on behalf of the
considerations. flexible use of air space. The recent Phnom Penh FIR, has been in place
establishment of conditional ATS routes for more than a year.
The safety, regularity and efficiency of in the Region demonstrates this more ■■ Regional implementation of 30-hour
aircraft operations at aerodromes being effective civil/military coordination. TAF for ultra-long haul flight planning
of paramount importance, many APAC more than doubled to 75 percent.
States have enacted basic legislation In order to increase airspace capacity
APAC Regional Report – 2010
featuring aerodrome certification and operational efficiency, APANPIRG These accomplishments are a testimony
requirements, including the implemen- established a Performance-based to the APAC States’ commitment to
tation of Safety Management Systems Navigation (PBN) Task Force to promote meeting international standards in
at certified airports. ICAO has conducted the implementation of PBN technologies. providing MET services to airlines and
several Courses, Workshops and The APAC Regional PBN implementation operators. As a result of the recent
Seminars to enhance State training plan has been developed and our Region Icelandic Volcano eruption, ICAO will
activities in this area, the most recent is taking a lead role in the implemen- monitor the results of the International
being a course for Aerodrome tation of new ADS-B surveillance Volcanic Ash Task Force (IVATF) in
developing a framework for contingency plans for weather ICAO continues to provide important and effective assistance
phenomenon that include volcanic ash, tropical cyclones, to all of APAC Member States and aviation stakeholders,
Tsunami and radioactive clouds. through the various programmes and mechanisms
implemented by ICAO’s Bangkok (APAC) Office. The APAC
In the coming years, ICAO’s main challenge will be to Office, as part of its technical cooperation activities, presently
manage the ever-expanding aviation activity while maintaining operates seven regional/Sub-Regional Programmes to
the safety, security, sustainability and efficiency of civil maintain and continuously address ICAO’s Strategic
aviation. ICAO’s strategy for improving safety is detailed in the Objectives—Three Cooperative Development of Operational
Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP). An important element of Safety and Continuing Airworthiness Programmes (COSCAPs)
this plan is that it complements the Global Aviation Safety in North Asia, South Asia and South-East Asia, Cooperative
Roadmap developed by the Industry Safety Strategy Group and Aviation Security Programme (CASP-AP), the Cooperative
is firmly founded on the principle of partnership. In May 2009, Arrangement for the Prevention of Spread of Communicable
the ICAO Council approved the establishment of Regional disease through Air travel (CAPSCA) to ensure the continuity of
Aviation Safety Groups (RASGs) with the aim of supporting aviation operations during pandemic, Cooperative Agreement
more Regional performance frameworks for the management for Enhancement of Meteorological Services for Aviation in the
of safety. The establishment of RASGs will create both the South Pacific (CAEMSA-SP) and the ICAO Regional Flight
awareness of Regional safety issues and a mechanism for Procedure Programme (FPP). Many of these programmes are
addressing them. ICAO also provides several levels of safety discussed in the following pages.
management training to assist States in developing their own
safety programs. I wish every reader an educational and enjoyable tour of these
achievements as you read through our special Report.
Another challenge the aviation industry is facing is the
significant shortage of qualified aviation personnel. In the
long term, this situation can only be addressed if regulatory
authorities and industry cooperate and develop plans to
effectively manage this important human resource issue. Mokhtar A. Awan
Realizing ADS-B Implementation and Data
Sharing Objectives through Improved APAC
Cooperation and Coordination
ADS-B implementation has been identified as a key enabler in achieving ICAO’s Global ATM
safety and efficiency objectives. As an emerging technology, ADS-B has demonstrated
unparalleled characteristics compared with existing surveillance systems, but its true
potential in the APAC Region is still dependent on improved coordination and cooperation
being realized between ADS-B adopter States.
li Peng, ICAO APAC Regional Officer, CNS, outlines the benefits and challenges of this emerging
ATM technology and provides an outline of related implementation studies carried out by
ICAO’s ADS-B Study and Implementation Task Force and the South East Asia ADS-B
Implementation Working Group.
Li Peng, a telecommunications and technologies to enhance airspace capacity. Multi-parallel
engineer, joined the ICAO APAC Office runway operations have also been introduced to compliment
as Regional Officer, Communications the newer mega-airports which have recently become or will
Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) in shortly be operational.
December 1997. Prior to joining ICAO,
he was working with the Air Traffic An essential component of all these enhancements is the
Management Bureau (ATMB) of CAAC introduction of ADS-B ground surveillance.
as Executive Director and General
Manager of Civil Aviation Telecom The Eleventh ICAO Air Navigation Planning Conference
munication Corp. He has been the (AN Conf/11) adopted a global Air Traffic Management (ATM)
secretary of the APANPIRG ADSB operational concept and recognized ADS-B as a foundational
Study and Implementation Task Force and has also provided technology that would help provide substantial safety and
Secretariat support to the South East Asia ADSB Working Group. capacity benefits. AN Conf/11 also supported the near-term
and cost-effective implemen-tation of this technology
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the air transport wherever possible.
industry has continued to develop rapidly despite natural
disasters, the spread of communicable disease, economic The ADS-B concept has the characteristics of scalability and
downturns and soaring fuel prices. The growth of air adaptability, according to the specific needs and operational
transport traffic in the APAC Region specifically has risen environment of each State and Region. ADS-B also enables
steadily over the past decade to become the world’s largest the exchange of information related to navigation, surveillance
domestic passenger market. and other operational characteristics in an integrated manner.
As a result of this growth, the aviation sector is now facing ADS-B applications will have a direct effect upon aerodrome
airspace, airport and spectrum congestion and current air operations, traffic synchronization, airspace user operations,
navigation facilities and services must be modernized in and conflict management. These benefits will then influence
order to meet these challenges. The major objective for APAC the nature of airspace organization and management,
States and Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs) is to demand and capacity balancing, and ATM service delivery
enhance the existing ATM system capacity and operational management. ADS-B is a key component and enabler of next
APAC Regional Report – 2010
efficiency while ensuring that these move forward hand-in- generation ATM systems which will evolve Air Traffic Control
hand with commensurate safety improvements. (ATC) from current radar-based systems to more cost-
effective and satellite-derived aircraft locator technologies.
To cope with the challenges involved, joint efforts have been
made by regulators, ANSPs and airspace users in the Region, APAC ADS-B Implementation Activities
including the introduction of Reduced Vertical Separation
Minima (RVSM), Reduced Horizontal Separation Minima In late 2002, APANPIRG established an ADS-B Study and
(RHSM) and Performance-based Navigation (PBN) procedures Implementation Task Force (ADS-B SITF) to promote ADS-B
surveillance services in the APAC communication capabilities in areas system capabilities in the States. It was
Region. The many achievements of the crossing FIR boundaries. envisaged that an ADS-B mandate for
Task Force included the selection of a some flight levels could come into effect
harmonized datalink for use by trans- ADS-B is an alternate surveillance in 2014.
portation aircraft (i.e. 1090-ES), the solution in areas where radar installa-
development of an ADS-B Implemen- tions are impractical. The surveillance States in the sub-Region have been
tation Guidance Document (AIGD), data derived from ADS-B air-ground working together to develop sample
guidelines for the development surveillance systems is much more agreements and technical templates
of an ADS-B Implementation Plan, a accurate than those from radar, in covering ADS-B data sharing and the
Regional surveillance strategy, Regional particular at the periphery of the sharing of VHF communication capabi-
ADS-B equipage requirements for the coverage areas. In addition, the sharing lities. The sample technical memoran-
period 2010-2020, a template for of ADS-B-derived surveillance data can dum for surveillance capability and data
promulgation of ADS-B Avionics Equipage easily be achieved. This is especially the sharing developed by the Working Group
requirements, and guidelines for case in boundary areas between the was adopted by APANPIRG. Parameters
airworthiness and operational approval. neighboring ACCs of States. It will also and conditions, including the installation
be practical to share the associated air/ of filters at either side of the ATM
States implementing ADS-B are required ground communication capabilities from systems were also discussed.
to publish their equipage mandates as remote VHF stations that are co-located
soon as possible, with a target publication with ADS-B ground stations. The Fifth Working Group meeting held in
date of no later than 2010 and an effective January 2010 developed a draft road-
date for ADS-B equipage mandates South East Asia ADS-B Working Group map for implementation of ADS-B in the
after mid-2012. The EUROCONTROL South China Sea area. The project
ASTERIX21 Version 0.23 format for The South East Asia ADS-B working involves ADS-B data and VHF communi-
ground/ground data transition was also group (SEA ADS-B WG) was established cations sharing among the ANSPs of
identified for use in the APAC Region. in 2007. It is working on the cooperative Indonesia, Singapore and Viet Nam.
implementation plan supporting ADS-B Participating States have been urged to
Implementation issues concerning as a surveillance tool in the South China expedite approval of the project. The
ADS-B have been addressed and studied Sea sub-Region. ATS routes L642 and surveillance data derived from four
by the ADS- B SITF. A series of ADS-B M771 would be the first two routes to stations considered for sharing (Natuna,
Seminars and/or Workshops were held be served by shared ADS-B ground Matak, Singapore and Con Son) are
throughout the Region (Australia, stations in order to enhance the shown in Figure 1 (below).
Thailand, Singapore, Fiji, India, Republic surveillance capability in those area
of Korea, China, Viet Nam and Indonesia) not currently covered by radar. The In addition, Australia and Indonesia are
to assist States in understanding the associated operational trial is expected now working on a proposal for an ADS-B
technology and its many benefits. to be conducted by the end of 2010, data sharing project to improve safety
depending on new ATC automation and efficiency at the FIR boundaries
APAC ADS-B Applications
Figure 1: ADS-B Ground Stations now under Consideration
In an effort to provide the operational
for Sharing in the South East Asia Sub-Region
improvements expected from the ADS-B
roll-out, a number of applications have
been identified and in some cases these
improvements are already being
implemented. The main ground-based
surveillance applications in the short-
and medium-term, as identified by the
ADS-B SITF, are as follows:
APAC Regional Report – 2010
■■ ADS-B-NRA enhanced ATS providing
radar-like separation services in
■■ ADS-B-APT improved airport surface
■■ ADS-B-DAT sharing to enhance the
surveillance and air/ground
between Brisbane and Ujung Pandang. CANSO/IATA ADS-B Cost-Benefit Study surveillance is implemented. Early
During Phase 1A of the project, Australia implementations of ADS-B are expected
will provide ADS-B data from the Gove The cost-benefit study conducted by to use GNSS for position determination.
and Thursday Island ground stations CANSO and IATA for the initial phase of ANS Providers may elect to use a GNSS
and Indonesia will provide surveillance ADS-B implementation over the South integrity prediction service to assist in
data form Merauke and Saumlaki. China Sea area indicates a strong determining the availability of useable
The objective of the projects was to business case for the project and ADS-B data. This service would enable
share ADS-B data to provide situational identifies annual economic saving of over the users to take necessary action when
awareness and support improved $4 million. It would also provide for the ADS-B positional data may be
aviation safety. The Phase I project environmental savings of about 10 million inadequate to support the application
parameters approved by both sides pounds of CO2 emissions arising from of ADS-B separation for the area.
will support the existing procedures and reductions in airborne and ground delays.
separation standards. The expected Multilateration Trials
outcome of the project is as follows: Partial Equipage and Regulatory Issues
Several States and administrations have
■■ Reduced coordination incidents at Although more than 70 percent of conducted ADS-B multilateration trials
the FIR boundary. aircraft are equipped to fly in an ADS-B and/or evaluation programmes, including
■■ Earlier detection of ATC and pilot airspace, it is unlikely that all aircraft will the Wide Area Multilateration Project.
errors (coordination errors, incorrect have homogeneous avionics. This Multilateration is a technology that can
fight levels, etc.). situation will persist during the coming supplement SSR and ADS-B with
■■ Technical and operational analysis transition period. Ground systems will multiple ground stations employing
of data in preparation for future therefore have to be capable of coping triangulation to work out the position
applications of radar-like separation with a heterogeneous set of aircraft of an aircraft. The signal used is the
services. capabilities, local system sophistication, 1 090 MHz ATC transponder signal
■■ Increased support and confidence etc., while still providing the required (Mode S squitter, ADS-B transmission
in data sharing to allow for the quality of service. or mode A/C reply).
introduction of radar-like separation
at FIR boundaries in a future phase. In some airspace, priority may be given Multilateration can provide surveillance
to more suitably-equipped aircraft. This for aircraft not equipped with ADS-B
Both sides will employ data filters. will provide economic benefits to those and, in the short-term (prior to imple-
The ADS-B filter installed at Makassar aircraft that have been certified, which mentation of ADS-B), multilateration
ATS Centre has been tested and would in turn encourage airlines to would serve as an alternative to radar.
successfully integrated with local and modernize their fleets more quickly in Regional surveillance strategies
foreign systems, sharing ADS-B data via order to reap the benefits afforded by encourage States to make use of
MATSC ATC. The project is expected to ADS-B. There are common regulatory multilateration for surface, terminal
be in full operation by 2011. The next issues, such as flight standards and and area surveillance, where appro-
phase of the project would progress to certification, and each State will have to priate, as an alternative or supplement
full radar-like separation when both resolve these issues to ensure Regional/ to other surveillance systems.
parties have suitable ATC infrastructure global harmonization.
in place. The following chart shows the Conclusion
sharing stations in Phase 1A—i.e. In accordance with a conclusion formu-
Australia providing data from Gove and lated by the APANPIRG/20 meeting, ICAO ADS-B has well-demonstrated its
Thursday Island Ground stations, while APAC organized a Workshop in August capabilities and unparalleled charac-
Indonesia provides data from Merauke 2010 to deliberate these issues in order teristics compared with existing
and Saumlaki. to achieve common understanding on surveillance technologies. Implemen-
ADS-B OUT-fitment requirements for tation of ADS-B data-sharing between
These projects are all excellent exam- international aircraft fitment, Regional States to enhance flight safety is
APAC Regional Report – 2010
ples of Regional collaboration in the operational requirements and compliance encouraging but will require Regional
deployment and use of this promising timings for ADS-B OUT service. collaboration and further cooperation
new technology. Users of ADS-B services and coordination between stakeholders.
will need to fully understand the limita- GNSS Integrity Prediction Service
tions involved. Back-up procedures still The role of ADS-B in achieving ICAO’s
need to be developed for flight crews Implementation of a suitable GNSS envisioned Global ATM System should
and controllers. integrity prediction service should be not be under estimated.
considered wherever ADS-B air-ground
The Asia/Pacific (APAC) Regional Airspace
Safety Monitoring Advisory Group
(RASMAG) was established by the Asia/
Pacific Air Navigation Planning and
As sub-Regional implementations of Reduced Vertical
Implementation Regional Group (APANPIRG) Separation Minima (RVSM) and reduced horizontal separation
to facilitate the safe implementation of minima (e.g. RNP 10 and RNP 4) was proceeding throughout
reduced separation minima. It also works the APAC Region, the increasing complexity of the associated
to assist APAC States as they harmonize requirements and the necessary State interactions led the
national/Regional airspace levels with 14th Meeting of the Asia/Pacific (APAC) Regional Airspace
established international norms. Safety Monitoring Advisory Group (APANPIRG/14, August
2003) to establish the APAC Regional Airspace Safety
Monitoring Advisory Group (RASMAG).
As Kyotaro Harano, ICAO APAC Regional
Officer, Air Traffic Management (ATM) RASMAG has thus been providing its highly technical over-
reports, the APAC RASMAG continues to sight services for the Region under the professional guidance
provide critical assistance to Regional of its Chairman, Robert Butcher of from Airservices Australia,
stakeholders and States as they seek to for several years now.
update their airspace monitoring APAC Regional Impact Statement
capabilities on the basis on the most
advanced systems and capabilities One of the challenges set out before RASMAG during its
available. These advances promise to fifth year of operations (2008) was the preparation of an
bring significant improvements to APAC Asia/Pacific RVSM Regional impact statement. The purpose
aviation safety and efficiency metrics. of the statement was to summarize the estimated
consequences stemming from the planned 2010 adoption
of ICAO’s global provisions for the long-term monitoring of
Kyotaro Harano joined the ICAO the height-keeping performance for the individual airframes
APAC Regional Office in 2004 involved in RVSM operations.
as Regional Officer, Air Traffic
Management (ATM). He was RASMAG completed the Asia/Pacific Regional Impact State
additionally part the ATM Section ment RVSM Global Long Term Height Monitoring Requirements,
APAC Regional Report – 2010
at ICAO Headquarters from 1996 and the document was subsequently reviewed by APANPIRG/20
to 1998. Prior to his years with (September 2009, Bangkok). APANPIRG/20 tasked
ICAO, Harano spent 20 years with RASMAG to conduct further investigations and provide
Japan’s Civil Aviation Bureau, suitable recommendations regarding the types and
initially as an air traffic controller appropriate locations for monitoring systems which could
at Nagoya Airport, Tokyo (Haneda) effectively monitor APAC’s aircraft fleets. It also instructed
International Airport and the Naha RASMAG to seek solutions which would be effective while
Area Control Centre. incurring minimal infrastructure investment.
RASMAG considered several options in In assessing the types of height Reports from APAC RMAs and EMAs
responding to the APANPIRG task. GPS monitoring infrastructure required,
Monitoring Units (GMUs) were assessed RASMAG agreed with the following: APANPIRG has established a Target Level
with respect to their ability to be ■■ For the Japanese FIRs, HMU(s) would of Safety (TLS) for en route airspace in
deployed around the Region with relative need to be able to capture the the APAC Region of 5 x 10 -9 fatal
flexibility; however they were not deemed domestic fleet plus those aircraft accidents per flight hour. The most
to be adequately efficient in terms of operating across the North Pacific or visible specialist assessment bodies
time and cost. Existing ground-based between Japan and Southeast Asia. assisting with this objective are Regional
Height Monitoring Units (HMU) were also ■■ For the Chinese FIRs, several HMUs Monitoring Agencies (RMAs). RMAs are
looked at. These require fixed sites would be needed to accommodate specifically established to undertake the
which often require very careful planning the large domestic fleet that operates ongoing monitoring of RVSM operations
and deployment lead times. ADS-B within those FIRs only, as well as addi - in order to meet the relevant ICAO
systems were also highlighted for their tional international flights. Additionally, Annex 11 Standard (Paragraph 22.214.171.124,
relative cost-effectiveness; however monitoring capability would be which requires such monitoring be
these too would require location planning available through Enhanced GMU conducted on a regional basis).
such that they would be effectively (EGMU) in cooperation with China’s
aligned with major traffic flows. Regional Monitoring Agency (RMA). For Asia/Pacific Region, RMA services
■■ For Southeast Asia, given the infra - are currently provided by:
While these assessments were ongoing, structure proposals covering adjacent ■■ The Australian Airspace Monitoring
plans for the use of ADS-B as a height FIRs, fleet monitoring could be Agency (AAMA), operated by
monitoring system were already well accommodated via available EGMUs. Airservices Australia.
advanced in Australia—primarily due to ■■ For India/Pakistan, the type and ■■ China RMA, operated by the Air Traffic
the positive results from joint research location of a HMU suitable for the Management Bureau (ATMB) of the
activities being conducted between relatively large domestic fleets Civil Aviation Administration of China
Australia the United States. ADS-B was involved would be determined (CAAC).
able to provide Australian airspace following a more in-depth analysis by ■■ JCAB RMA, operated by the Japan
managers with their most cost-effective both States in coordination with the Civil Aviation Bureau (JCAB).
monitoring option given the extensive Monitoring Agency for the Asia Region ■■ The Monitoring Agency for the Asia
network already in place and the large (MAAR, Thailand). In the short-term, Region (MAAR), operated by Aeronau-
number of ADS-B equipped aircraft monitoring could be effectively tical Radio of Thailand (AEROTHAI).
operating in the Australian Flight provided using existing EGMUs. ■■ The Pacific Approvals Registry and
Information Regions (FIRs). ■■ For the Australian area including Monitoring Organization (PARMO),
Indonesia, New Zealand and Papua operated by the United States Federal
For other areas within the APAC Region, New Guinea, the widespread Aviation Administration (FAA).
however, while some ADS-B systems are Australian and Indonesian ADS-B
being planned, pressing deadlines and network, in addition to the proposed A typical summary of the safety
the lack of a mature mandate for ADS-B ADS-B mandate for Australian monitoring results for airspace safety
equipage in some States has meant that airspace effective 2013, would oversight in terms of the technical
other monitoring systems will likely be provide significant monitoring aspects and risk assessments
implemented instead in the short-term. capability without the need for other surrounding RVSM implementation
ground-based systems. Additionally, is provided in Table 1, below.
long-Term Height Monitoring Infrastructure EGMUs will cover any aircraft/fleets
not requiring ADS-B equipage or that In addition, Figure 1 (following page, top)
RASMAG has also focused on options would not be operating within the presents an example of the trends
that would be provided to APANPIRG/21 Australian or the Indonesian FIRs. related to collision risk estimates for
(September 2010) regarding suitable
Height Monitoring Units (HMUs) for the Table 1: Summary of Safety Monitoring Results for the Western Pacific/
APAC Regional Report – 2010
Region. The analysis of traffic flows was South China Sea RVSM Airspace
conducted in light of the fact that APAC’s Western Pacific/South China Sea RVSM Airspace – estimated annual flying hours = 917 128 hours
Regional fleet does not have access to (note: estimated hours based on December 2008 traffic sample data)
the ground-based height monitoring Source of Risk Risk Estimation TLS Remarks
facilities in Europe and North America. Technical Risk 0.77 x 10-9 2.5 x 10-9 Satisfies Technical TLS
The high-level analysis therefore focused
Operational Risk 2.98 x 10-9 – –
itself on systems that would suitably
Total Risk 3.75 x 10-9 5.0 x 10-9 Satisfies Overall TlS
accommodate these various factors.
aircraft using their RVSM airspace.
Figure 1: Trends of Risk Estimates for RVSM Implementation in WPAC/SCS Airspace The monthly check carried out by
Australia, in January 2009, while
TLS for Total identifying a number of ‘rogue’ aircraft,
5.0E-09 Risk revealed a number of issues related to
4.0E-09 Total Risk the approvals database held by the
State authority. This was due in part to
TLS for delays in having that database updated
2.0E-09 Technical Risk following the issuing of approvals to
1.0E-09 operators. Pro-active discussions
between the AAMA and the State
authority led to these database issues
being effectively resolved, as evidenced
in the significant reduction in the
number of rogue aircraft identified in
each month, based on the cumulative number of LHD occurrences to RASMAG, subsequent months.
large height deviation (LHD) reports based on the record of LHD events
covering a 12 months period. caused by ATC unit-to-unit coordination Unified Approvals Database
errors which occurred between aircraft
In the APAC Region, both the technical crossing their FIR boundary. In regard to the occurrences of non-
and the total collision risk estimates approved aircraft identifying themselves
reported to RASMAG satisfied the As expected, the introduction of AIDC as RVSM-approved on flight plans, some
agreed TLS value of no more than allowed for a significant reduction of the air navigation service providers (ANSPs)
2.5 x 10 -9 and 5.0 x 10 -9 fatal accidents number of LHD occurrences. RASMAG expressed a need for rapid access to
per flight hour, except for one FIR. and the RMAs will continue to undertake approvals databases to ascertain the
this analysis given that more APAC AIDC approval status of specific aircraft. This
With respect to safety monitoring of systems are expected to become will not involve automatic checking of
horizontal airspace, the South East Asia operational in the near future. the approvals status of every aircraft,
Safety Monitoring Agency (SEASMA) is but it would allow ANSPs to request a
the En route Monitoring Agency (EMA) RVSM Non-Approved Operators check and receive a response within a
covering operations on the six major ATS Using RVSM Airspace few minutes when a specific aircraft’s
routes in South China Sea airspace. It approval status was in question.
determines compliance with APAC safety Another concern being assessed by Combined approvals databases would
goals for the established lateral and RASMAG relates to RVSM operations by make such a process, if agreed to,
longitudinal separation standards. non-approved aircraft. APANPIRG simpler to establish and operate.
The estimates relating to both lateral previously expressed serious concerns
and longitudinal risk showed compliance regarding flights that were apparently Where a single organization provides
with the respective TLS value during all using RVSM airspace when they did not both RMA functions for RVSM operations
months of the monitoring period. actually have State approval(s) to do so. and EMA functions for the reduced
In agreeing that the issue ultimately horizontal separation component, it
AIDC Implications for large Height required regulatory intervention, may be feasible to combine the RVSM,
Deviation (lHD) Occurrences APANPIRG requested RASMAG to PBN and data link approvals databases.
continue its investigations in this regard. This will make a single record for
The introduction of AIDC messaging each aircraft possible and avoid the
capability between Area Control Centres In practice, some operators are simply duplication of the nine or more fields
(ACCs), enables automated system and customarily filing a flight plan of common data for aircraft that can
messaging which eliminates human-to- indicating that RVSM has been currently arise, such as aircraft type,
APAC Regional Report – 2010
human coordination exchange errors. approved. They utilize RVSM airspace operator and the State of Registry. A
despite the fact that the operator is combined RVSM, PBN and data link
AIDC has now been successfully flying a non RVSM-approved aircraft. To approvals database will allow States
implemented between several APAC assist in resolving these types of issues, to provide approvals data to a single
countries. Japan and its neighbouring as well as to provide better oversight for monitoring agency, the data being
States have made use of AIDC controllers, RMAs (e.g. China RMA) are subsequently distributed to other
capabilities since 2009. It reported its putting plans into action to establish a agencies through the monitoring
findings on the resultant effect on the system which will identify non-approved agencies’ data exchange mechanism.
Fiji Civil Aviation Systems:
A Model for Small and Developing Economies
iji is part of the South Pacific group of islands and is Civil Aviation Institutional Reform
separated from the rest of the world by vast oceanic
distances. It is approximately 1,770 kilometres north The Fijian Government’s Civil Aviation Institutional Reform
of New Zealand and a four hour flight from Sydney. In-spite programme was concluded on 31 May 2010. Under these
of this isolation, Fiji continues to safely manage one of the reforms, the Civil Aviation Authority of the Fiji Islands (CAAFI)
largest oceanic Flight Information Regions (FIRs), covering became an autonomous authority, responsible for all aviation
6.5 million square kilometres of airspace. safety and security oversight.
Fiji hosts a major mainstay of the aeronautical information The Fijian government, in response to the recommendations
network in the Asia-Pacific (APAC) Region, and is of the ICAO USOAP mandatory audit in 2001, the follow up
currently upgrading its CNS/ATM aeronautical audit in 2003, and the USOAP Comprehensive Systems
telecommunication network (ATN) infrastructure and Audit in 2006, approved an independent and sustainable
automated message handling system (AMHS). This will source of funding for CAAFI. This arrangement demonstrates
be accomplished through the implementation of the the State’s commitment to CAAFI as the Authority seeks to
best technological solutions available. realize its Vision to be a model regulator and it’s Mission to
carry out effective safety and security oversight in Fiji and
Fiji has reformed its civil aviation institutions on the basis the Region. The achievement of these goals fulfills or
of ICAO’s prescribed model of separation for State and civil surpasses its international obligations under the Chicago
aviation institutions. Fiji’s Civil Aviation Reform objectives convention. CAAFI has also obtained ISO 9001/2008
are targeted to achieve more effective safety and security certification to improve its internal processes in support
oversight of its key civil aviation systems. This fulfills or of its primary objectives.
surpasses its international obligations with respect to an
effective regulatory framework supporting more efficient air As part of this programme Airports Fiji Limited (AFL)
navigation service delivery to better meet the needs of became a fully owned Government Commercial Company in
pertinent air transport operators and other stakeholders. 1999 responsible for providing air navigation services and
managing the Nadi FIR oceanic airspace under contract with
Tourism is one of Fiji’s key industries and air transport is ICAO. AFL owns two international airports and manages 13
essential to this sector’s ongoing success and profitability. other domestic airports on behalf of government. The State,
Fiji’s national airline, Air Pacific, operates a fleet of three through the Ministry responsible for Civil Aviation, retains the
Boeing B737NGs, one B767 and two B747-400s. The responsibility for economic regulation and aircraft accident
APAC Regional Report – 2010
Air Pacific network extends to Los Angeles, Hong Kong, investigation. Meteorological requirements are provided by
several destinations in Australia and New Zealand, and Fiji Meteorological Services, which is a separate entity under
others in the South Pacific region. Air Pacific’s subsidiary, the Ministry responsible for Land and Sea Transport.
Pacific Sun, services the domestic and South Pacific
region with two ATR-42 aircraft. Domestic air transport is Search and Rescue (SAR) activities are undertaken by
also supported by other local carriers, with some Airports Fiji Limited, with the Fiji Navy being responsible for
40 operational aircraft out of 64 currently active on the overall coordination of SAR operations within Fiji’s maritime
Fiji civil aircraft register. boundaries and within State territories comprising the broader
FIR boundaries. Land-based SAR operations are coordinated Upgrade and Modernization of CNS/ATM
between the AFL, CAAFI and the Fijian Police Force. Equipment and Infrastructure
Safety Management Program In July 2010, Fiji’s Air Navigation Service Provider, Airports
Fiji Limited (AFL), commissioned one of the more advanced,
Fiji has been progressively implementing an effective Safety highly configurable Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems in
Management System (SMS) across its Civil Aviation industry the world—the Aurora system. This technology is already
since 2007. The System employs ICAO’s four-phased being employed in adjacent FIRs by the US Federal Aviation
approach. Fiji’s international and national airline, Air Pacific, Administration and Airways New Zealand, and will provide
has fully implemented the associated SMS requirements. AFL with equivalent oceanic ATM capabilities.
Fiji has also begun development on its State Safety
Programme (SSP) and expects to fully implement this Fiji also has plans to integrate its Aurora ATM automation
framework in the near future to supplement the Operators/ with a fully comprehensive, operational ADS-B solution that
Service Providers’ SMS. Fiji is presently coordinating in-country will enable AFL to move from procedural to radar-like
SSP training with ICAO for delivery in September 2010. To separation standards within its domestic airspace with no
support this work, the ICAO Integrated Safety Management reliance on radar.
Section facilitated and successfully conducted an in-country
SSP Implementation training in Fiji in September 2010. According to ATC Global Insight Newsletter 59: “Fiji has
completed the cut-over of the new AMHS/ATN and AIS system
National Performance Objectives for ANS delivered by Comsoft. The system includes Comsoft’s
CADAS AIS system to manage NOTAM- and OPMET-related
Regional performance objectives presently include information. Fiji connects the ICAO Regions of Northern
improvements to air navigation systems that are required to America and Asia-Pacific and is one of the five designated
evolve Fijian Air Traffic Management (ATM) in support of Asia/Pacific Regional OPMET data banks responsible for the
ICAO’s Global Performance Objectives. These objectives are management of OPMET bulletins. Fiji is still connected to its
in keeping with operating environments and priorities specific communication partners via AFTN, but is ready to establish
to Fiji’s Regional responsibilities. operational AMHS connections to Australia and the United
States. Fiji AIS is also prepared for an upgrade to a fully
Fiji has adopted the recommended APAC Regional integrated AIM solution on the basis of the emerging AIXM
Performance Objectives as the basis for its own National 5.1 standard. AIXM 5.1 combines static and dynamic AIS
Performance Objectives. This will enable the State to achieve data and is needed to support future Digital NOTAMs”.
an interoperable global air navigation system for all users
during all phases of flight, one that meets agreed levels of Aviation Security
safety, provides for optimum economic development, is
environmentally sustainable and meets national all pertinent Aviation Security is the responsibility of the State, and the
international and national security requirements. Civil Aviation Authority of the Fiji Islands was designated by
its government as the appropriate authority responsible for
Air Navigation Regulation and Harmonization the oversight of the State’s civil aviation security systems.
The security requirements are published in the National
Fiji has updated its legislation to incorporate recent ICAO Civil Aviation Security Programme, the National Civil Aviation
Guidance as highlighted in the 2006 USOAP audits. One Quality Control Programme, and the National Civil Aviation
prominent change is the promulgation of the new Civil Aviation Security Training Programme. All of these programmes are
Occurrence Reporting and Investigation Regulations to incor- supported by the Civil Aviation Security Act and Regulations.
porate the requirements of Annex 13. In particular this includes
provisions for transparency and the sharing of safety information, Fiji has additionally implemented security requirements for
as well as the protection of same from inappropriate use. operators, ground handlers, catering service providers,
cargo operators, regulated agents and access control. The
APAC Regional Report – 2010
The Fijian Government has also endorsed the harmonizing of Fiji Civil Aviation Security System was audited under the ICAO
its Air Navigation Regulations with globally acceptable norms, USAP in 2007 and a follow-up audit was conducted in 2009.
employing the NZ CAA Rules as the basis for this evolution.
This is in-line with the recommendations of the ICAO TCB Fiji has now implemented 93% of all the USAP recommen-
CAAFI Review Report and ICAO Resolution A29-3. An Integral dations. Facilitation remains the responsibility of its
part of Fiji’s legislation development is the formulation of a government and both security and facilitation issues are
new consultation mechanism which includes stakeholders in managed under the National Civil Aviation Security and
the process. Facilitation Committees.
APAC PBN DEVELOPMENT
The Asia-Pacific Flight Procedure Programme
The Asia-Pacific Flight Procedure Programme (APAC FPP), which became operational in
March of 2010, is the first of a new breed of ICAO Technical Co-operation programmes.
Conceived and developed by ICAO in response to the critical needs identified in the Region
by the ICAO Asia-Pacific Air Navigation Planning and Implementation Regional Group
(APANPIRG) Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) Task Force, the APAC FPP aims to provide
the tools, training and assistance necessary to accelerate PBN implementation and achieve
the goals set-out in Assembly Resolution A36-23.
As David VanNess, ICAO’s FPP Manager in Beijing reports, achieving the A36-23 goals is
not an end in itself so much as a great step forward in making global progress with respect
to aviation safety, efficiency and environmental improvements. The APAC FPP is poised to
assist Regional stakeholders as they seek to more safely and efficiently manage the highest
aviation growth rate in the world and meet the challenges required head-on in order to take
this huge step forward.
Dave VanNess is an Airline Pilot with
extensive experience in international
operations. He is also a helicopter
pilot, certified flight inspector
and procedure designer. He was
manager and Chief Pilot of the FAA
International Flight Inspection Office
for six years. His last job with the
FAA was as Manager of the Eastern
Flight Inspection Service Area in the
FAA Air Traffic Organization. As
Implementation and Resource Development Coordinator for The ICAO Air Navigation Commission visits the first FPP Procedure
Performancebased Navigation at ICAO HQ from 2007 to 2010, Designer class in Beijing, 6 July 2010.
he played an instrumental role in the preparatory work to
establish the APAC FPP. He is now with ICAO in Beijing as
Manager of the FPP. Committee and jointly fund the programme. Other States in
the Region could choose to join as User States, with no
The APAC Flight Procedure Programme (FPP) is envisioned contribution required, and make use of the programme’s free
to be a centre of excellence in the field of flight procedure services such as training and technical assistance.
design. It will help to develop Regional State capabilities in
the instrument flight procedure domain—most especially in One of the reasons that this Active/User State approach
the areas of both procedure design and regulatory oversight was considered feasible due to the fact that the programme
of pertinent service providers. The FPP will employ best has attracted global interest and contributions accounting
practices in training, automation and quality assurance, for approximately 75 percent of the resources required to
using experts in the field to address the procedure design establish and operate it during its first three-year cycle.
needs and enhance the capabilities of participating States. These contributions or commitments of resources, either
in-kind or in cash, have come from the FAA, France’s DGAC,
APAC Regional Report – 2010
The APAC FPP has been organized by ICAO as a Regional Airbus, CAAC, Hong Kong CAD, and others.
Technical Co-operation programme. This means that States
in the Region join together to fund the programme and, in As of this writing there were nine Active Participating
return, can use the services, tools, training and assistance States and eight User States in the APAC FPP. States in the
provided by the FPP. APAC Region that are not already members can join at any
time by signing the FPP Programme Document and deciding
APAC States agreed that a core group of Active Participating whether they wish to join as an Active Participating State
States would oversee the FPP as members of its Steering or User State.
First Year of Operations
AN ITEMIzED HISTORy Of THE APAC fPP
The APAC FPP operates from offices ■■ APANPIRG/18 (September 2007) establishes the Regional PBN Task Force to address
provided by the CAAC Center for Aviation PBN implementation issues.
Safety Technology (CAST) in Beijing, ■■ 36 th ICAO Assembly (September 2007) adopts Resolution A36-23 that sets goals for PBN
China. The operation is presently run by implementation by the States.
■■ PBN/TF/1 (January 2008) identifies procedure design expertise as a critical obstacle to
a Manager and five staffers, one of
whom is a procedure design instructor meeting PBN implementation goals.
■■ PBN/TF/2 (April 2008) proposes the establishment of an APAC FPP as part of ICAO’s
and FPP Chief of Training—the FPP’s
main focus during its first year.
■■ ICAO takes action to further develop the APAC FPP proposal (May-July 2008) to determine
if States would participate, then requests proposals to host the FPP Office.
Since the office’s opening in March, FPP ■■ APANPIRG/19 (September 2008) supports continued efforts to develop the APAC FPP.
employees were busy preparing for the ■■ ICAO decides on the host State for the FPP from among four proposals (February 2009).
PANS OPS Procedure Design Initial ■■ ICAO signs letter of intent with China to be the host State for the FPP Office (March 2009).
Course that was held in June-July 2010 ■■ APANPIRG/20 (September 2009) reaffirms its support for the FPP and encourages States
in Beijing. That four week course, to join.
delivered to fifteen students from eight ■■ Final agreement signed for FPP in Beijing (January 2010).
■■ FPP Office in Beijing begins operations (March 2010).
States, proved very successful and in
■■ Formal opening of the FPP (May 2010), conducted by ICAO’s Secretary General and CAAC
fact had 60 percent more applications
than there were seats available. Deputy Administrator.
Instructors for this course and future
offering are drawn from a pool of
procedure design instructors in the
Region who underwent training in the
ICAO/ENAC PBN Procedure Design
Instructor Course in 2009.
Additionally, in April 2010, the FPP
conducted a Workshop on Continuous
Descent Operations for FPP staff and
15 attendees from China. The next FPP
course offering will be the PBN
Procedure Design Course to be held
September 1-17, also in Beijing. Other
offerings planned for the first year are
Procedure Design On-the-Job Training,
an RNP AR Procedure Design Course,
and PBN Airspace Concept Workshops.
In addition, the FPP will be looking to
accept one or two procedure design ICAO Secretary General Raymond Benjamin and CAAC Deputy Administrator Li Jian unveil
the FPP plaque at the formal opening ceremony of the APAC Flight Procedure Programme.
projects on a for-fee basis during its
first year, if opportunities allow.
Communicable Diseases and Air Travel:
The APAC Perspective
N.C. Sekhar joined In 2006, ICAO established the Aviation Medicine Team (RAMT) has
the ICAO APAC Cooperative Agreement for Preventing now been established by the SCM.
Office in the Spread of Communicable Diseases
November 2006 through Air Travel (CAPSCA) aimed at Three RAMT meetings have also taken
as Regional reducing the risk of spreading avian place in Bangkok: one in October 2007;
Officer/AGA. influenza and similar communicable the next in Sept 2008; and the most
diseases by air travelers through recent in September 2009. The Fourth
cooperative arrangements between the Meeting of the CAPSCA Steering
participating States/Administrations Committee and Workshop/Seminar on
The spread of severe acute respiratory and airports. This would be achieved Aviation Business Continuity Planning
syndrome (SARS) in 2003 raised initially by the application and was held recently in Kuala Lumpur,
concerns for ICAO, the World Health implementation of ICAO guidelines. Malaysia, from 24–26 May 2010.
Organization (WHO) and a number of
States and Special Administrative The CAPSCA project provides on-site The next major event in this field will be
Regions (SARs) in South East Asia. training in the public health domain at the Global RAMT from October 15–16
This led to the development and major international airports in 2010. It will be held at the Singapore
implementation of Anti-SARS protective participating States. ICAO guidelines for Aviation Academy and will aim to
measures and guidelines at certain States are available via the ICAO Web ensure the worldwide coordination of
airports as a means of controlling the site. To date, China, Hong Kong China, technical CAPSCA project activities.
disease and preventing its spread Indonesia, Macao China, Malaysia,
through air travel. The SARS outbreak Mongolia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, ICAO has developed a template for a
had devasting effects on air traffic to, The Philippines, Singapore, The National Aviation Preparedness Plan,
from and within the affected areas. Solomon Islands, Thailand, Tonga, and which will be presented at the
Vietnam have joined this cooperative upcoming APAC Regional Aviation
The onset and widespread effects of arrangement. Medicine Team Meeting in October
avian Influenza in 2005 raised even 2010. ICAO will continue to work with
greater concerns regarding the The first Steering Committee Meeting airline and airport operators,
possibility of a human pandemic. The (SCM) of CAPSCA was held in Hong international organizations, experts and
unpredictable behavior of this influenza Kong China in August 2007, the second governments to ensure that
virus was a challenge, as neither SCM was held in Indonesia in June involvement and coordination continues
the timing nor the severity of the next 2008, and the third SCM was held in regarding preparedness for pandemic
pandemic could be predicted with Macao China in June 2009. A Regional influenza and to maintain the continuity
any certainty. and safety of air travel in general.
ICAO’s Global and Regional Initiatives
RECENT CHANGES TO HEALTH-RELATED ICAO PROVISIONS
Article 14 of the Chicago Convention on ■■ Annex 6—Operation of Aircraft Preparatory action plans should include
International Civil Aviation requires An aeroplane shall be equipped with Public Health Emergencies.
each contracting State to take effective accessible and adequate medical ■■ PANS-ATM
measures to prevent the spread of supplies. On board medical supplies Communications procedures with
communicable diseases by means of should include a ‘Universal Precaution Kit’. affected aircraft.
air navigation. ICAO, in coordination Annex 9—Facilitation Annex 14—Aerodrome Design and
APAC Regional Report – 2010
with its Member States, has developed A Contracting State shall establish a Operations
Preparedness Planning Guidelines National Aviation Plan in preparation for The Aerodrome Emergency Plan shall
(Aviation Aspects) for a Communicable an outbreak of a communicable disease provide for the coordination of the actions
posing a public health risk or public health to be taken in an emergency occurring
Disease of Public Health Concern to
emergency of international concern. at an aerodrome or in its vicinity. The
prevent the spread of avian influenza
■■ Annex 11—Air Traffic Services action plan should include public health
and similar communicable diseases by
Air Traffic services authorities shall develop emergencies.
air travelers and to mitigate the
and promulgate contingency plans.
Building ANSP Capabilities
in the Asia Pacific Region
In a Region as large and diverse as the Asia Pacific, air transport is both a driver and a
beneficiary of economic growth. That APAC is today the world’s largest aviation market is
testimony not only to the vibrant economies of the Region but also the leadership of ICAO
in the development of civil aviation.
As Chiang Hai Eng, CANSO’s Director for Asia Pacific Affairs reports, with increasing air
traffic there are many challenges ahead for the APAC Region that will impact flight safety
and efficiency, airspace capacity as well as the environment.
Chiang Hai Eng is CANSO’s Director for Promoting Industry Best Practices
Asia Pacific Affairs. He was formerly
Chief Corporate Officer and Deputy CANSO’s global vision is one of a seamless, safe and
Director General of Operations with efficient airspace. It aims to complement the leadership role
the Civil Aviation Authority of of ICAO by bringing additional industry perspective to
Singapore. Chiang was a member of Regional processes and decisions. With ICAO focused on the
the ICAO Committee on Future Air regulatory aspects of what needs to be done, CANSO can
Navigation Systems and a former Vice play its part by sharing industry experience and expertise on
Chairman of the ICAO Asia Pacific Air how best to go about achieving our Region’s shared
Navigation Planning and Implemen objectives. With over 100 members worldwide, CANSO is
tation Regional Group (APANPIRG). well-placed to help Regional ANSPs benchmark their
performance against best-in-class indicators and to
implement industry best practices through its network of
The key to a safe, efficient and sustainable future for aviation expert committees and workgroups. More and more today,
lies not only in investments in technology and infrastructure, this sharing of data and knowledge is happening through the
but perhaps even more importantly in greater collaboration simple click of a mouse.
among all our sector’s stakeholders.
CANSO recently held two high-level APAC ANSP conferences
International aviation transcends national boundaries. The to engage CEOs and ATM leaders concerning their most
challenges it faces, therefore, cannot be overcome by a pressing challenges. As a result of these conferences,
single State or Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP) acting CANSO is now focusing its attention on the priority areas of
in isolation. As the ‘Global Voice of ATM’, CANSO’s key Safety and ATM Operations and will be addressing pertinent
priority in the Asia Pacific is to reach out to ANSPs in order topics with local stakeholders through a series of seminars
to facilitate and inspire more effective cooperation and and workshops. One such example was the Regional
collaboration and thereby significantly improve overall ATM workshop conducted last year on CANSO’s Standard of
performance in the Region. Excellence for Safety Management Systems (SMS).
This year, CANSO will be holding its annual Global ATM Safety
Conference, which will include safety workshops for APAC
ANSPs on SMS implementation. With the support of its
Operations Standing Committee, CANSO will also be holding
an Asia Pacific ATM Operations Best Practices Seminar aimed
APAC Regional Report – 2010
at improving operational efficiency for all phases of flight.
Promoting ADS-B Implementation
through Regional Collaboration
CANSO has also teamed up with IATA to promote the
implementation of ADS-B in the APAC Region. Apart from
substantial savings in costs and aircraft emissions through
These savings are significant considering
Figure 1: Examining fuel savings from flights that are delayed that the study was limited to only two
or did not receive their optimum flight altitudes
trunk routes. One can imagine what the
ANSP A ANSP B ANSP C benefits would be if CANSO were to
DATA DATA DATA expand the project to include airspace
over the rest of the South China Sea,
Flight Level (FL) the Bay of Bengal and other parts of the
Benefit Benefit APAC Region.
Assumed FL In FIR B Assumed FL
In FIR A In FIR C The ANSPs concerned must now move
quickly to deliver the operational and
economic benefits identified in the
Departure Estinated Destination study. There are several key tasks which
have to be accomplished by the ANSPs
apart from equipment installation, such
as agreements to share ADS-B data
improvements in airspace capacity The cost benefit study which CANSO and VHF communications, safety
and operational efficiency, ADS-B has conducted is based on several assessments and the issuance of an
surveillance also enhances safety in assumptions, most important of which aircraft equipment mandate.
airspace that is outside radar coverage. is that ADS-B data and VHF communi-
This project highlights firstly the cost/ cations will be shared amongst the Vision is Global but
benefits of ADS-B as a building block of relevant ANSPs. This need for closer Implementation is local
future ATM systems, and secondly the Regional collaboration is crucial to the
need for and benefits from closer operational assumption that radar-like CANSO opened its Asia Pacific Office
collaboration amongst APAC ANSPs. separation will be implemented in in Singapore in 2008—its first Regional
exclusive airspace for suitably-equipped office outside of Europe. This was
The initial phase of the ADS-B project aircraft. These prerequisites underline followed by a Middle East Office in
involves the ANSPs of Indonesia, the importance of Regional collaboration Jeddah in 2009 and, in June this year
Singapore and Vietnam. It covers two amongst ANSPs, without which the at its Annual General Meeting, CANSO
trunk routes (L642 and M771) and installation and operation of ADS-B announced the establishment of an
several subsidiary routes. The South stations alone would not amount to Americas Office in Mexico.
China Sea airspace was identified for much in the way of realizable benefits.
this exercise as it contains some of The opening of these Regional offices
the highest density traffic routes The benefits that were realized in the in quick succession recognizes the need
which will benefit most from ADS-B course of this study included savings to address ATM issues at the Regional
surveillance capability. in aircraft fuel burn arising from the level and acknowledges the fact that
availability of optimum flight levels, ‘one size does not fit all’. CANSO’s vision
Table 1: Results of Cost Benefit Study reductions in airborne and ground is for a seamless, safe and efficient
Most likely Estimate
delays, reductions in carbon emissions airspace system but to achieve that
and reductions in flight delays. Together global vision, implementation will have
3% 5% 7% these point to important aggregate to start locally with the ANSPs in their
savings in Aircraft Direct Operating respective Regions.
$45.66 $45.66 $45.66 Costs and Passenger Value of Time.
As CANSO’s Asia Pacific Office
$127.96 $200.47 $328.11 This study, which was completed in completes its second year of operation,
mid-2009, revealed an internal rate we look forward to working even more
IRR 17% 22% 27%
of return for the APAC Region of closely in the future with ICAO and all the
APAC Regional Report – 2010
Costs PV $27.17 $27.17 $27.17
22 percent for a projected medium-term ANSPs and stakeholders of this dynamic
Benefits traffic growth rate of 5 percent. It and rapidly expanding Region.
$50.29 $73.60 $112.43
projects annual savings of 3 million
NPV $23.12 $46.43 $85.26 pounds of fuel burn, annual reductions
B/C of about 10 million pounds of CO2
1.9 2.7 4.1
Ratio emissions, and total economic savings
Payback of $4 million annually.
2020 2018 2017
Advancing Regional and Global
Safety Objectives Through Improved
The activities of ICAO’s main work programme related to the setting of international Standards
and Recommended Practices (SARPs) to support international aviation are well known. Another
area of activity playing an increasingly important role in the Organization’s activities today
involves the work of Cooperative Development of Operational Safety and Continuing
Airworthiness Programmes, or COSCAPs.
COSCAPs have been established as self-sustaining sub-regional cooperatives to support and
improve aviation safety and efficiency among participating States. In this special update for the
APAC Regional Report, Kim Trethaway, Chief Technical Advisor and Flight Operations Expert for
the ICAO COSCAP North Asia, provides updates on his own sub-regional group as well as two
additional Asia/Pacific COSCAPs in South and South East Asia.
Kim Trethewey to assist partici-pating States in their provided by Canada, the European
is the Chief ongoing efforts to strengthen their Commission, France, Norway, United
Technical safety oversight capabilities. States, Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier,
Advisor, Flight the Association of Asia Pacific Airlines
Operations COSCAPs are dedicated forums for (AAPA) and IATA, as well as Regional
Expert, for the cooperation and coordination in air operators who provide free
ICAO COSCAP matters related to flight safety, bringing transportation to COSCAP personnel.
North Asia together both well developed and
project based smaller participating civil aviation There are now three COSCAPs
in Beijing, administrations. Each COSCAP operating in the APAC Region: COSCAP
China, a position that he undertook in operates independently under the South Asia; COSCAP South East Asia
February 2008. Before joining the direction of a Steering Committee and COSCAP North Asia.
Canadian Department of Transport in comprised of the Directors General
1985, Tretheway’s piloting career of participating Civil Aviation COSCAP South Asia’s Member States
included instruction, regional airline and Authorities (CAAs), ICAO, as well as are comprised of India, Bangladesh,
corporate operations, as well as other organizations and companies Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal, Maldives and
responsibilities as a training pilot and interested in supporting aviation safety. Sri Lanka. It is the most mature of the
Chief Pilot. His last assignment before The Steering Committees establish APAC COSCAPs, currently operating
joining the COSCAP programme involved priorities for their respective based on the priorities of its third
implementation of safety management programme, providing higher-level five-year term.
systems in the Canadian airline sector. direction to a programme coordinator
who is responsible for developing COSCAP South East Asia is comprised
Findings from the ICAO Universal specific work plans to support the of Cambodia, Hong Kong (China),
Safety Oversight Audit Programme needs of all participating States. Macao (China), Indonesia, Lao PDR,
(USOAP) have demonstrated that many Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines,
APAC Regional Report – 2010
States find it difficult to adequately An important feature of the Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam, Brunei
meet their safety oversight obligations. COSCAPs is that they are funded by Darussalam and Timor-Leste. It was
A solution which has proven to be the participating States themselves, established in 2001 and is in its
successful in the Asia-Pacific (APAC) with additional support from safety second five-year term.
Region has been the establishment of partners—either in cash or in kind.
Cooperative Development of APAC Regional safety has benefited COSCAP North Asia, meanwhile,
Operational Safety and Continuing tremendously through the generous comprises China, the Republic of
Airworthiness Programmes (COSCAPs) financial and technical support Korea, the People’s Democratic
Republic of Korea and Mongolia. It was established in 2003 Administrations have well established regulatory frameworks.
and is in its second five-year term. Instead, new regulatory requirements are developed in a
Each of these programmes initially concentrated on inspector
training and core oversight programme development, along with A recent example is the implementation of new ICAO Annex 6,
safety team work to prevent accidents though the identification Part I—International Commercial Air Transport—Aeroplanes
and implementation of critical safety enhancements designed provisions related to the approval and surveillance of
to eliminate or reduce safety risk. This work is accomplished foreign air operators. In this case the APAC COSCAPs jointly
through the combined efforts of international, national and developed model regulations, a model Foreign Air Operator
Regionally recruited inspectors. A brief description of some this Validation and Surveillance Manual, and associated training.
work is provided in the following paragraphs. Similarly, extensive work is underway in 2010 to support
operational approval of Performance-Based Navigation (PBN).
Development of Inspector Manuals Although there is a great deal of international PBN expertise
and supporting ICAO documentation, the COSCAPs identified
COSCAP programmes have developed generic policy and a remaining area of common need—support for CAAs as
procedure manuals to guide inspector certification and safety they develop the regulations, policy and procedures needed
APAC Regional Report – 2010
oversight functions. These manuals can be easily adapted by before they can approve the use of the highly-anticipated
Member States. PBN procedures.
Development of Regulations, Standards and Policy Training Programmes
While some COSCAP programmes work towards the The Steering Committees have assigned a high priority to the
harmonization of regulations and standards, this is generally training and development of national inspectors. Where
not a priority of most programmes as many Member numbers warrant, training programmes can be provided in all
States, but often are provided at one or RASTs were combined as the Asian and high cost of international expertise.
two central locations. While COSCAP Regional Aviation Safety Team (ARAST) COSCAP personnel are familiar with
staffers provide the majority of the in 2008, providing the benefits of wider Regional issues and available resources
training, in many cases donors will participation, a greater sharing of safety and are able to respond quickly to urgent
provide additional training programmes at information and efficiency for members requests for assistance.
no cost to the programme. Air operators and donors alike. Thereafter, the ARAST
and service providers are often invited to became the primary forum to support The ability to provide training on
send participants to the training Regional implementation of the ICAO specialized subjects at relatively low
programmes so as to ensure a common Global Safety Initiatives (GSIs) and cost to a large number of participants
understanding of regulatory requirements best practices concurrent with the ICAO has been a significant achievement of
and to foster good working relationships. Global Aviation Safety Plan and the the COSCAP initiative. This capability
Global Aviation Safety Roadmap. also supports the establishment of a
Audits, Inspections and more harmonized regulatory regime
Certification Activities Building on the work of the U.S. across the Region. The international
Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) donor community, which has a vested
This is an area where the needs of and the European Strategic Safety interest in promoting flight safety
Member States vary widely, and COSCAP Initiative (ESSI), the ARAST has worked globally, has recognized the inherent
staff may assist States with audits, to implement safety enhancements to efficiencies of the COSCAPs and has
inspections and certification activities, reduce the risk of fatal accidents arising demonstrated this through their strong
including on-the-job training for national from the top accident categories, and generous support for the
inspectors. including: Controlled flight into terrain; Programmes—both in cash and
approach and landing accidents; and technical expertise.
Technical Assistance loss of control.
COSCAP staffers are often asked to Of the 72 CAST safety enhancements,
provide guidance on the interpretation of the ARAST has addressed 40 for The practical benefits of the APAC
regulations/standards, best practices, implementation in the Region. Among COSCAPs have been clearly
and/or technical matters. Considerable other actions this has included the demonstrated, as has the resolve of
assistance has been provided to support issuance of 23 Advisory Circulars and COSCAP Member States to enhance
Member Administration preparation and Advisory Bulletins. aviation safety through more effective
responses to ICAO USOAP requirements. Regional cooperation. The Asian
Challenges Regional Aviation Safety Teams (ARAST)
Regional Aviation Safety Team (RAST) is a high priority activity and it provides a
While the COSCAPs and the safety forum to develop safety interventions
Each COSCAP established a Regional teams have been effective in addressing that are based on a detailed review of
Aviation Safety Team whose first task many areas requiring action, there are accident data from a risk management
was to review safety interventions which a number of common challenges that perspective. Overall, the diverse
have already been developed through remain, including: capacities of the APAC COSCAPs ensure
the efforts of well-established ■■ Funding and contributions are difficult a more effective and efficient use of all
multinational safety groups. The RASTs to establish and to maintain. safety resources.
also focus on flight safety concerns ■■ Balancing benefits to States.
particular to the Region. RAST priorities ■■ Capabilities of Member States may
and methodologies for implementing the be very diverse.
safety interventions, once approved by ■■ Implementation of lessons learned
the Steering Committee, are is not always successful in all States.
implemented through the coordinated ■■ Limited resources require the
efforts of the regulatory authorities in COSCAP programmes to take a long
APAC Regional Report – 2010
cooperation with the airlines, service term outlook.
providers and the aircraft manufacturers.
Originally operating independently, each
RAST enjoyed the support of a number The Asian COSCAPs have proven to be
of safety partner organizations. an efficient and cost-effective means of
Recognizing that the RASTs had a great providing expert support, which is of
deal in common, the three separate crucial importance given the scarcity
The APAC View
Birds have posed a potential hazard to
aircraft since the first days of air travel.
What was once a minor risk to the relatively
small amount of early, slow-flying aircraft has
today become a significant safety issue due
to the dramatically increased airspeeds and
much quieter engines of modern civil,
military and commercial fleets.
Increases in the populations of many bird
species has compounded these factors,
making bird strike a much more significant
threat to modern aviation safety. As N.C.
A collisionreports, ICAO’s APAC Regional Office,
Sekhar between an aircraft and one or more birds is
termed a bird strike. Pilots occasionally will record a bird
in close association with the FAA and DCA
Malaysia, will be holding a seminar in happen
at cruising altitudes, but most of these incidents
when an aircraft is relatively close to Control and
December 2010 on Wildlife the ground—usually in Bird strikes are extremely expensive to modern aircraft
Management to address the more local
close proximity to an airport and during the holding, operators. The associated costs of down-time for inspection
aspects of this worldwide safety issue.
descent or take-off phases of a flight. and repair following bird damage, the rescheduling of flights,
transfers of passengers to alternative means of transport
Bird strikes can cause significant damage to aircraft or a and overnight accommodation can be significantly damaging
APAC Regional Report – 2010
dangerous loss of power when the birds are pulled into a jet
N.C. Sekhar joined the to both airline operating budgets and to public perceptions of
engine. When associated impacts and losses in power
ICAO APAC Office in the safety and viability of air travel.
initial climbing phase
occur during take-off or November 2006 as of a fully-
loaded passenger aircraft, the results can be catastrophic.
Regional Officer/AGA. Airports tend to be surrounded by an environment that
Any attracts and supports birds and other wildlife. Rodents,
bird is a potential hazard to an aircraft and this is especially insects and other small animals are a source of food for
true when the number and size of local bird species is on these animals and these are often found on and alongside
the increase. grassy runway strips.
“A total of 6,996 bird strikes were reported by 18 States
in the APAC Region during the ten-year period from
1996–2006. Bird strikes occurred throughout the year
with two peak periods: from April to May and from September
to October. The months with the least reported strikes
were February and July.”
Further problems may arise when an airport is located on a (see Fig. 1, page 28). Bird strikes occurred throughout the year
bird migration route. Airport planners sometimes overlook this with two peak periods: from April to May and from September
safety factor, but it’s generally more the case that these routes to October. The months with the least reported strikes were
arise unexpectedly due to a bird species having found an February and July.
attractive new food source.
The phases of flight during which bird strikes were most
Birds may also be attracted to pig farms where garbage is frequent were approach (28 percent), landing roll (30 percent),
used as fodder. Even tree plantings can present a hazard if the take-off run (29 percent) and climb (10 percent). Taken
species provides an attractive food source or nesting habitat. together, these four phases which happen on or in the vicinity
Moreover, airports tend to provide a safe haven for many birds of an aerodrome account for almost 97 percent of all reported
from their natural predators. bird strikes. Eighty-five percent of the reported bird strikes
occurred within 30 metres of ground level.
Bird Strikes and APAC
With respect to the aircraft itself, the areas most often struck
A total of 6,996 bird strikes were reported by 18 States in the by birds include the nose (five percent), wing rotor (25 percent),
APAC Region during the ten-year period from 1996–2006 windshield (four percent), landing gear (four percent), fuselage
APAC Regional Report – 2010
Some examples of the damage that can be caused to aircraft and engines as the result of bird strikes. A total of 6996 bird strikes were reported by
18 States in the Asia/Pacific Region between 1996–2006.
Figure 1: APAC bird strike data for the period 1996–2006. The phases of flight during which bird strikes were most frequent
were approach (28 percent), landing roll (30 percent), take-off run (29 percent) and climb (10 percent).
700 671 672
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC
(three percent), radome (six percent), stressed in the creation of a successful Regional Initiatives and Goals
engine number one (24 percent) and bird control programme. The Manual also
engine number two (12 percent). deals with the reasons why birds occur Recognizing the severe extent of the
in the airport setting and outlines the damage bird strikes cause to aircraft,
A total of 2,179 reports were received modifications which may be made by the APAC Regional Planning and
regarding damage caused by bird strike airport authorities to reduce their Implementation Group, during its
to aircraft. Of these, 121 or six percent facilities’ attractiveness to birds. 18th meeting, invited APAC Member
of these strikes caused minor damage, States to establish a national bird
with another 64 (three percent) In Part 2 of ICAO Doc 9184—Airport control committee with a defined term of
experiencing substantial damage. The Planning Manual, the section on Land reference. Thus far 17 APAC States have
remaining 1,994 strikes did not caused Use and Environmental Control established this type of committee.
any damage to the aircraft. provides guidelines on land use types
that may attract bird activity. It considers The ICAO APAC Regional Office also
Related ICAO Provisions the compatibility and effectiveness of initiated a survey to review the extent of
various activities within the area that implementation of ICAO Annex 14
ICAO recognizes the hazard birds pose to lies between and inner radius of three requirements regarding bird and wildlife
aircraft and requires airport authorities kilometres and an outer radius of hazard reduction at and in the vicinity of
to adopt measures to minimize the likely eight kilometres centred on a given airports. Furthermore, in close
hood of collisions between birds and airport facility. association with the FAA and DCA
aircraft at, or in the vicinity of, the Malaysia, the APAC Regional Office has
airport. To this end, ICAO has The Manual on the ICAO Bird Strike organized a seminar for December 2010
established Standards and Information System (IBIS) provides on airport wildlife control and
Recommended Practices (SARPs) for information and suggestions for management.
bird/wildlife hazard reduction in developing effective bird strike reporting,
Annex 14, Volume I—Aerodrome Design analysis and recording systems. The IBIS Although birds and aircraft may share
and Operations. programme is an excellent tool designed the same airspace, history and evidence
APAC Regional Report – 2010
to collect and disseminate information have now clearly demonstrated that
In addition, ICAO provides the guidelines on bird strikes and represents an human and animal flight are not
and information necessary to develop important element in ongoing accident compatible within too close proximity to
and implement an effective bird control prevention schemes. IBIS is highly one another. It is ICAO’s goal and the
programme for an airport. In Part 3 of supported by airlines and other experts objective of current provisions to make
ICAO’s Airport Services Manual, Bird working to reduce the threat of bird the skies safer for all who fly—birds and
Control and Reduction, the importance of strikes to aircraft globally. aircraft alike.
good organization and planning is
APAC MET UPDATE
The Regional implementation of a number
of key global MET programmes is presently
proceeding on course in the APAC Region,
in addition to developments related to the
APAC Cooperative Agreement for the
Enhancement of Meteorological Services for
Regional meteorological (MET) activities facilitate State
Aviation, Regional MET/ATM coordination
efforts geared towards local implementations of global MET
activities, ongoing efforts related to Quality programmes. This is primarily accomplished through
Management Systems, and the gradual consultative processes and programmes, seminars and
implementation of XMl-based net-centric workshops, as well as regular meetings.
As Christopher Keohan reports, all of these
initiatives are helping to foster a more Regional implementation of the World Area Forecast System
globally-harmonized and comprehensive (WAFS) is necessary for providing pilots with forecasts of
upper-air winds, temperatures and humidity readings for
MET system that the APAC stakeholders
various altitudes used in flight planning. Forecast generation
are helping to move forward over the near- and global distribution are managed by two World Area
and mid-term. Forecast Centres (WAFCs) located in London and
Christopher Keohan, ICAO
Regional Officer, Aeronautical High altitude significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts for flight
Meteorology, Bangkok, has been levels 250 to 630 (global), as well as medium altitude SIGWX
employed at the ICAO APAC forecasts for flight levels 010 to 250 (South Asia), are also
Regional Office since June 2008. disseminated by the WAFC to provide information on
Prior to this Keohan served as a hazardous meteorological phenomena such as severe icing,
senior meteorologist on wind turbulence and cumulonimbus clouds (CB) (see chart on
APAC Regional Report – 2010
shear systems at the Federal page 31). The medium level SIGWX forecasts also contain
Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s) areas of in-cloud icing and turbulence.
Mike Monroney Aeronautical
Center (MMAC), utilizing Operational implementation of gridded forecasts relating to
experience gained with prototype wind shear and terminal CB, icing and turbulence are expected as early as 2013 in
weather systems at the Massachusetts Institute of digital form (these are currently available but only as
Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) for several airport experimental forecasts by way of the Internet). These gridded
hub locations. digital forecasts will allow users to more easily incorporate
related data into automated systems in forecasts of volcanic ash position and management framework to determine
addition to the wind, temperature and movement are provided to users and the safe levels of operation in airspace
humidity information already provided in Meteorological Watch Offices (MWO, for contaminated by volcanic ash.
this manner. All WAFS forecasts will be the production and dissemination of
available in three-hour time increments volcanic ash SIGMET) and ATS by way of The APAC Regional Office will monitor
up to 36 hours, as opposed to the single volcanic ash advisories. the developments of the IVATF, including
24-hour forecast that is currently those relating to the operational need for
available for SIGWX. Currently, four APAC States have volcanic ash concentration maps, and
demonstrated documented deficiencies utilize the Regional Meteorological
A workshop on the new gridded forecasts in observing or disseminating Advisories and Warnings Implementation
of CB, icing and turbulence is expected information on volcanic ash to ATS and/ Task Force (METWARN/I TF) and
in the APAC Region in 2011 or 2012 or the production and dissemination of Meteorology Air Traffic Management
to facilitate the utilizing these new volcanic ash SIGMET. Task Force (MET/ATM TF) in developing a
forecasts by States and other end-users. framework of a Regional contingency
Cost recovery guidance for volcanic ash plan that addresses large scale events
Obtaining WAFS forecasts for flight services was made available with the such as volcanic ash, tropical cyclones,
planning can now be obtained via the assistance of the Civil Aviation Authority Tsunamis and radioactive clouds.
Internet by way of SADIS FTP (issued of New Zealand (CAANZ). Other Regional Implementation issues associated with
by WAFC London) and the WAFC activities include obtaining the eight- new requirements developed by ICAO will
Internet File Service (WIFS, issued by character AFTN addresses for all Area be addressed by these task forces.
WAFC Washington). The use of the Control Centres (ACCs) for the
Internet for this type of non-time-critical dissemination of radioactive cloud ITCW
MET data will be enabled in Annex 3 information from VAAC London,
in November 2010. beginning November 2010. Regional implementation of the
International Tropical Cyclone Watch
The cessation of the International The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull (ITCW) is crucial in the APAC Region,
Satellite Communication Service (ISCS) Volcano in Iceland, with the resulting given that tropical cyclones may occur
second generation (ISCS-G2) device in disruption to air travel and commerce in any time of the year and severely impact
June 2012 will require States and users Europe and beyond, resulted in the busy air routes and aerodromes.
to make use of the Internet for forecast establishment of the International
data as described above. The Regional Volcanic Ash Task Force (IVATF) by ICAO Coordination with Tropical Cyclone
WAFS Implementation Task Force on 29 April 2010 to assist in the Advisory Centres (TCACs) is necessary
(WAFS/ITF) will monitor and assist development of a global safety risk in that the areas served by all seven
States during the transition from
satellite to Web-based forecast sources
Example of an APAC SIGWX Forecast
as 2012 approaches. Implementation
focus will be placed on five States in the
APAC Region that currently do not
receive the WAFS forecasts needed for
Efforts associated with the Regional
implementation of the International
Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW) system
include State assistance programmes
APAC Regional Report – 2010
(eg. AusAID) for countries that are unable
to provide volcanic ash information for
Air Traffic Service (ATS).
Volcanic Ash Advisory Centres (VAAC)
nominated in the APAC Region include
Darwin (Australia), Tokyo (Japan) and
Wellington (New Zealand), from which
existing TCACs include some part of the APAC Region. being taken for the possible removal of these deficiencies from
Informing TCACs of changes associated with Amendment 75 the list of APANPIRG deficiencies through monitoring by Regional
to Annex 3 (e.g. the introduction of tropical cyclone advisories OPMET Data Banks (RODBs). Most recently, APANPIRG approved
in graphical form) is conducted by ICAO through its involvement the removal of the SIGMET deficiency for Myanmar. Another
in various World Meteorological Organization (WMO) events sign of the improving participation in the issuance of SIGMET in
related to tropical cyclones. the Region is the increased participation noted in the November
2009 SIGMET tests (volcanic ash, tropical cyclone and other
SIGMET meteorological phenomena). Specifically, eight new States
participated in the SIGMET test for meteorological phenomena
Necessary for flight safety, SIGMET provide information to other than tropical cyclone and volcanic ash. Figure 1 (bottom
users on hazardous meteorological phenomena. left) shows the recent increase in test participation. This
continued effort by States and the Regional Office is essential
A greater focus on the implementation of SIGMET has been to maintain flight safety.
conducted in recent years in the APAC Region. SIGMET are
issued by MWOs designated by their State. Eight States are The METWARN/I TF will monitor developments associated with
currently listed as having a deficiency in the issuance of a global effort addressing the need to improve the issuance of
SIGMET, the most in any deficiency category. SIGMET. That is, the APAC Region will participate in a feasibility
analysis of SIGMET advisories issued by a designated regional
In the last two years, a bi-lateral agreement between China and advisory centre targeting States with SIGMET deficiencies.
Cambodia has allowed the Kunming MWO (transfer of duties to Monitoring of SIGMET globally for this trial analysis in 2011 is
Chengdu MWO on 1 September 2010) to issue SIGMET for the being conducted by Hong Kong, China. Analysis of SIGMET
Phnom Penh FIR since 1 June 2009—the first time SIGMET issuance with and without the trial SIGMET advisories will be
have been formally issued for a Flight Information Region (FIR) reported to the Meteorological Warnings Study Group
in a neighboring State in the APAC Region. The Regional Office (METWSG) in 2012 for further action if necessary.
was also recently informed of an agreement for the provision
of SIGMET by Papua New Guinea on behalf of the Solomon Another hazardous MET phenomenon, wind shear, occurs in
Islands and Nauru. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea the terminal area. To assist States in acquiring a suitable wind
also established a MWO in February 2009 primarily for the shear system based on the uniqueness of their environment,
issuance of SIGMET, while the Laos People’s Democratic an APAC Wind Shear Systems Acquisition Workshop will be
Republic is expected to establish its own MWO in 2010, which conducted in December 2010.
will issue SIGMET for the Vientiane FIR.
Issuance of TAF and OPMET exchanges
Myanmar has notified the APAC Regional Office that SIGMET is
provided by the Yangon MWO for the Yangon FIR. Steps are The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has produced
OPMET (METAR and TAF) availability goals for the APAC Region.
That is, IATA formalized requirements of 95 and 90 percent
Figure 1: APAC SIGMET Test Participation
availability of OPMET data for AOP and non-AOP aerodromes
100 respectively at the twentieth meeting of APANPIRG.
80 Aerodrome forecasts (TAF) in particular are used for flight
planning and are necessary for selecting alternate aerodromes—
which results in the optimization of fuel consumption. The
60 increased availability of OPMET data as indicated in Figure 2
50 (page 33, top) reveals the commitment of the APAC Region to
40 provide the necessary meteorological information.
Furthermore, IATA has determined a list of aerodromes that
APAC Regional Report – 2010
require TAF with a period of validity of 30 hours. These were
10 considered as part of the Regional requirement used for planning
0 ultra-long haul flights. Some aerodromes that require 30-hour
06 07 08 b) no
v) TAF do not have ultra-long haul flights, but are used as alternates
20 20 20 9 (fe (
2 20 for them. State awareness of the importance of alternate
aerodrome planning is reflected in the increase in implemen-
State participation MWO participation Goal tation of 30-hour TAF, which doubled from 2009 to 2010 as
indicated in Figure 3 (page 33, bottom left).
awareness, convective forecasts to
Figure 2: Increasing Availability of APAC OPMET Data one or more hours, probability
forecasts of CB, fog and other weather
elements, and post event briefings
100 to improve coordination for future
participation weather impacts.
60 participation Determining requirements for these
Goal added services is in progress at the
40 global level through ICAO and the WMO.
20 In the meantime, specialized MET
services for busy terminal areas
0 2010 continue to develop such as the
SADIS SA Meteorological Services in the Terminal
SADIS FT 2009
ISCS SA Area (MSTA) described in a separate
article of this journal by Hong Kong,
China. A planned MET/ATM Seminar will
Technical Co-operation Activities overcome deficiencies such as aging be conducted in Fukuoka, Japan in
observing systems, poor communi- January 2011, where States will have
In order to mitigate MET deficiencies cations, lack of WAFS forecasts and the the opportunity to exchange information
identified in the South Pacific Island need to issue SIGMET. on what MET Services are provided to
States, ICAO, in coordination with the ATM and how they are used to increase
WMO, secured funds with the Due to the dilemma of low air traffic aerodrome and terminal area capacity.
International Financial Facility for and the subsequent inadequate
Aviation Safety (IFFAS) to resolve revenue available through cost Implementation of Future Standards
deficiencies in each of the eight recovery, many States will need further
signatory States. assistance from other States and The implementation of Quality
international organi-zations to realize Management Systems (QMS) is a
The project, the Cooperative Agreement these goals. A second phase of the near-term concern since this will
for the Enhancement of Meteorological project will therefore commence in the become a standard for all MET services
Services for Aviation in the South Pacific second half of 2010 or sometime in and facilities according to Annex 3
(CAEMSA-SP), was carried out in late 2011 to secure funding and determine beginning in November 2012. An APAC
2008 by an ICAO expert who developed associated tasks by donors to mitigate QMS Seminar was conducted by the
action plans with the pertinent States to these MET deficiencies. This sub- WMO in cooperation with the Finnish
Region’s importance continues to Meteorological Institute in Tonga in
increase with respect to its destination July 2010, in order to facilitate State
Figure 3: Regional Implementation of aerodromes and alternate aerodromes implementation of QMS.
30-hour TAF at AOP Aerodromes
for Trans Pacific flights.
100 Implementation issues related to the
MET/ATM coordination gradual application of net-centric
90 meteorological data will arise in the
80 As the reliability of providing meteoro- mid- and late 2010s. This will include
75 logical information has improved in the the possible use of Extended
APAC Region, some aerodromes have Mark-up Language (XML) in the
capacity concerns and are providing exchange of MET data. It is necessary
50 more services than those now therefore to continue improving the
40 proscribed for them in Annex 3. provision of meteorological information
APAC Regional Report – 2010
30 in the near-term, before significant
To optimize capacity in busy terminal changes arise (XML and MET services
areas, coordination between MET for ATM) that will require a new focus
10 and Air Traffic Management (ATM) on the implementation of demanding
0 stakeholders has become essential. new requirements and new exchanges
2009 2010 Goal
Catered MET Services include of meteorological information in
2009 2010 Goal specialized briefings, shared displays the Region.
of weather to increase situational
APAC MET/ATM COORDINATION
New Meteorological Services
Supporting Air Traffic Management
The new Meteorological Services in the Terminal Area (MSTA) initiative, which is being
undertaken by the WMO in close collaboration with ICAO, will provide meteorological
services to support Air Traffic Management (ATM) for wider terminal areas, especially those
at busy airports, which are currently not covered by the standard meteorological services
stipulated by ICAO.
As C.M. Shun and Sandy M.K. Song of the Hong Kong Observatory, Hong Kong, China,
report, ICAO and the WMO are continuing to coordinate further MSTA developments in
advance of a projected 2014 endorsement for this promising enhancement to current
C.M. Shun is Assistant Director The goal of the changes now under development is to
of the Hong Kong Observatory. ensure that ICAO’s vision of a safe, secure, efficient and
He was the MET Vicechairman of environmentally sustainable air transport system will continue
ICAO’s CNS/MET SubGroup of to be available to all aviation stakeholders at the global,
APANPIRG from 2003 to 2009 Regional and national levels. The implementation of a new
and was elected President of the ATM system that will make maximum use of the enhanced
WMO’s Commission for capabilities provided by advances in science and technology,
Aeronautical Meteorology in as well as allowing for the effective sharing of available
February 2010. information on the basis of Collaborative Decision Making
(CDM), is a mandatory component on the path to this objective.
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)
Sandy M.K. Song is Senior and Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) initiatives are
Scientific Officer of the Hong Kong the corresponding programmes now ongoing in the USA and
Observatory. She is a member of Europe to help effectively address this challenge.
ICAO’s ASIA/PAC METATM Task
Force and a core member of the It is under this evolving environment that the concept of
Expert Team on MSTA and the Meteorological Services in the Terminal Area (MSTA)1 was
Task Team on MSTA User Needs conceived of by the Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology
of WMO. (CAeM) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in its
13th Session in 2006. In recent years, with increasing air
traffic leading to issues of airport and route capacity limits, as
The international air navigation system is presently under- well as the advancement of meteorological sciences such as
going a paradigm shift: one that is moving it away from past numerical weather prediction and ‘nowcasting’ techniques,
Air Traffic Control (ATC) environments to the more integrated different meteorological products tailored for supporting Air
and collaborative Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems now Traffic Management (ATM) have been developed.
needed to meet aviation’s needs in the 21st century.
These developments have occurred in parallel across
These requirements have stemmed from the more or less various Regions in order to address the gap between the
continuous growth in aviation and the ever present risk that data products stipulated in ICAO’s existing standards and
the capacity of Regional air navigation systems may soon be guidance and the newer and evolving 21st century ATM
APAC Regional Report – 2010
exceeded by operator demand. This issue is presently of user needs for meteorological information. Currently, ICAO
particular importance in the European (EUR) and in North Annex 3 stipulates meteorological data products such as the
American (NAT) Regions, but it has also become an Aerodrome Forecast (TAF), Trend-type Landing Forecast
increasingly urgent priority in the Asia/Pacific (APAC) Region, (TREND) and Aerodrome Warnings, which are presented to
where the number of intra-APAC air travellers has recently the users in highly-condensed codes in textual format.
surpassed associated domestic passenger totals from the
North American market, making today’s Asia-Pacific the The coded aspect of this weather data was a necessity in the
world’s largest aviation market. mid-20 th century, primarily to overcome the severe bandwidth
limitations in legacy telecom systems. It has since become a of convection, winds, low ceiling/visibility and winter weather.
severe constraint for meteorologists as they seek to convey the In addition, probability attributes of the various weather
specific details of available weather information to modern elements will be included as possible inputs for user decision-
aircraft operators. support systems. A number of core experts from various
Regions are working together on MSTA development, including
A case in point is how convective weather, which impacts several from the APAC Region (Australia, Hong Kong/China
busy approach areas, flight routes, corner posts and fixes over and Japan).
the wider terminal area2, is already causing significant impacts
to ATM operations and capacity. Currently this cannot be Prototypes of convection (see Figure 1, below) and wind products
addressed by the regulated products which only provide have already been developed and were presented to the
generic weather information for the aerodrome—i.e. within 14th Session of the CAeM held in Hong Kong, China in February 2010.
approximately eight kilometres of its centre. Other products
under development, in trial, or already in operational use at To facilitate further development of MSTA prototypes and input
some airports in the APAC Region, include wind forecasts over from the aviation community, a web site (http://www.msta.
approaches, crosswind probability forecasts for runways, weather.gov.hk/) is currently being hosted by the Hong Kong
strike probability for tropical cyclones, etc. Observatory with access available to WMO members and aviation
users. In addition to the WMO expert team, a new Task Force on
In more advanced applications of these weather products, specific MSTA User Needs was also set up by the CAeM to strengthen
information of the weather impact on air traffic capacity is also engagement with aviation user communities, focusing on user
generated and provided to ATM and airline users. One such needs and gathering feedback on the MSTA concept.
example is the Air Traffic Meteorology Center (ATMetC) of Japan.
On the ICAO side, the Aerodrome Meteorological Observation
To address these new and evolving ATM user needs and to avoid and Forecast Study Group (AMOFSG) has established an ad
the costly parallel development of similar weather products of hoc group to work closely with the WMO Task Force to
varying and confusing data formats, an expert team has been coordinate inputs from the requirements perspective. Its work
set up by the WMO in order to work closely with ICAO to develop programme also includes consultations with the ICAO Air Traffic
a proper MSTA proposal. This proposal would be based on Management Requirements and Performance Panel (ATMRPP).
commonalities in similar products developed thus far and would
also recognize current technical capabilities and limitations. The objective of these efforts is to develop a detailed MSTA
proposal, supported by ICAO and the aviation user commu-
It is envisaged that this new MSTA data product would provide nities, ready for endorsement by the next Conjoint ICAO
forecasts of weather elements critical to aviation in the wider MET/AIM Divisional Meeting/WMO CAeM Session (currently
terminal area, along with longer lead times and much finer scheduled for 2014) and reflected in ICAO Annex 3.
resolution in space (both the horizontal
and vertical domains) and time (especially
Figure 1: A prototype MSTA convection product presented in an integrated display.
in the first couple of hours of the forecast)
compared to currently available aviation
MET products. While MSTA is intended
primarily for busier airports and terminal
areas, it is also envisaged as a significant
enhancement to aviation safety in general.
The new MSTA will be produced in a
digital, gridded format, initially being
available as a web-based colour graphic
with alerting criteria. It will provide
common situational awareness for data
APAC Regional Report – 2010
sharing by different user groups in
support of CDM, and could be supple-
mented by textual descriptions as
appropriate and simplified/condensed to
facilitate uplinks to aircraft cockpits.
At this early stage in its development,
the MSTA product will focus on forecasts
The term ‘New Terminal Forecast (NTF)’ was initially used when the MSTA concept was first developed. It was subsequently renamed as Meteorological Services in the Terminal 35
Area (MSTA). This was done to avoid possible misinterpretation that the new services were intended to replace the conventional ‘Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)’.
The terminal area is the portion of the airspace within the proximity of a controlled aerodrome, within which arriving and departing aircraft are managed to provide separation,
assurance, appropriate arrival spacing, appropriate departure spacing and final approach sequencing.
UPCOMING ICAO APAC EVENTS*
Meetings Site Duration
ARAST & Flight safety TBA 21–24 February
SEA ADS-B WG/6 Singapore 24–25 February
National Inspectors Course Auckland, New Zealand 23 February – 3 March
BBACG/22 Bangkok, Thailand 7–10 March
Aviation Cargo and Mail Security Course Kunming, China 7–11 March
SOCM/2 Meeting Bangkok, Thailand 14–16 March
AAITF/6 Bangkok, Thailand 15–18 March
COSCAP MRB Seminar Bangkok, Thailand 23–25 March
OPMET/M TF/9 Bangkok, Thailand 21–23 March
FPL&AM/TF/4 & Seminar TBA 21–25 March
METWARN/I TF/1 Bangkok, Thailand 23–25 March
COSCAP MRB Seminar Bangkok, Thailand 23–25 March
Dangerous Goods Course Bangkok, Thailand 28 March – 8 April
ADS-B Seminar and ADS-B SI TF/10 TBA 25–29 April
Seamless ATM Workshop + Ad Hoc Group Tokyo, Japan 11–13 April
PBN TF Delhi, India 18–22 April
Environment Workshop Bangkok, Thailand TBA
SEACG/18 & FIT-SEA/11 Bangkok, Thailand 9–12 May
SMS Implementation Seminar Bangkok, Thailand 16–20 May
ATNICG/6 Seoul, Republic of Korea 23–27 May
AVSEC Instructors Course Hong Kong, China 24 May – 1 June
CMRI Bangkok, Thailand TBA
Aviation Cargo and Mail Security Course Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 6–10 June
11 SCM of COSCANA
Mongolia 21–23 June
ATM/AIS/SAR/SG/21 Bangkok, Thailand 27 June – 1 July
CNS/MET SG/15 Bangkok, Thailand 25–29 July
BOB/RHS/TF/6 Bangkok, Thailand TBA
RASMAG/15 Bangkok, Thailand 1–5 August
AVSEC Crisis Course Auckland, New Zealand 15–19 August
AVSEC Crisis Course Kunming, China 22–26 August
APANPIRG/22 Bangkok, Thailand 5–9 September
National Civil Aviation Security Training
Hong Kong, China 6–14 September
SEA-RR/TF/5 Bangkok, Thailand TBA
ATNICG WG/10 TBA TBA
48th DGCA Conference New Caledonia 9–14 October
Crisis Management Workshop Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 31 October – 4 November
3rd SCM of FPP TBA 7–8 December
RASMAG/16 Bangkok, Thailand TBA
* This is a partial list and many dates are subject to change. Please consult the ICAO APAC Web site for more up-to-date details on specific meetings and dates.