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					ICao
                                                                                         regIonal rePort




InternatIonal CIvIl avIatIon organIzatIon




APAC
Intensifying Asia-Pacific
Collaboration to Address
Efficiency and Safety




In this issue:
ADS-B Planning and Implementation • Bird Strike Coordination • Regional COSCAP Developments
Beijing Flight Procedure Programme • MET Advances • RASMAG—Airspace Safety Monitoring
MET/ATM Coordination • FIJI ATM Developments • CANSO Update

APAC / Regional Report
                                                    Contents
                                                    Message from the Regional Director
                                                    ICAO continues to provide important and effective assistance to all of APAC
                                                    Member States and aviation stakeholders through the various programmes
                                                    and mechanisms implemented by ICAO’s Bangkok (APAC) Office. APAC Regional
                                                    Director Mokhtar A. Awan reviews his Region’s challenges and progress . . . . . . . . . . 3

                                                    Moving Forward with APAC ADS-B Implementation
                                                    ADS-B capability features unique characteristics of scalability and adaptability
                                                    which help all States and Regions to realize this new navigation enhancement’s
APAC / REGIONAl REPORT – 2010
                                                    significant efficiency and safety gains. As Li Peng, APAC Regional Officer,
                                                    Communications Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) reports, newer and more
Editorial                                           effective multilateral solutions will need to be implemented alongside the
ICAO Coordination, Revenue                          ADS-B technological improvements in order to realize the full potential of this
and Communications Office                           exciting new development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
    Tel: +01 (514) 954-8220
    Web site: www.icao.int                          Airspace Safety Monitoring
Anthony Philbin Communications                      The APAC Regional Airspace Safety Monitoring Advisory Group (RASMAG) was
Senior Editor: Anthony Philbin                      established to facilitate the safe implementation of reduced separation minima
    Tel: +01 (514) 886-7746                         in the Asia-Pacific territories. Kyotaro Harano, ICAO APAC Regional Officer,
    E-mail: info@philbin.ca                         Air Traffic Management (ATM), reports on recent progress that has been achieved
    Web site: www.philbin.ca
                                                    in this area in light of the Region’s unique airspace challenges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Production and Design                               Flight Procedure Advances
Bang Marketing                                      The Asia-Pacific Flight Procedure Programme (APAC FPP), aims to provide the
Stéphanie Kennan                                    tools, training and assistance necessary to accelerate PBN implementation and
    Tel: +01 (514) 849-2264                         achieve the goals set-out in Assembly Resolution A36-23. As David VanNess,
    E-mail: info@bang-marketing.com                 ICAO’s FPP Manager in Beijing reports, achieving the A36-23 goals will move
    Web site: www.bang-marketing.com                aviation safety and efficiency much farther forward in the APAC Region . . . . . . . . . 16

Advertising                                         Contingency Planning for Communicable Disease Threats
FCM Communications Inc.                             N.C. Sekhar, ICAO APAC Regional Officer, AGA, provides a progress report on
Yves Allard                                         recent advances made in the APAC Region as it seeks to address concerns that
    Tel: +01 (450) 677-3535                         have arisen in recent years following the outbreaks of SARS and other communicable
    Fax: +01 (450) 677-4445                         diseases that pose a risk to international aviation and global populations. . . . . . . . 18
    E-mail: fcmcommunications@videotron.ca
                                                    CANSO’s Asia-Pacific Priorities
Submissions
                                                    Chiang Hai Eng, CANSO’s Director for Asia Pacific Affairs, reports on how, with
The Regional Report encourages submissions          its significantly increasing amounts of air traffic, there are many challenges
from interested individuals, organizations and      ahead for the APAC Region that will impact flight safety and efficiency, airspace
States wishing to share updates, perspectives       capacity as well as the environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
or analysis related to global and civil aviation.
For further information on submission deadlines     COSCAP Developments
and planned issue topics for future editions        COSCAPs are dedicated forums for cooperation in matters related to flight
of the Regional Report, please forward your         safety, providing collaborative frameworks between developed and smaller
request to anthony@philbin.ca.                      civil aviation administrations. Kim Trethaway, Flight Operations Expert for the
                                                    North Asia COSCAP in Beijing, reports on recent progress for his and two other
Published in Montreal, Canada. ISSN 0018 8778.
                                                    COSCAPs now serving the APAC Region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
The information published in the Regional Report
                                                    APAC/FAA Bird Strike Seminar
was correct at time of printing. The opinions
                                                    N.C. Sekhar reports on bird strike issues in general and previews a special
expressed are those of the authors alone and
do not necessarily reflect the opinions of ICAO
                                                    ICAO/FAA seminar in December 2010 on Wildlife Control and Management that
or its Member States. Reproduction of articles      will address the more local APAC aspects of this worldwide safety issue. . . . . . . . . 26
 in the Regional Report is encouraged. For
permission, please forward your request to          MET Developments
anthony@philbin.ca. The Regional Report must        Christopher Keohan, APAC RO Aeronautical Meteorology, reports on how recent
be credited in any reproduction.                    MET initiatives in his Region are helping to foster a more globally-harmonized
                                                    and comprehensive MET system that numerous local stakeholders have been
Printed by ICAO                                     helping to move forward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

                                                    APAC/WMO Meteorological Services in the Terminal Area (MSTA) Initiative
                                                    C.M. Shun and Sandy M.K. Song of the Hong Kong Observatory, Hong Kong,
                                                    China, report on how ICAO and the WMO are continuing to coordinate further
                                                    MSTA developments in advance of a projected 2014 endorsement for this
                                                    promising enhancement to current MET/ATM coordination capabilities . . . . . . . . . . 34
                       01/12/2010




Belgium        Mr. G. Robert           Morocco     Mr. A. Manar

Burkina Faso   Mr. M. Dieguimde        Paraguay    Mrs. A. Torres de Rodríguez
                                       Peru        Mr. C.R. Romero Díaz


Colombia       Mrs. G.R. de Higuera
Cuba           Mr. J.A. López Falcón
Denmark        Mr. K.L. Larsen         Slovenia    Mr. A. Krapez


                                       Swaziland   Mr. D. Litchfield

Guatemala      Mr. L.F. Carranza

                                                   Mr. D. Woerth




                                                         01/12/2010
REGIONAL DIRECTOR MESSAGE
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX




  Message from
  the Regional
  Director
                            Mokhtar A. Awan                     2006, with cumulative growth of approximately 46 percent.
                                                                                                                                       APAC Regional Report – 2010




                            Regional Director                   The Asia and Pacific Regions (APAC) were solid contributors to
                            ICAO APAC Regional Office           this impressive achievement and could well overtake the
                            Bangkok                             European and North American Regions to become the world’s
                                                                largest air transport market in the next decade. Freight traffic
                            Worldwide, the annual growth in     for the APAC Regions is already the second largest globally,
                            passenger and freight traffic has   with an annual growth rate of 8.6 percent during 2006—two
                            been quite impressive during the    percent above the world average.
                            10 year period from 1996 to


                                                                                                                                   3
                                  The hike in fuel prices in 2008, followed      Inspectors. A Seminar/Workshop on            technology. APANPIRG established an
                                  by the global economic downturn and            Wildlife Hazard Management is also           ADS-B Study and Implementation Task
                                  H1N1 pandemic, brought new challenges          scheduled for December of this year.         Force to facilitate State implementations
                                  for the aviation industry. Scheduled                                                        in this regard.
                                  passenger traffic declined some 3.1            Sustained increases in aircraft move-
                                  percent overall in 2009 compared to            ments have also placed considerable          APAC has additionally developed
                                  2008—the largest decline on record for         pressure on airspace management.             Communications, Navigation and
                                  the industry reflecting the one percent        The ICAO APAC office, located in             Surveillance (CNS) strategies to provide
                                  drop in the world gross domestic product       Bangkok and operated with the                guidelines to States for effective
                                  for 2009. International traffic fell by        support and cooperation of States            implementation efforts in this regard.
                                  3.9 percent, while domestic traffic fell       and international organizations, has         APAC States have been cooperating on
                                  by 1.8 percent. The double-digit               helped to improve airspace capacity          related data sharing and the updating of
                                  domestic passenger growth in the               by facilitating enhancements such            trunk circuits for applicable ground-to-
                                  emerging markets of Asia and Latin             as the implementation of Reduced             ground networks to ensure effective
                                  America, combined with the relatively          Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM)           information flows between local States
                                  strong performance of low-cost carriers        and route restructuring.                     and neighbouring Regions. In the last
                                  in North America, Europe and Asia,                                                          few years, more than twenty seminars
                                  helped curtail the decline in total traffic.   As part of its responsibilities, the ICAO    have been conducted to facilitate
                                                                                 APAC’s Air Navigation Planning and           planning and implementation of ATN,
                                  The good news today is that, with the          Implementation Regional Group                ADS-B and PBN infrastructure and
                                  improving economic situation in many           (APANPIRG) has established a Target          procedures. These initiatives and
                                  parts of the world, a moderate recovery        Level of Safety for en route airspace. The   activities demonstrate the spirit of
                                  is expected in 2010 and this momentum          increasing complexity of air navigation      cooperation and coordination between
                                  should continue for a full recovery.           procedures and requirements, coupled         APAC’s States and established a
                                                                                 with essential interaction with States,      foundation for a seamless ATM system
                                  Increased aviation activity has brought        also led APANPIRG to establish the           in the APAC Region.
                                  major challenges for States and civil          Regional Airspace Safety Monitoring
                                  aviation agencies. According to Airports       Advisory Group (RASMAG), in order to         Many improvements in the provision of
                                  Council International (ACI), the Asia          assist the safe implementation of RVSM       meteorology for international aviation in
                                  Pacific region has 96 members operating        and CNS/ATM systems and ensure               the APAC Region have also been made in
                                  475 airports in 47 countries. In 2008,         States achieve established levels of         order to enhance air transport safety and
                                  these airports handled 1.17 billion            airspace safety. APANPIRG adopted four       sustainability. Notable among these is:
                                  passengers, 29.6 million tonnes of cargo       metrics as a part of APAC Regional
                                  and 10.8 million aircraft movements.           performance monitoring. In recognizing       ■■ OPMET availability has improved by
                                  Some of these airports are amongst the         the importance of the seamless sky              25 percent with regards to reception
                                  busiest in the world and many must cope        concept, ICAO will also conduct workshops       of METAR at SADIS.
                                  with the impact of ever-increasing traffic     on future ATM system next year.              ■■ SIGMET test participants increased by

                                  in terms of airport capacity and                                                               30 percent (eight States participating
                                  infrastructure, constraints resulting from     The APAC Region recognizes the                  for the first time).
                                  the introduction of new large aircraft         importance of cooperation and coordi-        ■■ Bilateral agreement on the issuance

                                  such as the A380, and increasing safety        nation between civil and military on            of SIGMET by China, on behalf of the
                                  considerations.                                flexible use of air space. The recent           Phnom Penh FIR, has been in place
                                                                                 establishment of conditional ATS routes         for more than a year.
                                  The safety, regularity and efficiency of       in the Region demonstrates this more         ■■ Regional implementation of 30-hour

                                  aircraft operations at aerodromes being        effective civil/military coordination.          TAF for ultra-long haul flight planning
                                  of paramount importance, many APAC                                                             more than doubled to 75 percent.
                                  States have enacted basic legislation          In order to increase airspace capacity
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                  featuring aerodrome certification              and operational efficiency, APANPIRG         These accomplishments are a testimony
                                  requirements, including the implemen-          established a Performance-based              to the APAC States’ commitment to
                                  tation of Safety Management Systems            Navigation (PBN) Task Force to promote       meeting international standards in
                                  at certified airports. ICAO has conducted      the implementation of PBN technologies.      providing MET services to airlines and
                                  several Courses, Workshops and                 The APAC Regional PBN implementation         operators. As a result of the recent
                                  Seminars to enhance State training             plan has been developed and our Region       Icelandic Volcano eruption, ICAO will
                                  activities in this area, the most recent       is taking a lead role in the implemen-       monitor the results of the International
                                  being a course for Aerodrome                   tation of new ADS-B surveillance             Volcanic Ash Task Force (IVATF) in


                              4
developing a framework for contingency plans for weather            ICAO continues to provide important and effective assistance
phenomenon that include volcanic ash, tropical cyclones,            to all of APAC Member States and aviation stakeholders,
Tsunami and radioactive clouds.                                     through the various programmes and mechanisms
                                                                    implemented by ICAO’s Bangkok (APAC) Office. The APAC
In the coming years, ICAO’s main challenge will be to               Office, as part of its technical cooperation activities, presently
manage the ever-expanding aviation activity while maintaining       operates seven regional/Sub-Regional Programmes to
the safety, security, sustainability and efficiency of civil        maintain and continuously address ICAO’s Strategic
aviation. ICAO’s strategy for improving safety is detailed in the   Objectives—Three Cooperative Development of Operational
Global Aviation Safety Plan (GASP). An important element of         Safety and Continuing Airworthiness Programmes (COSCAPs)
this plan is that it complements the Global Aviation Safety         in North Asia, South Asia and South-East Asia, Cooperative
Roadmap developed by the Industry Safety Strategy Group and         Aviation Security Programme (CASP-AP), the Cooperative
is firmly founded on the principle of partnership. In May 2009,     Arrangement for the Prevention of Spread of Communicable
the ICAO Council approved the establishment of Regional             disease through Air travel (CAPSCA) to ensure the continuity of
Aviation Safety Groups (RASGs) with the aim of supporting           aviation operations during pandemic, Cooperative Agreement
more Regional performance frameworks for the management             for Enhancement of Meteorological Services for Aviation in the
of safety. The establishment of RASGs will create both the          South Pacific (CAEMSA-SP) and the ICAO Regional Flight
awareness of Regional safety issues and a mechanism for             Procedure Programme (FPP). Many of these programmes are
addressing them. ICAO also provides several levels of safety        discussed in the following pages.
management training to assist States in developing their own
safety programs.                                                    I wish every reader an educational and enjoyable tour of these
                                                                    achievements as you read through our special Report.
Another challenge the aviation industry is facing is the
significant shortage of qualified aviation personnel. In the
long term, this situation can only be addressed if regulatory
authorities and industry cooperate and develop plans to
effectively manage this important human resource issue.             Mokhtar A. Awan
                                  ADS-B UPDATE


                                  Realizing ADS-B Implementation and Data
                                  Sharing Objectives through Improved APAC
                                  Cooperation and Coordination
                                  ADS-B implementation has been identified as a key enabler in achieving ICAO’s Global ATM
                                  safety and efficiency objectives. As an emerging technology, ADS-B has demonstrated
                                  unparalleled characteristics compared with existing surveillance systems, but its true
                                  potential in the APAC Region is still dependent on improved coordination and cooperation
                                  being realized between ADS-B adopter States.
                                  li Peng, ICAO APAC Regional Officer, CNS, outlines the benefits and challenges of this emerging
                                  ATM technology and provides an outline of related implementation studies carried out by
                                  ICAO’s ADS-B Study and Implementation Task Force and the South East Asia ADS-B
                                  Implementation Working Group.
                                                            Li Peng, a telecommunications           and technologies to enhance airspace capacity. Multi-parallel
                                                            engineer, joined the ICAO APAC Office   runway operations have also been introduced to compliment
                                                            as Regional Officer, Communications     the newer mega-airports which have recently become or will
                                                            Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) in    shortly be operational.
                                                            December 1997. Prior to joining ICAO,
                                                            he was working with the Air Traffic     An essential component of all these enhancements is the
                                                            Management Bureau (ATMB) of CAAC        introduction of ADS-B ground surveillance.
                                                            as Executive Director and General
                                                            Manager of Civil Aviation Telecom­      The Eleventh ICAO Air Navigation Planning Conference
                                                            munication Corp. He has been the        (AN Conf/11) adopted a global Air Traffic Management (ATM)
                                                            secretary of the APANPIRG ADS­B         operational concept and recognized ADS-B as a foundational
                                  Study and Implementation Task Force and has also provided         technology that would help provide substantial safety and
                                  Secretariat support to the South East Asia ADS­B Working Group.   capacity benefits. AN Conf/11 also supported the near-term
                                                                                                    and cost-effective implemen-tation of this technology
                                  Since the beginning of the 21st century, the air transport        wherever possible.
                                  industry has continued to develop rapidly despite natural
                                  disasters, the spread of communicable disease, economic           The ADS-B concept has the characteristics of scalability and
                                  downturns and soaring fuel prices. The growth of air              adaptability, according to the specific needs and operational
                                  transport traffic in the APAC Region specifically has risen       environment of each State and Region. ADS-B also enables
                                  steadily over the past decade to become the world’s largest       the exchange of information related to navigation, surveillance
                                  domestic passenger market.                                        and other operational characteristics in an integrated manner.

                                  As a result of this growth, the aviation sector is now facing     ADS-B applications will have a direct effect upon aerodrome
                                  airspace, airport and spectrum congestion and current air         operations, traffic synchronization, airspace user operations,
                                  navigation facilities and services must be modernized in          and conflict management. These benefits will then influence
                                  order to meet these challenges. The major objective for APAC      the nature of airspace organization and management,
                                  States and Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs) is to         demand and capacity balancing, and ATM service delivery
                                  enhance the existing ATM system capacity and operational          management. ADS-B is a key component and enabler of next
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                  efficiency while ensuring that these move forward hand-in-        generation ATM systems which will evolve Air Traffic Control
                                  hand with commensurate safety improvements.                       (ATC) from current radar-based systems to more cost-
                                                                                                    effective and satellite-derived aircraft locator technologies.
                                  To cope with the challenges involved, joint efforts have been
                                  made by regulators, ANSPs and airspace users in the Region,       APAC ADS-B Implementation Activities
                                  including the introduction of Reduced Vertical Separation
                                  Minima (RVSM), Reduced Horizontal Separation Minima               In late 2002, APANPIRG established an ADS-B Study and
                                  (RHSM) and Performance-based Navigation (PBN) procedures          Implementation Task Force (ADS-B SITF) to promote ADS-B


                              6
surveillance services in the APAC              communication capabilities in areas         system capabilities in the States. It was
Region. The many achievements of the           crossing FIR boundaries.                    envisaged that an ADS-B mandate for
Task Force included the selection of a                                                     some flight levels could come into effect
harmonized datalink for use by trans-         ADS-B is an alternate surveillance           in 2014.
portation aircraft (i.e. 1090-ES), the        solution in areas where radar installa-
development of an ADS-B Implemen-             tions are impractical. The surveillance      States in the sub-Region have been
tation Guidance Document (AIGD),              data derived from ADS-B air-ground           working together to develop sample
guidelines for the development                surveillance systems is much more            agreements and technical templates
of an ADS-B Implementation Plan, a            accurate than those from radar, in           covering ADS-B data sharing and the
Regional surveillance strategy, Regional      particular at the periphery of the           sharing of VHF communication capabi-
ADS-B equipage requirements for the           coverage areas. In addition, the sharing     lities. The sample technical memoran-
period 2010-2020, a template for              of ADS-B-derived surveillance data can       dum for surveillance capability and data
promulgation of ADS-B Avionics Equipage       easily be achieved. This is especially the   sharing developed by the Working Group
requirements, and guidelines for              case in boundary areas between the           was adopted by APANPIRG. Parameters
airworthiness and operational approval.       neighboring ACCs of States. It will also     and conditions, including the installation
                                              be practical to share the associated air/    of filters at either side of the ATM
States implementing ADS-B are required        ground communication capabilities from       systems were also discussed.
to publish their equipage mandates as         remote VHF stations that are co-located
soon as possible, with a target publication   with ADS-B ground stations.                  The Fifth Working Group meeting held in
date of no later than 2010 and an effective                                                January 2010 developed a draft road-
date for ADS-B equipage mandates              South East Asia ADS-B Working Group          map for implementation of ADS-B in the
after mid-2012. The EUROCONTROL                                                            South China Sea area. The project
ASTERIX21 Version 0.23 format for             The South East Asia ADS-B working            involves ADS-B data and VHF communi-
ground/ground data transition was also        group (SEA ADS-B WG) was established         cations sharing among the ANSPs of
identified for use in the APAC Region.        in 2007. It is working on the cooperative    Indonesia, Singapore and Viet Nam.
                                              implementation plan supporting ADS-B         Participating States have been urged to
Implementation issues concerning              as a surveillance tool in the South China    expedite approval of the project. The
ADS-B have been addressed and studied         Sea sub-Region. ATS routes L642 and          surveillance data derived from four
by the ADS- B SITF. A series of ADS-B         M771 would be the first two routes to        stations considered for sharing (Natuna,
Seminars and/or Workshops were held           be served by shared ADS-B ground             Matak, Singapore and Con Son) are
throughout the Region (Australia,             stations in order to enhance the             shown in Figure 1 (below).
Thailand, Singapore, Fiji, India, Republic    surveillance capability in those area
of Korea, China, Viet Nam and Indonesia)      not currently covered by radar. The          In addition, Australia and Indonesia are
to assist States in understanding the         associated operational trial is expected     now working on a proposal for an ADS-B
technology and its many benefits.             to be conducted by the end of 2010,          data sharing project to improve safety
                                              depending on new ATC automation              and efficiency at the FIR boundaries
APAC ADS-B Applications

                                                              Figure 1: ADS-B Ground Stations now under Consideration
In an effort to provide the operational
                                                                    for Sharing in the South East Asia Sub-Region
improvements expected from the ADS-B
roll-out, a number of applications have
been identified and in some cases these
improvements are already being
implemented. The main ground-based
surveillance applications in the short-
and medium-term, as identified by the
ADS-B SITF, are as follows:
                                                                                                                                            APAC Regional Report – 2010




■■ ADS-B-NRA enhanced ATS providing
   radar-like separation services in
   non-radar areas.
■■ ADS-B-APT improved airport surface

   surveillance.
■■ ADS-B-DAT sharing to enhance the

   surveillance and air/ground


                                                                                                                                        7
                                  between Brisbane and Ujung Pandang.         CANSO/IATA ADS-B Cost-Benefit Study               surveillance is implemented. Early
                                  During Phase 1A of the project, Australia                                                     implementations of ADS-B are expected
                                  will provide ADS-B data from the Gove       The cost-benefit study conducted by               to use GNSS for position determination.
                                  and Thursday Island ground stations         CANSO and IATA for the initial phase of           ANS Providers may elect to use a GNSS
                                  and Indonesia will provide surveillance     ADS-B implementation over the South               integrity prediction service to assist in
                                  data form Merauke and Saumlaki.             China Sea area indicates a strong                 determining the availability of useable
                                  The objective of the projects was to        business case for the project and                 ADS-B data. This service would enable
                                  share ADS-B data to provide situational     identifies annual economic saving of over         the users to take necessary action when
                                  awareness and support improved              $4 million. It would also provide for             the ADS-B positional data may be
                                  aviation safety. The Phase I project        environmental savings of about 10 million         inadequate to support the application
                                  parameters approved by both sides           pounds of CO2 emissions arising from              of ADS-B separation for the area.
                                  will support the existing procedures and    reductions in airborne and ground delays.
                                  separation standards. The expected                                                            Multilateration Trials
                                  outcome of the project is as follows:       Partial Equipage and Regulatory Issues
                                                                                                                                Several States and administrations have
                                  ■■ Reduced coordination incidents at        Although more than 70 percent of                  conducted ADS-B multilateration trials
                                     the FIR boundary.                        aircraft are equipped to fly in an ADS-B          and/or evaluation programmes, including
                                  ■■ Earlier detection of ATC and pilot       airspace, it is unlikely that all aircraft will   the Wide Area Multilateration Project.
                                     errors (coordination errors, incorrect   have homogeneous avionics. This                   Multilateration is a technology that can
                                     fight levels, etc.).                     situation will persist during the coming          supplement SSR and ADS-B with
                                  ■■ Technical and operational analysis       transition period. Ground systems will            multiple ground stations employing
                                     of data in preparation for future        therefore have to be capable of coping            triangulation to work out the position
                                     applications of radar-like separation    with a heterogeneous set of aircraft              of an aircraft. The signal used is the
                                     services.                                capabilities, local system sophistication,        1 090 MHz ATC transponder signal
                                  ■■ Increased support and confidence         etc., while still providing the required          (Mode S squitter, ADS-B transmission
                                     in data sharing to allow for the         quality of service.                               or mode A/C reply).
                                     introduction of radar-like separation
                                     at FIR boundaries in a future phase.     In some airspace, priority may be given           Multilateration can provide surveillance
                                                                              to more suitably-equipped aircraft. This          for aircraft not equipped with ADS-B
                                  Both sides will employ data filters.        will provide economic benefits to those           and, in the short-term (prior to imple-
                                  The ADS-B filter installed at Makassar      aircraft that have been certified, which          mentation of ADS-B), multilateration
                                  ATS Centre has been tested and              would in turn encourage airlines to               would serve as an alternative to radar.
                                  successfully integrated with local and      modernize their fleets more quickly in            Regional surveillance strategies
                                  foreign systems, sharing ADS-B data via     order to reap the benefits afforded by            encourage States to make use of
                                  MATSC ATC. The project is expected to       ADS-B. There are common regulatory                multilateration for surface, terminal
                                  be in full operation by 2011. The next      issues, such as flight standards and              and area surveillance, where appro-
                                  phase of the project would progress to      certification, and each State will have to        priate, as an alternative or supplement
                                  full radar-like separation when both        resolve these issues to ensure Regional/          to other surveillance systems.
                                  parties have suitable ATC infrastructure    global harmonization.
                                  in place. The following chart shows the                                                       Conclusion
                                  sharing stations in Phase 1A—i.e.           In accordance with a conclusion formu-
                                  Australia providing data from Gove and      lated by the APANPIRG/20 meeting, ICAO            ADS-B has well-demonstrated its
                                  Thursday Island Ground stations, while      APAC organized a Workshop in August               capabilities and unparalleled charac-
                                  Indonesia provides data from Merauke        2010 to deliberate these issues in order          teristics compared with existing
                                  and Saumlaki.                               to achieve common understanding on                surveillance technologies. Implemen-
                                                                              ADS-B OUT-fitment requirements for                tation of ADS-B data-sharing between
                                  These projects are all excellent exam-      international aircraft fitment, Regional          States to enhance flight safety is
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                  ples of Regional collaboration in the       operational requirements and compliance           encouraging but will require Regional
                                  deployment and use of this promising        timings for ADS-B OUT service.                    collaboration and further cooperation
                                  new technology. Users of ADS-B services                                                       and coordination between stakeholders.
                                  will need to fully understand the limita-   GNSS Integrity Prediction Service
                                  tions involved. Back-up procedures still                                                      The role of ADS-B in achieving ICAO’s
                                  need to be developed for flight crews       Implementation of a suitable GNSS                 envisioned Global ATM System should
                                  and controllers.                            integrity prediction service should be            not be under estimated.
                                                                              considered wherever ADS-B air-ground


                              8
                                   RASMAG UPDATE




                                     APAC
                                     Airspace
                                     Safety
                                     Monitoring
                                     The Asia/Pacific (APAC) Regional Airspace
                                     Safety Monitoring Advisory Group
                                     (RASMAG) was established by the Asia/
                                     Pacific Air Navigation Planning and
                                                                                               As sub-Regional implementations of Reduced Vertical
                                     Implementation Regional Group (APANPIRG)                  Separation Minima (RVSM) and reduced horizontal separation
                                     to facilitate the safe implementation of                  minima (e.g. RNP 10 and RNP 4) was proceeding throughout
                                     reduced separation minima. It also works                  the APAC Region, the increasing complexity of the associated
                                     to assist APAC States as they harmonize                   requirements and the necessary State interactions led the
                                     national/Regional airspace levels with                    14th Meeting of the Asia/Pacific (APAC) Regional Airspace
                                     established international norms.                          Safety Monitoring Advisory Group (APANPIRG/14, August
                                                                                               2003) to establish the APAC Regional Airspace Safety
                                                                                               Monitoring Advisory Group (RASMAG).
                                     As Kyotaro Harano, ICAO APAC Regional
                                     Officer, Air Traffic Management (ATM)                     RASMAG has thus been providing its highly technical over-
                                     reports, the APAC RASMAG continues to                     sight services for the Region under the professional guidance
                                     provide critical assistance to Regional                   of its Chairman, Robert Butcher of from Airservices Australia,
                                     stakeholders and States as they seek to                   for several years now.

                                     update their airspace monitoring                          APAC Regional Impact Statement
                                     capabilities on the basis on the most
                                     advanced systems and capabilities                         One of the challenges set out before RASMAG during its
                                     available. These advances promise to                      fifth year of operations (2008) was the preparation of an
                                     bring significant improvements to APAC                    Asia/Pacific RVSM Regional impact statement. The purpose
                                     aviation safety and efficiency metrics.                   of the statement was to summarize the estimated
                                                                                               consequences stemming from the planned 2010 adoption
                                                                                               of ICAO’s global provisions for the long-term monitoring of
                                                      Kyotaro Harano joined the ICAO           the height-keeping performance for the individual airframes
                                                      APAC Regional Office in 2004             involved in RVSM operations.
                                                      as Regional Officer, Air Traffic
                                                      Management (ATM). He was                 RASMAG completed the Asia/Pacific Regional Impact State­
                                                      additionally part the ATM Section        ment RVSM Global Long Term Height Monitoring Requirements,
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                                      at ICAO Headquarters from 1996           and the document was subsequently reviewed by APANPIRG/20
                                                      to 1998. Prior to his years with         (September 2009, Bangkok). APANPIRG/20 tasked
                                                      ICAO, Harano spent 20 years with         RASMAG to conduct further investigations and provide
                                                      Japan’s Civil Aviation Bureau,           suitable recommendations regarding the types and
                                                      initially as an air traffic controller   appropriate locations for monitoring systems which could
                                                      at Nagoya Airport, Tokyo (Haneda)        effectively monitor APAC’s aircraft fleets. It also instructed
                                                      International Airport and the Naha       RASMAG to seek solutions which would be effective while
                                                      Area Control Centre.                     incurring minimal infrastructure investment.


                              10
RASMAG considered several options in         In assessing the types of height                 Reports from APAC RMAs and EMAs
responding to the APANPIRG task. GPS         monitoring infrastructure required,
Monitoring Units (GMUs) were assessed        RASMAG agreed with the following:                APANPIRG has established a Target Level
with respect to their ability to be          ■■ For the Japanese FIRs, HMU(s) would           of Safety (TLS) for en route airspace in
deployed around the Region with relative        need to be able to capture the                the APAC Region of 5 x 10 -9 fatal
flexibility; however they were not deemed       domestic fleet plus those aircraft            accidents per flight hour. The most
to be adequately efficient in terms of          operating across the North Pacific or         visible specialist assessment bodies
time and cost. Existing ground-based            between Japan and Southeast Asia.             assisting with this objective are Regional
Height Monitoring Units (HMU) were also      ■■ For the Chinese FIRs, several HMUs            Monitoring Agencies (RMAs). RMAs are
looked at. These require fixed sites            would be needed to accommodate                specifically established to undertake the
which often require very careful planning       the large domestic fleet that operates        ongoing monitoring of RVSM operations
and deployment lead times. ADS-B                within those FIRs only, as well as addi -     in order to meet the relevant ICAO
systems were also highlighted for their         tional international flights. Additionally,   Annex 11 Standard (Paragraph 3.3.5.1,
relative cost-effectiveness; however            monitoring capability would be                which requires such monitoring be
these too would require location planning       available through Enhanced GMU                conducted on a regional basis).
such that they would be effectively             (EGMU) in cooperation with China’s
aligned with major traffic flows.               Regional Monitoring Agency (RMA).             For Asia/Pacific Region, RMA services
                                             ■■ For Southeast Asia, given the infra -         are currently provided by:
While these assessments were ongoing,           structure proposals covering adjacent         ■■ The Australian Airspace Monitoring

plans for the use of ADS-B as a height          FIRs, fleet monitoring could be                  Agency (AAMA), operated by
monitoring system were already well             accommodated via available EGMUs.                Airservices Australia.
advanced in Australia—primarily due to       ■■ For India/Pakistan, the type and              ■■ China RMA, operated by the Air Traffic

the positive results from joint research        location of a HMU suitable for the               Management Bureau (ATMB) of the
activities being conducted between              relatively large domestic fleets                 Civil Aviation Administration of China
Australia the United States. ADS-B was          involved would be determined                     (CAAC).
able to provide Australian airspace             following a more in-depth analysis by         ■■ JCAB RMA, operated by the Japan

managers with their most cost-effective         both States in coordination with the             Civil Aviation Bureau (JCAB).
monitoring option given the extensive           Monitoring Agency for the Asia Region         ■■ The Monitoring Agency for the Asia

network already in place and the large          (MAAR, Thailand). In the short-term,             Region (MAAR), operated by Aeronau-
number of ADS-B equipped aircraft               monitoring could be effectively                  tical Radio of Thailand (AEROTHAI).
operating in the Australian Flight              provided using existing EGMUs.                ■■ The Pacific Approvals Registry and

Information Regions (FIRs).                  ■■ For the Australian area including                Monitoring Organization (PARMO),
                                                Indonesia, New Zealand and Papua                 operated by the United States Federal
For other areas within the APAC Region,         New Guinea, the widespread                       Aviation Administration (FAA).
however, while some ADS-B systems are           Australian and Indonesian ADS-B
being planned, pressing deadlines and           network, in addition to the proposed          A typical summary of the safety
the lack of a mature mandate for ADS-B          ADS-B mandate for Australian                  monitoring results for airspace safety
equipage in some States has meant that          airspace effective 2013, would                oversight in terms of the technical
other monitoring systems will likely be         provide significant monitoring                aspects and risk assessments
implemented instead in the short-term.          capability without the need for other         surrounding RVSM implementation
                                                ground-based systems. Additionally,           is provided in Table 1, below.
long-Term Height Monitoring Infrastructure      EGMUs will cover any aircraft/fleets
                                                not requiring ADS-B equipage or that          In addition, Figure 1 (following page, top)
RASMAG has also focused on options              would not be operating within the             presents an example of the trends
that would be provided to APANPIRG/21           Australian or the Indonesian FIRs.            related to collision risk estimates for
(September 2010) regarding suitable
Height Monitoring Units (HMUs) for the       Table 1: Summary of Safety Monitoring Results for the Western Pacific/
                                                                                                                                                    APAC Regional Report – 2010




Region. The analysis of traffic flows was    South China Sea RVSM Airspace
conducted in light of the fact that APAC’s    Western Pacific/South China Sea RVSM Airspace – estimated annual flying hours = 917 128 hours
Regional fleet does not have access to        (note: estimated hours based on December 2008 traffic sample data)
the ground-based height monitoring            Source of Risk             Risk Estimation              TLS                   Remarks
facilities in Europe and North America.       Technical Risk               0.77 x 10-9             2.5 x 10-9        Satisfies Technical TLS
The high-level analysis therefore focused
                                              Operational Risk             2.98 x 10-9                 –                       –
itself on systems that would suitably
                                              Total Risk                   3.75 x 10-9             5.0 x 10-9         Satisfies Overall TlS
accommodate these various factors.


                                                                                                                                               11
                                                                                                                                                                            aircraft using their RVSM airspace.
                                        Figure 1: Trends of Risk Estimates for RVSM Implementation in WPAC/SCS Airspace                                                     The monthly check carried out by
                                                                                                                                                                            Australia, in January 2009, while
                                     6.0E-09
                                                                                                                                                           TLS for Total    identifying a number of ‘rogue’ aircraft,
                                     5.0E-09                                                                                                               Risk             revealed a number of issues related to
                                     4.0E-09                                                                                                               Total Risk       the approvals database held by the
                                                                                                                                                                            State authority. This was due in part to
                                     3.0E-09
                                                                                                                                                           TLS for          delays in having that database updated
                                     2.0E-09                                                                                                               Technical Risk   following the issuing of approvals to
                                     1.0E-09                                                                                                                                operators. Pro-active discussions
                                                                                                                                                           Technical Risk
                                                                                                                                                                            between the AAMA and the State
                                    0.0E+00
                                                                                                                                                                            authority led to these database issues
                                               Oct-08

                                                        Nov-08

                                                                 Dec-08

                                                                          Jan-09

                                                                                   Feb-09

                                                                                            Mar-09

                                                                                                     Apr-09

                                                                                                              May-09

                                                                                                                       Jun-09

                                                                                                                                Jul-09

                                                                                                                                         Aug-09

                                                                                                                                                  Sep-09
                                                                                                                                                                            being effectively resolved, as evidenced
                                                                                                                                                                            in the significant reduction in the
                                                                                                                                                                            number of rogue aircraft identified in
                                   each month, based on the cumulative                                           number of LHD occurrences to RASMAG,                       subsequent months.
                                   large height deviation (LHD) reports                                          based on the record of LHD events
                                   covering a 12 months period.                                                  caused by ATC unit-to-unit coordination                    Unified Approvals Database
                                                                                                                 errors which occurred between aircraft
                                   In the APAC Region, both the technical                                        crossing their FIR boundary.                               In regard to the occurrences of non-
                                   and the total collision risk estimates                                                                                                   approved aircraft identifying themselves
                                   reported to RASMAG satisfied the                                              As expected, the introduction of AIDC                      as RVSM-approved on flight plans, some
                                   agreed TLS value of no more than                                              allowed for a significant reduction of the                 air navigation service providers (ANSPs)
                                   2.5 x 10 -9 and 5.0 x 10 -9 fatal accidents                                   number of LHD occurrences. RASMAG                          expressed a need for rapid access to
                                   per flight hour, except for one FIR.                                          and the RMAs will continue to undertake                    approvals databases to ascertain the
                                                                                                                 this analysis given that more APAC AIDC                    approval status of specific aircraft. This
                                   With respect to safety monitoring of                                          systems are expected to become                             will not involve automatic checking of
                                   horizontal airspace, the South East Asia                                      operational in the near future.                            the approvals status of every aircraft,
                                   Safety Monitoring Agency (SEASMA) is                                                                                                     but it would allow ANSPs to request a
                                   the En route Monitoring Agency (EMA)                                          RVSM Non-Approved Operators                                check and receive a response within a
                                   covering operations on the six major ATS                                      Using RVSM Airspace                                        few minutes when a specific aircraft’s
                                   routes in South China Sea airspace. It                                                                                                   approval status was in question.
                                   determines compliance with APAC safety                                        Another concern being assessed by                          Combined approvals databases would
                                   goals for the established lateral and                                         RASMAG relates to RVSM operations by                       make such a process, if agreed to,
                                   longitudinal separation standards.                                            non-approved aircraft. APANPIRG                            simpler to establish and operate.
                                   The estimates relating to both lateral                                        previously expressed serious concerns
                                   and longitudinal risk showed compliance                                       regarding flights that were apparently                     Where a single organization provides
                                   with the respective TLS value during all                                      using RVSM airspace when they did not                      both RMA functions for RVSM operations
                                   months of the monitoring period.                                              actually have State approval(s) to do so.                  and EMA functions for the reduced
                                                                                                                 In agreeing that the issue ultimately                      horizontal separation component, it
                                   AIDC Implications for large Height                                            required regulatory intervention,                          may be feasible to combine the RVSM,
                                   Deviation (lHD) Occurrences                                                   APANPIRG requested RASMAG to                               PBN and data link approvals databases.
                                                                                                                 continue its investigations in this regard.                This will make a single record for
                                   The introduction of AIDC messaging                                                                                                       each aircraft possible and avoid the
                                   capability between Area Control Centres                                       In practice, some operators are simply                     duplication of the nine or more fields
                                   (ACCs), enables automated system                                              and customarily filing a flight plan                       of common data for aircraft that can
                                   messaging which eliminates human-to-                                          indicating that RVSM has been                              currently arise, such as aircraft type,
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                   human coordination exchange errors.                                           approved. They utilize RVSM airspace                       operator and the State of Registry. A
                                                                                                                 despite the fact that the operator is                      combined RVSM, PBN and data link
                                   AIDC has now been successfully                                                flying a non RVSM-approved aircraft. To                    approvals database will allow States
                                   implemented between several APAC                                              assist in resolving these types of issues,                 to provide approvals data to a single
                                   countries. Japan and its neighbouring                                         as well as to provide better oversight for                 monitoring agency, the data being
                                   States have made use of AIDC                                                  controllers, RMAs (e.g. China RMA) are                     subsequently distributed to other
                                   capabilities since 2009. It reported its                                      putting plans into action to establish a                   agencies through the monitoring
                                   findings on the resultant effect on the                                       system which will identify non-approved                    agencies’ data exchange mechanism.


                              12
                                   ADVERTISEMENT




                                     Fiji Civil Aviation Systems:
                                     A Model for Small and Developing Economies

                                    F
                                           iji is part of the South Pacific group of islands and is    Civil Aviation Institutional Reform
                                           separated from the rest of the world by vast oceanic
                                           distances. It is approximately 1,770 kilometres north       The Fijian Government’s Civil Aviation Institutional Reform
                                     of New Zealand and a four hour flight from Sydney. In-spite       programme was concluded on 31 May 2010. Under these
                                     of this isolation, Fiji continues to safely manage one of the     reforms, the Civil Aviation Authority of the Fiji Islands (CAAFI)
                                     largest oceanic Flight Information Regions (FIRs), covering       became an autonomous authority, responsible for all aviation
                                     6.5 million square kilometres of airspace.                        safety and security oversight.

                                     Fiji hosts a major mainstay of the aeronautical information       The Fijian government, in response to the recommendations
                                     network in the Asia-Pacific (APAC) Region, and is                 of the ICAO USOAP mandatory audit in 2001, the follow up
                                     currently upgrading its CNS/ATM aeronautical                      audit in 2003, and the USOAP Comprehensive Systems
                                     telecommunication network (ATN) infrastructure and                Audit in 2006, approved an independent and sustainable
                                     automated message handling system (AMHS). This will               source of funding for CAAFI. This arrangement demonstrates
                                     be accomplished through the implementation of the                 the State’s commitment to CAAFI as the Authority seeks to
                                     best technological solutions available.                           realize its Vision to be a model regulator and it’s Mission to
                                                                                                       carry out effective safety and security oversight in Fiji and
                                     Fiji has reformed its civil aviation institutions on the basis    the Region. The achievement of these goals fulfills or
                                     of ICAO’s prescribed model of separation for State and civil      surpasses its international obligations under the Chicago
                                     aviation institutions. Fiji’s Civil Aviation Reform objectives    convention. CAAFI has also obtained ISO 9001/2008
                                     are targeted to achieve more effective safety and security        certification to improve its internal processes in support
                                     oversight of its key civil aviation systems. This fulfills or     of its primary objectives.
                                     surpasses its international obligations with respect to an
                                     effective regulatory framework supporting more efficient air      As part of this programme Airports Fiji Limited (AFL)
                                     navigation service delivery to better meet the needs of           became a fully owned Government Commercial Company in
                                     pertinent air transport operators and other stakeholders.         1999 responsible for providing air navigation services and
                                                                                                       managing the Nadi FIR oceanic airspace under contract with
                                     Tourism is one of Fiji’s key industries and air transport is      ICAO. AFL owns two international airports and manages 13
                                     essential to this sector’s ongoing success and profitability.     other domestic airports on behalf of government. The State,
                                     Fiji’s national airline, Air Pacific, operates a fleet of three   through the Ministry responsible for Civil Aviation, retains the
                                     Boeing B737NGs, one B767 and two B747-400s. The                   responsibility for economic regulation and aircraft accident
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                     Air Pacific network extends to Los Angeles, Hong Kong,            investigation. Meteorological requirements are provided by
                                     several destinations in Australia and New Zealand, and            Fiji Meteorological Services, which is a separate entity under
                                     others in the South Pacific region. Air Pacific’s subsidiary,     the Ministry responsible for Land and Sea Transport.
                                     Pacific Sun, services the domestic and South Pacific
                                     region with two ATR-42 aircraft. Domestic air transport is        Search and Rescue (SAR) activities are undertaken by
                                     also supported by other local carriers, with some                 Airports Fiji Limited, with the Fiji Navy being responsible for
                                     40 operational aircraft out of 64 currently active on the         overall coordination of SAR operations within Fiji’s maritime
                                     Fiji civil aircraft register.                                     boundaries and within State territories comprising the broader


                              14
 ADVERTISEMENT

FIR boundaries. Land-based SAR operations are coordinated            Upgrade and Modernization of CNS/ATM
between the AFL, CAAFI and the Fijian Police Force.                  Equipment and Infrastructure

Safety Management Program                                            In July 2010, Fiji’s Air Navigation Service Provider, Airports
                                                                     Fiji Limited (AFL), commissioned one of the more advanced,
Fiji has been progressively implementing an effective Safety         highly configurable Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems in
Management System (SMS) across its Civil Aviation industry           the world—the Aurora system. This technology is already
since 2007. The System employs ICAO’s four-phased                    being employed in adjacent FIRs by the US Federal Aviation
approach. Fiji’s international and national airline, Air Pacific,    Administration and Airways New Zealand, and will provide
has fully implemented the associated SMS requirements.               AFL with equivalent oceanic ATM capabilities.
Fiji has also begun development on its State Safety
Programme (SSP) and expects to fully implement this                  Fiji also has plans to integrate its Aurora ATM automation
framework in the near future to supplement the Operators/            with a fully comprehensive, operational ADS-B solution that
Service Providers’ SMS. Fiji is presently coordinating in-country    will enable AFL to move from procedural to radar-like
SSP training with ICAO for delivery in September 2010. To            separation standards within its domestic airspace with no
support this work, the ICAO Integrated Safety Management             reliance on radar.
Section facilitated and successfully conducted an in-country
SSP Implementation training in Fiji in September 2010.               According to ATC Global Insight Newsletter 59: “Fiji has
                                                                     completed the cut-over of the new AMHS/ATN and AIS system
National Performance Objectives for ANS                              delivered by Comsoft. The system includes Comsoft’s
                                                                     CADAS AIS system to manage NOTAM- and OPMET-related
Regional performance objectives presently include                    information. Fiji connects the ICAO Regions of Northern
improvements to air navigation systems that are required to          America and Asia-Pacific and is one of the five designated
evolve Fijian Air Traffic Management (ATM) in support of             Asia/Pacific Regional OPMET data banks responsible for the
ICAO’s Global Performance Objectives. These objectives are           management of OPMET bulletins. Fiji is still connected to its
in keeping with operating environments and priorities specific       communication partners via AFTN, but is ready to establish
to Fiji’s Regional responsibilities.                                 operational AMHS connections to Australia and the United
                                                                     States. Fiji AIS is also prepared for an upgrade to a fully
Fiji has adopted the recommended APAC Regional                       integrated AIM solution on the basis of the emerging AIXM
Performance Objectives as the basis for its own National             5.1 standard. AIXM 5.1 combines static and dynamic AIS
Performance Objectives. This will enable the State to achieve        data and is needed to support future Digital NOTAMs”.
an interoperable global air navigation system for all users
during all phases of flight, one that meets agreed levels of         Aviation Security
safety, provides for optimum economic development, is
environmentally sustainable and meets national all pertinent         Aviation Security is the responsibility of the State, and the
international and national security requirements.                    Civil Aviation Authority of the Fiji Islands was designated by
                                                                     its government as the appropriate authority responsible for
Air Navigation Regulation and Harmonization                          the oversight of the State’s civil aviation security systems.
                                                                     The security requirements are published in the National
Fiji has updated its legislation to incorporate recent ICAO          Civil Aviation Security Programme, the National Civil Aviation
Guidance as highlighted in the 2006 USOAP audits. One                Quality Control Programme, and the National Civil Aviation
prominent change is the promulgation of the new Civil Aviation       Security Training Programme. All of these programmes are
Occurrence Reporting and Investigation Regulations to incor-         supported by the Civil Aviation Security Act and Regulations.
porate the requirements of Annex 13. In particular this includes
provisions for transparency and the sharing of safety information,   Fiji has additionally implemented security requirements for
as well as the protection of same from inappropriate use.            operators, ground handlers, catering service providers,
                                                                     cargo operators, regulated agents and access control. The
                                                                                                                                           APAC Regional Report – 2010




The Fijian Government has also endorsed the harmonizing of           Fiji Civil Aviation Security System was audited under the ICAO
its Air Navigation Regulations with globally acceptable norms,       USAP in 2007 and a follow-up audit was conducted in 2009.
employing the NZ CAA Rules as the basis for this evolution.
This is in-line with the recommendations of the ICAO TCB             Fiji has now implemented 93% of all the USAP recommen-
CAAFI Review Report and ICAO Resolution A29-3. An Integral           dations. Facilitation remains the responsibility of its
part of Fiji’s legislation development is the formulation of a       government and both security and facilitation issues are
new consultation mechanism which includes stakeholders in            managed under the National Civil Aviation Security and
the process.                                                         Facilitation Committees.


                                                                                                                                      15
                                    APAC PBN DEVELOPMENT


                                   The Asia-Pacific Flight Procedure Programme
                                   The Asia-Pacific Flight Procedure Programme (APAC FPP), which became operational in
                                   March of 2010, is the first of a new breed of ICAO Technical Co-operation programmes.
                                   Conceived and developed by ICAO in response to the critical needs identified in the Region
                                   by the ICAO Asia-Pacific Air Navigation Planning and Implementation Regional Group
                                   (APANPIRG) Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) Task Force, the APAC FPP aims to provide
                                   the tools, training and assistance necessary to accelerate PBN implementation and achieve
                                   the goals set-out in Assembly Resolution A36-23.
                                   As David VanNess, ICAO’s FPP Manager in Beijing reports, achieving the A36-23 goals is
                                   not an end in itself so much as a great step forward in making global progress with respect
                                   to aviation safety, efficiency and environmental improvements. The APAC FPP is poised to
                                   assist Regional stakeholders as they seek to more safely and efficiently manage the highest
                                   aviation growth rate in the world and meet the challenges required head-on in order to take
                                   this huge step forward.

                                                            Dave VanNess is an Airline Pilot with
                                                            extensive experience in international
                                                            operations. He is also a helicopter
                                                            pilot, certified flight inspector
                                                            and procedure designer. He was
                                                            manager and Chief Pilot of the FAA
                                                            International Flight Inspection Office
                                                            for six years. His last job with the
                                                            FAA was as Manager of the Eastern
                                                            Flight Inspection Service Area in the
                                                            FAA Air Traffic Organization. As
                                   Implementation and Resource Development Coordinator for               The ICAO Air Navigation Commission visits the first FPP Procedure
                                   Performance­based Navigation at ICAO HQ from 2007 to 2010,            Designer class in Beijing, 6 July 2010.
                                   he played an instrumental role in the preparatory work to
                                   establish the APAC FPP. He is now with ICAO in Beijing as
                                   Manager of the FPP.                                               Committee and jointly fund the programme. Other States in
                                                                                                     the Region could choose to join as User States, with no
                                   The APAC Flight Procedure Programme (FPP) is envisioned           contribution required, and make use of the programme’s free
                                   to be a centre of excellence in the field of flight procedure     services such as training and technical assistance.
                                   design. It will help to develop Regional State capabilities in
                                   the instrument flight procedure domain—most especially in         One of the reasons that this Active/User State approach
                                   the areas of both procedure design and regulatory oversight       was considered feasible due to the fact that the programme
                                   of pertinent service providers. The FPP will employ best          has attracted global interest and contributions accounting
                                   practices in training, automation and quality assurance,          for approximately 75 percent of the resources required to
                                   using experts in the field to address the procedure design        establish and operate it during its first three-year cycle.
                                   needs and enhance the capabilities of participating States.       These contributions or commitments of resources, either
                                                                                                     in-kind or in cash, have come from the FAA, France’s DGAC,
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                   The APAC FPP has been organized by ICAO as a Regional             Airbus, CAAC, Hong Kong CAD, and others.
                                   Technical Co-operation programme. This means that States
                                   in the Region join together to fund the programme and, in         As of this writing there were nine Active Participating
                                   return, can use the services, tools, training and assistance      States and eight User States in the APAC FPP. States in the
                                   provided by the FPP.                                              APAC Region that are not already members can join at any
                                                                                                     time by signing the FPP Programme Document and deciding
                                   APAC States agreed that a core group of Active Participating      whether they wish to join as an Active Participating State
                                   States would oversee the FPP as members of its Steering           or User State.


                              16
First Year of Operations
                                           AN ITEMIzED HISTORy Of THE APAC fPP

The APAC FPP operates from offices         ■■ APANPIRG/18 (September 2007) establishes the Regional PBN Task Force to address
provided by the CAAC Center for Aviation      PBN implementation issues.
Safety Technology (CAST) in Beijing,       ■■ 36 th ICAO Assembly (September 2007) adopts Resolution A36-23 that sets goals for PBN


China. The operation is presently run by      implementation by the States.
                                           ■■ PBN/TF/1 (January 2008) identifies procedure design expertise as a critical obstacle to
a Manager and five staffers, one of
whom is a procedure design instructor         meeting PBN implementation goals.
                                           ■■ PBN/TF/2 (April 2008) proposes the establishment of an APAC FPP as part of ICAO’s
and FPP Chief of Training—the FPP’s
                                              PBN Programme.
main focus during its first year.
                                           ■■ ICAO takes action to further develop the APAC FPP proposal (May-July 2008) to determine


                                              if States would participate, then requests proposals to host the FPP Office.
Since the office’s opening in March, FPP   ■■ APANPIRG/19 (September 2008) supports continued efforts to develop the APAC FPP.

employees were busy preparing for the      ■■ ICAO decides on the host State for the FPP from among four proposals (February 2009).

PANS OPS Procedure Design Initial          ■■ ICAO signs letter of intent with China to be the host State for the FPP Office (March 2009).

Course that was held in June-July 2010     ■■ APANPIRG/20 (September 2009) reaffirms its support for the FPP and encourages States

in Beijing. That four week course,            to join.
delivered to fifteen students from eight   ■■ Final agreement signed for FPP in Beijing (January 2010).

                                           ■■ FPP Office in Beijing begins operations (March 2010).
States, proved very successful and in
                                           ■■ Formal opening of the FPP (May 2010), conducted by ICAO’s Secretary General and CAAC
fact had 60 percent more applications
than there were seats available.              Deputy Administrator.
Instructors for this course and future
offering are drawn from a pool of
procedure design instructors in the
Region who underwent training in the
ICAO/ENAC PBN Procedure Design
Instructor Course in 2009.

Additionally, in April 2010, the FPP
conducted a Workshop on Continuous
Descent Operations for FPP staff and
15 attendees from China. The next FPP
course offering will be the PBN
Procedure Design Course to be held
September 1-17, also in Beijing. Other
offerings planned for the first year are
Procedure Design On-the-Job Training,
an RNP AR Procedure Design Course,
and PBN Airspace Concept Workshops.

In addition, the FPP will be looking to
accept one or two procedure design              ICAO Secretary General Raymond Benjamin and CAAC Deputy Administrator Li Jian unveil
                                                the FPP plaque at the formal opening ceremony of the APAC Flight Procedure Programme.
projects on a for-fee basis during its
first year, if opportunities allow.
                                    CAPSCA


                                   Communicable Diseases and Air Travel:
                                   The APAC Perspective
                                                         N.C. Sekhar joined   In 2006, ICAO established the                          Aviation Medicine Team (RAMT) has
                                                         the ICAO APAC        Cooperative Agreement for Preventing                   now been established by the SCM.
                                                         Office in            the Spread of Communicable Diseases
                                                         November 2006        through Air Travel (CAPSCA) aimed at                   Three RAMT meetings have also taken
                                                         as Regional          reducing the risk of spreading avian                   place in Bangkok: one in October 2007;
                                                         Officer/AGA.         influenza and similar communicable                     the next in Sept 2008; and the most
                                                                              diseases by air travelers through                      recent in September 2009. The Fourth
                                                                              cooperative arrangements between the                   Meeting of the CAPSCA Steering
                                                                              participating States/Administrations                   Committee and Workshop/Seminar on
                                   The spread of severe acute respiratory     and airports. This would be achieved                   Aviation Business Continuity Planning
                                   syndrome (SARS) in 2003 raised             initially by the application and                       was held recently in Kuala Lumpur,
                                   concerns for ICAO, the World Health        implementation of ICAO guidelines.                     Malaysia, from 24–26 May 2010.
                                   Organization (WHO) and a number of
                                   States and Special Administrative          The CAPSCA project provides on-site                    The next major event in this field will be
                                   Regions (SARs) in South East Asia.         training in the public health domain at                the Global RAMT from October 15–16
                                   This led to the development and            major international airports in                        2010. It will be held at the Singapore
                                   implementation of Anti-SARS protective     participating States. ICAO guidelines for              Aviation Academy and will aim to
                                   measures and guidelines at certain         States are available via the ICAO Web                  ensure the worldwide coordination of
                                   airports as a means of controlling the     site. To date, China, Hong Kong China,                 technical CAPSCA project activities.
                                   disease and preventing its spread          Indonesia, Macao China, Malaysia,
                                   through air travel. The SARS outbreak      Mongolia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea,                     ICAO has developed a template for a
                                   had devasting effects on air traffic to,   The Philippines, Singapore, The                        National Aviation Preparedness Plan,
                                   from and within the affected areas.        Solomon Islands, Thailand, Tonga, and                  which will be presented at the
                                                                              Vietnam have joined this cooperative                   upcoming APAC Regional Aviation
                                   The onset and widespread effects of        arrangement.                                           Medicine Team Meeting in October
                                   avian Influenza in 2005 raised even                                                               2010. ICAO will continue to work with
                                   greater concerns regarding the             The first Steering Committee Meeting                   airline and airport operators,
                                   possibility of a human pandemic. The       (SCM) of CAPSCA was held in Hong                       international organizations, experts and
                                   unpredictable behavior of this influenza   Kong China in August 2007, the second                  governments to ensure that
                                   virus was a challenge, as neither          SCM was held in Indonesia in June                      involvement and coordination continues
                                   the timing nor the severity of the next    2008, and the third SCM was held in                    regarding preparedness for pandemic
                                   pandemic could be predicted with           Macao China in June 2009. A Regional                   influenza and to maintain the continuity
                                   any certainty.                                                                                    and safety of air travel in general.

                                   ICAO’s Global and Regional Initiatives
                                                                               RECENT CHANGES TO HEALTH-RELATED ICAO PROVISIONS

                                   Article 14 of the Chicago Convention on     ■■   Annex 6—Operation of Aircraft                         Preparatory action plans should include
                                   International Civil Aviation requires            An aeroplane shall be equipped with                   Public Health Emergencies.
                                   each contracting State to take effective         accessible and adequate medical                  ■■   PANS-ATM
                                   measures to prevent the spread of                supplies. On board medical supplies                   Communications procedures with
                                   communicable diseases by means of                should include a ‘Universal Precaution Kit’.          affected aircraft.
                                   air navigation. ICAO, in coordination            Annex 9—Facilitation                                  Annex 14—Aerodrome Design and
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                                                               ■■                                                    ■■

                                   with its Member States, has developed            A Contracting State shall establish a                 Operations
                                   Preparedness Planning Guidelines                 National Aviation Plan in preparation for             The Aerodrome Emergency Plan shall
                                   (Aviation Aspects) for a Communicable            an outbreak of a communicable disease                 provide for the coordination of the actions
                                                                                    posing a public health risk or public health          to be taken in an emergency occurring
                                   Disease of Public Health Concern to
                                                                                    emergency of international concern.                   at an aerodrome or in its vicinity. The
                                   prevent the spread of avian influenza
                                                                               ■■   Annex 11—Air Traffic Services                         action plan should include public health
                                   and similar communicable diseases by
                                                                                    Air Traffic services authorities shall develop        emergencies.
                                   air travelers and to mitigate the
                                                                                    and promulgate contingency plans.
                                   socio-economic consequences.


                              18
                                   CANSO PERSPECTIVE


                                                    Building ANSP Capabilities
                                                    in the Asia Pacific Region
                                   In a Region as large and diverse as the Asia Pacific, air transport is both a driver and a
                                   beneficiary of economic growth. That APAC is today the world’s largest aviation market is
                                   testimony not only to the vibrant economies of the Region but also the leadership of ICAO
                                   in the development of civil aviation.
                                   As Chiang Hai Eng, CANSO’s Director for Asia Pacific Affairs reports, with increasing air
                                   traffic there are many challenges ahead for the APAC Region that will impact flight safety
                                   and efficiency, airspace capacity as well as the environment.

                                                           Chiang Hai Eng is CANSO’s Director for     Promoting Industry Best Practices
                                                           Asia Pacific Affairs. He was formerly
                                                           Chief Corporate Officer and Deputy         CANSO’s global vision is one of a seamless, safe and
                                                           Director General of Operations with        efficient airspace. It aims to complement the leadership role
                                                           the Civil Aviation Authority of            of ICAO by bringing additional industry perspective to
                                                           Singapore. Chiang was a member of          Regional processes and decisions. With ICAO focused on the
                                                           the ICAO Committee on Future Air           regulatory aspects of what needs to be done, CANSO can
                                                           Navigation Systems and a former Vice       play its part by sharing industry experience and expertise on
                                                           Chairman of the ICAO Asia Pacific Air      how best to go about achieving our Region’s shared
                                                           Navigation Planning and Implemen­          objectives. With over 100 members worldwide, CANSO is
                                                           tation Regional Group (APANPIRG).          well-placed to help Regional ANSPs benchmark their
                                                                                                      performance against best-in-class indicators and to
                                                                                                      implement industry best practices through its network of
                                   The key to a safe, efficient and sustainable future for aviation   expert committees and workgroups. More and more today,
                                   lies not only in investments in technology and infrastructure,     this sharing of data and knowledge is happening through the
                                   but perhaps even more importantly in greater collaboration         simple click of a mouse.
                                   among all our sector’s stakeholders.
                                                                                                      CANSO recently held two high-level APAC ANSP conferences
                                   International aviation transcends national boundaries. The         to engage CEOs and ATM leaders concerning their most
                                   challenges it faces, therefore, cannot be overcome by a            pressing challenges. As a result of these conferences,
                                   single State or Air Navigation Service Provider (ANSP) acting      CANSO is now focusing its attention on the priority areas of
                                   in isolation. As the ‘Global Voice of ATM’, CANSO’s key            Safety and ATM Operations and will be addressing pertinent
                                   priority in the Asia Pacific is to reach out to ANSPs in order     topics with local stakeholders through a series of seminars
                                   to facilitate and inspire more effective cooperation and           and workshops. One such example was the Regional
                                   collaboration and thereby significantly improve overall ATM        workshop conducted last year on CANSO’s Standard of
                                   performance in the Region.                                         Excellence for Safety Management Systems (SMS).

                                                                                                      This year, CANSO will be holding its annual Global ATM Safety
                                                                                                      Conference, which will include safety workshops for APAC
                                                                                                      ANSPs on SMS implementation. With the support of its
                                                                                                      Operations Standing Committee, CANSO will also be holding
                                                                                                      an Asia Pacific ATM Operations Best Practices Seminar aimed
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                                                                                      at improving operational efficiency for all phases of flight.

                                                                                                      Promoting ADS-B Implementation
                                                                                                      through Regional Collaboration

                                                                                                      CANSO has also teamed up with IATA to promote the
                                                                                                      implementation of ADS-B in the APAC Region. Apart from
                                                                                                      substantial savings in costs and aircraft emissions through


                              20
                                                                                                  These savings are significant considering
                Figure 1: Examining fuel savings from flights that are delayed                    that the study was limited to only two
                       or did not receive their optimum flight altitudes
                                                                                                  trunk routes. One can imagine what the
                 ANSP A                           ANSP B                   ANSP C                 benefits would be if CANSO were to
                 DATA                             DATA                     DATA                   expand the project to include airspace
                                      Optimum (Requested)
                                                                                                  over the rest of the South China Sea,
                                         Flight Level (FL)                                        the Bay of Bengal and other parts of the
                 Benefit                                               Benefit                    APAC Region.
                                              Actual FL
       Assumed FL                              In FIR B                             Assumed FL
         In FIR A                                                                     In FIR C    The ANSPs concerned must now move
                                                                                                  quickly to deliver the operational and
                                                                                                  economic benefits identified in the
   Departure                                  Estinated                             Destination   study. There are several key tasks which
                                            Elapsed Time
                                                                                                  have to be accomplished by the ANSPs
                                                                                                  apart from equipment installation, such
                                                                                                  as agreements to share ADS-B data
improvements in airspace capacity                     The cost benefit study which CANSO          and VHF communications, safety
and operational efficiency, ADS-B                     has conducted is based on several           assessments and the issuance of an
surveillance also enhances safety in                  assumptions, most important of which        aircraft equipment mandate.
airspace that is outside radar coverage.              is that ADS-B data and VHF communi-
This project highlights firstly the cost/             cations will be shared amongst the          Vision is Global but
benefits of ADS-B as a building block of              relevant ANSPs. This need for closer        Implementation is local
future ATM systems, and secondly the                  Regional collaboration is crucial to the
need for and benefits from closer                     operational assumption that radar-like      CANSO opened its Asia Pacific Office
collaboration amongst APAC ANSPs.                     separation will be implemented in           in Singapore in 2008—its first Regional
                                                      exclusive airspace for suitably-equipped    office outside of Europe. This was
The initial phase of the ADS-B project                aircraft. These prerequisites underline     followed by a Middle East Office in
involves the ANSPs of Indonesia,                      the importance of Regional collaboration    Jeddah in 2009 and, in June this year
Singapore and Vietnam. It covers two                  amongst ANSPs, without which the            at its Annual General Meeting, CANSO
trunk routes (L642 and M771) and                      installation and operation of ADS-B         announced the establishment of an
several subsidiary routes. The South                  stations alone would not amount to          Americas Office in Mexico.
China Sea airspace was identified for                 much in the way of realizable benefits.
this exercise as it contains some of                                                              The opening of these Regional offices
the highest density traffic routes                    The benefits that were realized in the      in quick succession recognizes the need
which will benefit most from ADS-B                    course of this study included savings       to address ATM issues at the Regional
surveillance capability.                              in aircraft fuel burn arising from the      level and acknowledges the fact that
                                                      availability of optimum flight levels,      ‘one size does not fit all’. CANSO’s vision
Table 1: Results of Cost Benefit Study                reductions in airborne and ground           is for a seamless, safe and efficient
                    Most likely Estimate
                                                      delays, reductions in carbon emissions      airspace system but to achieve that
                                                      and reductions in flight delays. Together   global vision, implementation will have
 Demand
                    3%         5%           7%        these point to important aggregate          to start locally with the ANSPs in their
 Growth
                                                      savings in Aircraft Direct Operating        respective Regions.
 Costs
               $45.66       $45.66    $45.66          Costs and Passenger Value of Time.
 FY09 $M
                                                                                                  As CANSO’s Asia Pacific Office
 Benefits
             $127.96       $200.47   $328.11          This study, which was completed in          completes its second year of operation,
 FY09 M$
                                                      mid-2009, revealed an internal rate         we look forward to working even more
 IRR             17%          22%          27%
                                                      of return for the APAC Region of            closely in the future with ICAO and all the
                                                                                                                                                     APAC Regional Report – 2010




 Costs PV      $27.17       $27.17    $27.17
                                                      22 percent for a projected medium-term      ANSPs and stakeholders of this dynamic
 Benefits                                             traffic growth rate of 5 percent. It        and rapidly expanding Region.
               $50.29       $73.60   $112.43
 PV
                                                      projects annual savings of 3 million
 NPV           $23.12       $46.43    $85.26          pounds of fuel burn, annual reductions
 B/C                                                  of about 10 million pounds of CO2
                    1.9        2.7          4.1
 Ratio                                                emissions, and total economic savings
 Payback                                              of $4 million annually.
                2020         2018          2017
 Year



                                                                                                                                                21
                                    APAC COSCAPs


                                   Advancing Regional and Global
                                   Safety Objectives Through Improved
                                   Sub-regional Cooperation
                                   The activities of ICAO’s main work programme related to the setting of international Standards
                                   and Recommended Practices (SARPs) to support international aviation are well known. Another
                                   area of activity playing an increasingly important role in the Organization’s activities today
                                   involves the work of Cooperative Development of Operational Safety and Continuing
                                   Airworthiness Programmes, or COSCAPs.
                                   COSCAPs have been established as self-sustaining sub-regional cooperatives to support and
                                   improve aviation safety and efficiency among participating States. In this special update for the
                                   APAC Regional Report, Kim Trethaway, Chief Technical Advisor and Flight Operations Expert for
                                   the ICAO COSCAP North Asia, provides updates on his own sub-regional group as well as two
                                   additional Asia/Pacific COSCAPs in South and South East Asia.


                                                               Kim Trethewey     to assist partici-pating States in their     provided by Canada, the European
                                                               is the Chief      ongoing efforts to strengthen their          Commission, France, Norway, United
                                                               Technical         safety oversight capabilities.               States, Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier,
                                                               Advisor, Flight                                                the Association of Asia Pacific Airlines
                                                               Operations        COSCAPs are dedicated forums for             (AAPA) and IATA, as well as Regional
                                                               Expert, for the   cooperation and coordination in              air operators who provide free
                                                               ICAO COSCAP       matters related to flight safety, bringing   transportation to COSCAP personnel.
                                                               North Asia        together both well developed and
                                                               project based     smaller participating civil aviation         There are now three COSCAPs
                                                               in Beijing,       administrations. Each COSCAP                 operating in the APAC Region: COSCAP
                                   China, a position that he undertook in        operates independently under the             South Asia; COSCAP South East Asia
                                   February 2008. Before joining the             direction of a Steering Committee            and COSCAP North Asia.
                                   Canadian Department of Transport in           comprised of the Directors General
                                   1985, Tretheway’s piloting career             of participating Civil Aviation              COSCAP South Asia’s Member States
                                   included instruction, regional airline and    Authorities (CAAs), ICAO, as well as         are comprised of India, Bangladesh,
                                   corporate operations, as well as              other organizations and companies            Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal, Maldives and
                                   responsibilities as a training pilot and      interested in supporting aviation safety.    Sri Lanka. It is the most mature of the
                                   Chief Pilot. His last assignment before       The Steering Committees establish            APAC COSCAPs, currently operating
                                   joining the COSCAP programme involved         priorities for their respective              based on the priorities of its third
                                   implementation of safety management           programme, providing higher-level            five-year term.
                                   systems in the Canadian airline sector.       direction to a programme coordinator
                                                                                 who is responsible for developing            COSCAP South East Asia is comprised
                                   Findings from the ICAO Universal              specific work plans to support the           of Cambodia, Hong Kong (China),
                                   Safety Oversight Audit Programme              needs of all participating States.           Macao (China), Indonesia, Lao PDR,
                                   (USOAP) have demonstrated that many                                                        Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines,
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                   States find it difficult to adequately        An important feature of the                  Singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam, Brunei
                                   meet their safety oversight obligations.      COSCAPs is that they are funded by           Darussalam and Timor-Leste. It was
                                   A solution which has proven to be             the participating States themselves,         established in 2001 and is in its
                                   successful in the Asia-Pacific (APAC)         with additional support from safety          second five-year term.
                                   Region has been the establishment of          partners—either in cash or in kind.
                                   Cooperative Development of                    APAC Regional safety has benefited           COSCAP North Asia, meanwhile,
                                   Operational Safety and Continuing             tremendously through the generous            comprises China, the Republic of
                                   Airworthiness Programmes (COSCAPs)            financial and technical support              Korea, the People’s Democratic


                              22
                                   Republic of Korea and Mongolia. It was established in 2003          Administrations have well established regulatory frameworks.
                                   and is in its second five-year term.                                Instead, new regulatory requirements are developed in a
                                                                                                       harmonized manner.
                                   Each of these programmes initially concentrated on inspector
                                   training and core oversight programme development, along with       A recent example is the implementation of new ICAO Annex 6,
                                   safety team work to prevent accidents though the identification     Part I—International Commercial Air Transport—Aeroplanes
                                   and implementation of critical safety enhancements designed         provisions related to the approval and surveillance of
                                   to eliminate or reduce safety risk. This work is accomplished       foreign air operators. In this case the APAC COSCAPs jointly
                                   through the combined efforts of international, national and         developed model regulations, a model Foreign Air Operator
                                   Regionally recruited inspectors. A brief description of some this   Validation and Surveillance Manual, and associated training.
                                   work is provided in the following paragraphs.                       Similarly, extensive work is underway in 2010 to support
                                                                                                       operational approval of Performance-Based Navigation (PBN).
                                   Development of Inspector Manuals                                    Although there is a great deal of international PBN expertise
                                                                                                       and supporting ICAO documentation, the COSCAPs identified
                                   COSCAP programmes have developed generic policy and                 a remaining area of common need—support for CAAs as
                                   procedure manuals to guide inspector certification and safety       they develop the regulations, policy and procedures needed
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                   oversight functions. These manuals can be easily adapted by         before they can approve the use of the highly-anticipated
                                   Member States.                                                      PBN procedures.

                                   Development of Regulations, Standards and Policy                    Training Programmes

                                   While some COSCAP programmes work towards the                       The Steering Committees have assigned a high priority to the
                                   harmonization of regulations and standards, this is generally       training and development of national inspectors. Where
                                   not a priority of most programmes as many Member                    numbers warrant, training programmes can be provided in all


                              24
States, but often are provided at one or     RASTs were combined as the Asian             and high cost of international expertise.
two central locations. While COSCAP          Regional Aviation Safety Team (ARAST)        COSCAP personnel are familiar with
staffers provide the majority of the         in 2008, providing the benefits of wider     Regional issues and available resources
training, in many cases donors will          participation, a greater sharing of safety   and are able to respond quickly to urgent
provide additional training programmes at    information and efficiency for members       requests for assistance.
no cost to the programme. Air operators      and donors alike. Thereafter, the ARAST
and service providers are often invited to   became the primary forum to support          The ability to provide training on
send participants to the training            Regional implementation of the ICAO          specialized subjects at relatively low
programmes so as to ensure a common          Global Safety Initiatives (GSIs) and         cost to a large number of participants
understanding of regulatory requirements     best practices concurrent with the ICAO      has been a significant achievement of
and to foster good working relationships.    Global Aviation Safety Plan and the          the COSCAP initiative. This capability
                                             Global Aviation Safety Roadmap.              also supports the establishment of a
Audits, Inspections and                                                                   more harmonized regulatory regime
Certification Activities                     Building on the work of the U.S.             across the Region. The international
                                             Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST)       donor community, which has a vested
This is an area where the needs of           and the European Strategic Safety            interest in promoting flight safety
Member States vary widely, and COSCAP        Initiative (ESSI), the ARAST has worked      globally, has recognized the inherent
staff may assist States with audits,         to implement safety enhancements to          efficiencies of the COSCAPs and has
inspections and certification activities,    reduce the risk of fatal accidents arising   demonstrated this through their strong
including on-the-job training for national   from the top accident categories,            and generous support for the
inspectors.                                  including: Controlled flight into terrain;   Programmes—both in cash and
                                             approach and landing accidents; and          technical expertise.
Technical Assistance                         loss of control.
                                                                                          Conclusion
COSCAP staffers are often asked to           Of the 72 CAST safety enhancements,
provide guidance on the interpretation of    the ARAST has addressed 40 for               The practical benefits of the APAC
regulations/standards, best practices,       implementation in the Region. Among          COSCAPs have been clearly
and/or technical matters. Considerable       other actions this has included the          demonstrated, as has the resolve of
assistance has been provided to support      issuance of 23 Advisory Circulars and        COSCAP Member States to enhance
Member Administration preparation and        Advisory Bulletins.                          aviation safety through more effective
responses to ICAO USOAP requirements.                                                     Regional cooperation. The Asian
                                             Challenges                                   Regional Aviation Safety Teams (ARAST)
Regional Aviation Safety Team (RAST)                                                      is a high priority activity and it provides a
                                             While the COSCAPs and the safety             forum to develop safety interventions
Each COSCAP established a Regional           teams have been effective in addressing      that are based on a detailed review of
Aviation Safety Team whose first task        many areas requiring action, there are       accident data from a risk management
was to review safety interventions which     a number of common challenges that           perspective. Overall, the diverse
have already been developed through          remain, including:                           capacities of the APAC COSCAPs ensure
the efforts of well-established              ■■ Funding and contributions are difficult   a more effective and efficient use of all
multinational safety groups. The RASTs          to establish and to maintain.             safety resources.
also focus on flight safety concerns         ■■ Balancing benefits to States.

particular to the Region. RAST priorities    ■■ Capabilities of Member States may

and methodologies for implementing the          be very diverse.
safety interventions, once approved by       ■■ Implementation of lessons learned

the Steering Committee, are                     is not always successful in all States.
implemented through the coordinated          ■■ Limited resources require the

efforts of the regulatory authorities in        COSCAP programmes to take a long
                                                                                                                                               APAC Regional Report – 2010




cooperation with the airlines, service          term outlook.
providers and the aircraft manufacturers.
                                             COSCAP Benefits
Originally operating independently, each
RAST enjoyed the support of a number         The Asian COSCAPs have proven to be
of safety partner organizations.             an efficient and cost-effective means of
Recognizing that the RASTs had a great       providing expert support, which is of
deal in common, the three separate           crucial importance given the scarcity


                                                                                                                                          25
                                   SAfETy




                                     Bird Strike:
                                     The APAC View
                                     Birds have posed a potential hazard to
                                     aircraft since the first days of air travel.
                                     What was once a minor risk to the relatively
                                     small amount of early, slow-flying aircraft has
                                     today become a significant safety issue due
                                     to the dramatically increased airspeeds and
                                     much quieter engines of modern civil,
                                     military and commercial fleets.
                                     Increases in the populations of many bird
                                     species has compounded these factors,
                                     making bird strike a much more significant
                                     threat to modern aviation safety. As N.C.
                                     A collisionreports, ICAO’s APAC Regional Office,
                                     Sekhar between an aircraft and one or more birds is
                                     termed a bird strike. Pilots occasionally will record a bird
                                     in close association with the FAA and DCA
                                     strike while
                                     Malaysia, will be holding a seminar in happen
                                     at cruising altitudes, but most of these incidents
                                     when an aircraft is relatively close to Control and
                                     December 2010 on Wildlife the ground—usually in                    Bird strikes are extremely expensive to modern aircraft
                                     Management to address the more local
                                     close proximity to an airport and during the holding,              operators. The associated costs of down-time for inspection
                                     aspects of this worldwide safety issue.
                                     descent or take-off phases of a flight.                            and repair following bird damage, the rescheduling of flights,
                                                                                                        transfers of passengers to alternative means of transport
                                     Bird strikes can cause significant damage to aircraft or a         and overnight accommodation can be significantly damaging
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                     dangerous loss of power when the birds are pulled into a jet
                                                              N.C. Sekhar joined the                    to both airline operating budgets and to public perceptions of
                                     engine. When associated impacts and losses in power
                                                              ICAO APAC Office in                       the safety and viability of air travel.
                                                              initial climbing phase
                                     occur during take-off or November 2006 as of a fully-
                                     loaded passenger aircraft, the results can be catastrophic.
                                                              Regional Officer/AGA.                     Airports tend to be surrounded by an environment that
                                     Any                                                                attracts and supports birds and other wildlife. Rodents,
                                     bird is a potential hazard to an aircraft and this is especially   insects and other small animals are a source of food for
                                     true when the number and size of local bird species is on          these animals and these are often found on and alongside
                                     the increase.                                                      grassy runway strips.


                              26
“A total of 6,996 bird strikes were reported by 18 States
 in the APAC Region during the ten-year period from
 1996–2006. Bird strikes occurred throughout the year
 with two peak periods: from April to May and from September
 to October. The months with the least reported strikes
 were February and July.”

Further problems may arise when an airport is located on a                      (see Fig. 1, page 28). Bird strikes occurred throughout the year
bird migration route. Airport planners sometimes overlook this                  with two peak periods: from April to May and from September
safety factor, but it’s generally more the case that these routes               to October. The months with the least reported strikes were
arise unexpectedly due to a bird species having found an                        February and July.
attractive new food source.
                                                                                The phases of flight during which bird strikes were most
Birds may also be attracted to pig farms where garbage is                       frequent were approach (28 percent), landing roll (30 percent),
used as fodder. Even tree plantings can present a hazard if the                 take-off run (29 percent) and climb (10 percent). Taken
species provides an attractive food source or nesting habitat.                  together, these four phases which happen on or in the vicinity
Moreover, airports tend to provide a safe haven for many birds                  of an aerodrome account for almost 97 percent of all reported
from their natural predators.                                                   bird strikes. Eighty-five percent of the reported bird strikes
                                                                                occurred within 30 metres of ground level.
Bird Strikes and APAC
                                                                                With respect to the aircraft itself, the areas most often struck
A total of 6,996 bird strikes were reported by 18 States in the                 by birds include the nose (five percent), wing rotor (25 percent),
APAC Region during the ten-year period from 1996–2006                           windshield (four percent), landing gear (four percent), fuselage




                                                                                                                                                               APAC Regional Report – 2010




    Some examples of the damage that can be caused to aircraft and engines as the result of bird strikes. A total of 6996 bird strikes were reported by
    18 States in the Asia/Pacific Region between 1996–2006.



                                                                                                                                                          27
                                              Figure 1: APAC bird strike data for the period 1996–2006. The phases of flight during which bird strikes were most frequent
                                                         were approach (28 percent), landing roll (30 percent), take-off run (29 percent) and climb (10 percent).

                                                    800                                                                                 738
                                                    700                                  671     672
                                                                                                                                642
                                                                                  602
                                                    600           575
                                                                                                                        545                     550
                                                                                                         510                                           520
                                                                          483                                    486
                                                    500

                                                    400

                                                    300

                                                    200

                                                    100

                                                       0
                                                                  JAN     FEB    MAR      APR    MAY    JUNE    JULY    AUG     SEPT    OCT     NOV    DEC



                                   (three percent), radome (six percent),          stressed in the creation of a successful            Regional Initiatives and Goals
                                   engine number one (24 percent) and              bird control programme. The Manual also
                                   engine number two (12 percent).                 deals with the reasons why birds occur              Recognizing the severe extent of the
                                                                                   in the airport setting and outlines the             damage bird strikes cause to aircraft,
                                   A total of 2,179 reports were received          modifications which may be made by                  the APAC Regional Planning and
                                   regarding damage caused by bird strike          airport authorities to reduce their                 Implementation Group, during its
                                   to aircraft. Of these, 121 or six percent       facilities’ attractiveness to birds.                18th meeting, invited APAC Member
                                   of these strikes caused minor damage,                                                               States to establish a national bird
                                   with another 64 (three percent)                 In Part 2 of ICAO Doc 9184—Airport                  control committee with a defined term of
                                   experiencing substantial damage. The            Planning Manual, the section on Land                reference. Thus far 17 APAC States have
                                   remaining 1,994 strikes did not caused          Use and Environmental Control                       established this type of committee.
                                   any damage to the aircraft.                     provides guidelines on land use types
                                                                                   that may attract bird activity. It considers        The ICAO APAC Regional Office also
                                   Related ICAO Provisions                         the compatibility and effectiveness of              initiated a survey to review the extent of
                                                                                   various activities within the area that             implementation of ICAO Annex 14
                                   ICAO recognizes the hazard birds pose to        lies between and inner radius of three              requirements regarding bird and wildlife
                                   aircraft and requires airport authorities       kilometres and an outer radius of                   hazard reduction at and in the vicinity of
                                   to adopt measures to minimize the likely        eight kilometres centred on a given                 airports. Furthermore, in close
                                   hood of collisions between birds and            airport facility.                                   association with the FAA and DCA
                                   aircraft at, or in the vicinity of, the                                                             Malaysia, the APAC Regional Office has
                                   airport. To this end, ICAO has                  The Manual on the ICAO Bird Strike                  organized a seminar for December 2010
                                   established Standards and                       Information System (IBIS) provides                  on airport wildlife control and
                                   Recommended Practices (SARPs) for               information and suggestions for                     management.
                                   bird/wildlife hazard reduction in               developing effective bird strike reporting,
                                   Annex 14, Volume I—Aerodrome Design             analysis and recording systems. The IBIS            Although birds and aircraft may share
                                   and Operations.                                 programme is an excellent tool designed             the same airspace, history and evidence
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                                                                   to collect and disseminate information              have now clearly demonstrated that
                                   In addition, ICAO provides the guidelines       on bird strikes and represents an                   human and animal flight are not
                                   and information necessary to develop            important element in ongoing accident               compatible within too close proximity to
                                   and implement an effective bird control         prevention schemes. IBIS is highly                  one another. It is ICAO’s goal and the
                                   programme for an airport. In Part 3 of          supported by airlines and other experts             objective of current provisions to make
                                   ICAO’s Airport Services Manual, Bird            working to reduce the threat of bird                the skies safer for all who fly—birds and
                                   Control and Reduction, the importance of        strikes to aircraft globally.                       aircraft alike.
                                   good organization and planning is


                              28
                                   APAC MET UPDATE




                                     Global
                                     Aspirations
                                     and Regional
                                     Delivery
                                     The Regional implementation of a number
                                     of key global MET programmes is presently
                                     proceeding on course in the APAC Region,
                                     in addition to developments related to the
                                     APAC Cooperative Agreement for the
                                     Enhancement of Meteorological Services for
                                                                                                  Regional meteorological (MET) activities facilitate State
                                     Aviation, Regional MET/ATM coordination
                                                                                                  efforts geared towards local implementations of global MET
                                     activities, ongoing efforts related to Quality               programmes. This is primarily accomplished through
                                     Management Systems, and the gradual                          consultative processes and programmes, seminars and
                                     implementation of XMl-based net-centric                      workshops, as well as regular meetings.
                                     MET data.
                                                                                                  WAFS
                                     As Christopher Keohan reports, all of these
                                     initiatives are helping to foster a more                     Regional implementation of the World Area Forecast System
                                     globally-harmonized and comprehensive                        (WAFS) is necessary for providing pilots with forecasts of
                                                                                                  upper-air winds, temperatures and humidity readings for
                                     MET system that the APAC stakeholders
                                                                                                  various altitudes used in flight planning. Forecast generation
                                     are helping to move forward over the near-                   and global distribution are managed by two World Area
                                     and mid-term.                                                Forecast Centres (WAFCs) located in London and
                                                                                                  Washington.
                                                             Christopher Keohan, ICAO
                                                             Regional Officer, Aeronautical       High altitude significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts for flight
                                                             Meteorology, Bangkok, has been       levels 250 to 630 (global), as well as medium altitude SIGWX
                                                             employed at the ICAO APAC            forecasts for flight levels 010 to 250 (South Asia), are also
                                                             Regional Office since June 2008.     disseminated by the WAFC to provide information on
                                                             Prior to this Keohan served as a     hazardous meteorological phenomena such as severe icing,
                                                             senior meteorologist on wind         turbulence and cumulonimbus clouds (CB) (see chart on
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                                             shear systems at the Federal         page 31). The medium level SIGWX forecasts also contain
                                                             Aviation Administration’s (FAA’s)    areas of in-cloud icing and turbulence.
                                                             Mike Monroney Aeronautical
                                                             Center (MMAC), utilizing             Operational implementation of gridded forecasts relating to
                                     experience gained with prototype wind shear and terminal     CB, icing and turbulence are expected as early as 2013 in
                                     weather systems at the Massachusetts Institute of            digital form (these are currently available but only as
                                     Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) for several airport   experimental forecasts by way of the Internet). These gridded
                                     hub locations.                                               digital forecasts will allow users to more easily incorporate


                              30
related data into automated systems in        forecasts of volcanic ash position and        management framework to determine
addition to the wind, temperature and         movement are provided to users and            the safe levels of operation in airspace
humidity information already provided in      Meteorological Watch Offices (MWO, for        contaminated by volcanic ash.
this manner. All WAFS forecasts will be       the production and dissemination of
available in three-hour time increments       volcanic ash SIGMET) and ATS by way of        The APAC Regional Office will monitor
up to 36 hours, as opposed to the single      volcanic ash advisories.                      the developments of the IVATF, including
24-hour forecast that is currently                                                          those relating to the operational need for
available for SIGWX.                          Currently, four APAC States have              volcanic ash concentration maps, and
                                              demonstrated documented deficiencies          utilize the Regional Meteorological
A workshop on the new gridded forecasts       in observing or disseminating                 Advisories and Warnings Implementation
of CB, icing and turbulence is expected       information on volcanic ash to ATS and/       Task Force (METWARN/I TF) and
in the APAC Region in 2011 or 2012            or the production and dissemination of        Meteorology Air Traffic Management
to facilitate the utilizing these new         volcanic ash SIGMET.                          Task Force (MET/ATM TF) in developing a
forecasts by States and other end-users.                                                    framework of a Regional contingency
                                              Cost recovery guidance for volcanic ash       plan that addresses large scale events
Obtaining WAFS forecasts for flight           services was made available with the          such as volcanic ash, tropical cyclones,
planning can now be obtained via the          assistance of the Civil Aviation Authority    Tsunamis and radioactive clouds.
Internet by way of SADIS FTP (issued          of New Zealand (CAANZ). Other Regional        Implementation issues associated with
by WAFC London) and the WAFC                  activities include obtaining the eight-       new requirements developed by ICAO will
Internet File Service (WIFS, issued by        character AFTN addresses for all Area         be addressed by these task forces.
WAFC Washington). The use of the              Control Centres (ACCs) for the
Internet for this type of non-time-critical   dissemination of radioactive cloud            ITCW
MET data will be enabled in Annex 3           information from VAAC London,
in November 2010.                             beginning November 2010.                      Regional implementation of the
                                                                                            International Tropical Cyclone Watch
The cessation of the International            The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull   (ITCW) is crucial in the APAC Region,
Satellite Communication Service (ISCS)        Volcano in Iceland, with the resulting        given that tropical cyclones may occur
second generation (ISCS-G2) device in         disruption to air travel and commerce in      any time of the year and severely impact
June 2012 will require States and users       Europe and beyond, resulted in the            busy air routes and aerodromes.
to make use of the Internet for forecast      establishment of the International
data as described above. The Regional         Volcanic Ash Task Force (IVATF) by ICAO       Coordination with Tropical Cyclone
WAFS Implementation Task Force                on 29 April 2010 to assist in the             Advisory Centres (TCACs) is necessary
(WAFS/ITF) will monitor and assist            development of a global safety risk           in that the areas served by all seven
States during the transition from
satellite to Web-based forecast sources
                                                                          Example of an APAC SIGWX Forecast
as 2012 approaches. Implementation
focus will be placed on five States in the
APAC Region that currently do not
receive the WAFS forecasts needed for
flight briefings.

IAVW

Efforts associated with the Regional
implementation of the International
Airways Volcano Watch (IAVW) system
include State assistance programmes
                                                                                                                                              APAC Regional Report – 2010




(eg. AusAID) for countries that are unable
to provide volcanic ash information for
Air Traffic Service (ATS).

Volcanic Ash Advisory Centres (VAAC)
nominated in the APAC Region include
Darwin (Australia), Tokyo (Japan) and
Wellington (New Zealand), from which


                                                                                                                                         31
                                   existing TCACs include some part of the APAC Region.                    being taken for the possible removal of these deficiencies from
                                   Informing TCACs of changes associated with Amendment 75                 the list of APANPIRG deficiencies through monitoring by Regional
                                   to Annex 3 (e.g. the introduction of tropical cyclone advisories        OPMET Data Banks (RODBs). Most recently, APANPIRG approved
                                   in graphical form) is conducted by ICAO through its involvement         the removal of the SIGMET deficiency for Myanmar. Another
                                   in various World Meteorological Organization (WMO) events               sign of the improving participation in the issuance of SIGMET in
                                   related to tropical cyclones.                                           the Region is the increased participation noted in the November
                                                                                                           2009 SIGMET tests (volcanic ash, tropical cyclone and other
                                   SIGMET                                                                  meteorological phenomena). Specifically, eight new States
                                                                                                           participated in the SIGMET test for meteorological phenomena
                                   Necessary for flight safety, SIGMET provide information to              other than tropical cyclone and volcanic ash. Figure 1 (bottom
                                   users on hazardous meteorological phenomena.                            left) shows the recent increase in test participation. This
                                                                                                           continued effort by States and the Regional Office is essential
                                   A greater focus on the implementation of SIGMET has been                to maintain flight safety.
                                   conducted in recent years in the APAC Region. SIGMET are
                                   issued by MWOs designated by their State. Eight States are              The METWARN/I TF will monitor developments associated with
                                   currently listed as having a deficiency in the issuance of              a global effort addressing the need to improve the issuance of
                                   SIGMET, the most in any deficiency category.                            SIGMET. That is, the APAC Region will participate in a feasibility
                                                                                                           analysis of SIGMET advisories issued by a designated regional
                                   In the last two years, a bi-lateral agreement between China and         advisory centre targeting States with SIGMET deficiencies.
                                   Cambodia has allowed the Kunming MWO (transfer of duties to             Monitoring of SIGMET globally for this trial analysis in 2011 is
                                   Chengdu MWO on 1 September 2010) to issue SIGMET for the                being conducted by Hong Kong, China. Analysis of SIGMET
                                   Phnom Penh FIR since 1 June 2009—the first time SIGMET                  issuance with and without the trial SIGMET advisories will be
                                   have been formally issued for a Flight Information Region (FIR)         reported to the Meteorological Warnings Study Group
                                   in a neighboring State in the APAC Region. The Regional Office          (METWSG) in 2012 for further action if necessary.
                                   was also recently informed of an agreement for the provision
                                   of SIGMET by Papua New Guinea on behalf of the Solomon                  Another hazardous MET phenomenon, wind shear, occurs in
                                   Islands and Nauru. The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea            the terminal area. To assist States in acquiring a suitable wind
                                   also established a MWO in February 2009 primarily for the               shear system based on the uniqueness of their environment,
                                   issuance of SIGMET, while the Laos People’s Democratic                  an APAC Wind Shear Systems Acquisition Workshop will be
                                   Republic is expected to establish its own MWO in 2010, which            conducted in December 2010.
                                   will issue SIGMET for the Vientiane FIR.
                                                                                                           Issuance of TAF and OPMET exchanges
                                   Myanmar has notified the APAC Regional Office that SIGMET is
                                   provided by the Yangon MWO for the Yangon FIR. Steps are                The International Air Transport Association (IATA) has produced
                                                                                                           OPMET (METAR and TAF) availability goals for the APAC Region.
                                                                                                           That is, IATA formalized requirements of 95 and 90 percent
                                                 Figure 1: APAC SIGMET Test Participation
                                                                                                           availability of OPMET data for AOP and non-AOP aerodromes
                                     100                                                                   respectively at the twentieth meeting of APANPIRG.
                                      90
                                      80                                                                   Aerodrome forecasts (TAF) in particular are used for flight
                                                                                                           planning and are necessary for selecting alternate aerodromes—
                                      70
                                                                                                           which results in the optimization of fuel consumption. The
                                      60                                                                   increased availability of OPMET data as indicated in Figure 2
                                      50                                                                   (page 33, top) reveals the commitment of the APAC Region to
                                      40                                                                   provide the necessary meteorological information.
                                      30
                                                                                                           Furthermore, IATA has determined a list of aerodromes that
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                      20
                                                                                                           require TAF with a period of validity of 30 hours. These were
                                      10                                                                   considered as part of the Regional requirement used for planning
                                        0                                                                  ultra-long haul flights. Some aerodromes that require 30-hour
                                               06          07         08              b)         no
                                                                                                   v)      TAF do not have ultra-long haul flights, but are used as alternates
                                            20          20          20         9   (fe          (
                                                                            00               09
                                                                           2               20              for them. State awareness of the importance of alternate
                                                                                                           aerodrome planning is reflected in the increase in implemen-
                                            State participation      MWO participation              Goal   tation of 30-hour TAF, which doubled from 2009 to 2010 as
                                                                                                           indicated in Figure 3 (page 33, bottom left).


                              32
                                                                                             awareness, convective forecasts to
                  Figure 2: Increasing Availability of APAC OPMET Data                       one or more hours, probability
                                                                                             forecasts of CB, fog and other weather
                                                                                             elements, and post event briefings
 100                                                                                         to improve coordination for future
                                                                             State
                                                                             participation   weather impacts.
   80
                                                                             MWO
   60                                                                        participation   Determining requirements for these
                                                                             Goal            added services is in progress at the
   40                                                                                        global level through ICAO and the WMO.
    20                                                                                       In the meantime, specialized MET
                                                                      Goal
                                                                                             services for busy terminal areas
     0                                                            2010                       continue to develop such as the
         SADIS SA                                                                            Meteorological Services in the Terminal
                      SADIS FT                                 2009
                                    ISCS SA                                                  Area (MSTA) described in a separate
                                                ISCS FT
                                                                                             article of this journal by Hong Kong,
                                                                                             China. A planned MET/ATM Seminar will
Technical Co-operation Activities             overcome deficiencies such as aging            be conducted in Fukuoka, Japan in
                                              observing systems, poor communi-               January 2011, where States will have
In order to mitigate MET deficiencies         cations, lack of WAFS forecasts and the        the opportunity to exchange information
identified in the South Pacific Island        need to issue SIGMET.                          on what MET Services are provided to
States, ICAO, in coordination with the                                                       ATM and how they are used to increase
WMO, secured funds with the                   Due to the dilemma of low air traffic          aerodrome and terminal area capacity.
International Financial Facility for          and the subsequent inadequate
Aviation Safety (IFFAS) to resolve            revenue available through cost                 Implementation of Future Standards
deficiencies in each of the eight             recovery, many States will need further
signatory States.                             assistance from other States and               The implementation of Quality
                                              international organi-zations to realize        Management Systems (QMS) is a
The project, the Cooperative Agreement        these goals. A second phase of the             near-term concern since this will
for the Enhancement of Meteorological         project will therefore commence in the         become a standard for all MET services
Services for Aviation in the South Pacific    second half of 2010 or sometime in             and facilities according to Annex 3
(CAEMSA-SP), was carried out in late          2011 to secure funding and determine           beginning in November 2012. An APAC
2008 by an ICAO expert who developed          associated tasks by donors to mitigate         QMS Seminar was conducted by the
action plans with the pertinent States to     these MET deficiencies. This sub-              WMO in cooperation with the Finnish
                                              Region’s importance continues to               Meteorological Institute in Tonga in
                                              increase with respect to its destination       July 2010, in order to facilitate State
   Figure 3: Regional Implementation of       aerodromes and alternate aerodromes            implementation of QMS.
     30-hour TAF at AOP Aerodromes
                                              for Trans Pacific flights.
                                 100                                                         Implementation issues related to the
  100
                                              MET/ATM coordination                           gradual application of net-centric
   90                                                                                        meteorological data will arise in the
   80                                         As the reliability of providing meteoro-       mid- and late 2010s. This will include
                      75                      logical information has improved in the        the possible use of Extended
   70
                                              APAC Region, some aerodromes have              Mark-up Language (XML) in the
   60
                                              capacity concerns and are providing            exchange of MET data. It is necessary
   50                                         more services than those now                   therefore to continue improving the
   40                                         proscribed for them in Annex 3.                provision of meteorological information
                                                                                                                                            APAC Regional Report – 2010




           32
   30                                                                                        in the near-term, before significant
                                              To optimize capacity in busy terminal          changes arise (XML and MET services
   20
                                              areas, coordination between MET                for ATM) that will require a new focus
   10                                         and Air Traffic Management (ATM)               on the implementation of demanding
    0                                         stakeholders has become essential.             new requirements and new exchanges
          2009       2010        Goal
                                              Catered MET Services include                   of meteorological information in
           2009     2010    Goal              specialized briefings, shared displays         the Region.
                                              of weather to increase situational


                                                                                                                                       33
                                    APAC MET/ATM COORDINATION
                                    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX


                                   New Meteorological Services
                                   Supporting Air Traffic Management
                                   The new Meteorological Services in the Terminal Area (MSTA) initiative, which is being
                                   undertaken by the WMO in close collaboration with ICAO, will provide meteorological
                                   services to support Air Traffic Management (ATM) for wider terminal areas, especially those
                                   at busy airports, which are currently not covered by the standard meteorological services
                                   stipulated by ICAO.
                                   As C.M. Shun and Sandy M.K. Song of the Hong Kong Observatory, Hong Kong, China,
                                   report, ICAO and the WMO are continuing to coordinate further MSTA developments in
                                   advance of a projected 2014 endorsement for this promising enhancement to current
                                   MET/ATM capabilities.
                                                           C.M. Shun is Assistant Director           The goal of the changes now under development is to
                                                           of the Hong Kong Observatory.             ensure that ICAO’s vision of a safe, secure, efficient and
                                                           He was the MET Vice­chairman of           environmentally sustainable air transport system will continue
                                                           ICAO’s CNS/MET Sub­Group of               to be available to all aviation stakeholders at the global,
                                                           APANPIRG from 2003 to 2009                Regional and national levels. The implementation of a new
                                                           and was elected President of the          ATM system that will make maximum use of the enhanced
                                                           WMO’s Commission for                      capabilities provided by advances in science and technology,
                                                           Aeronautical Meteorology in               as well as allowing for the effective sharing of available
                                                           February 2010.                            information on the basis of Collaborative Decision Making
                                                                                                     (CDM), is a mandatory component on the path to this objective.
                                                                                                     The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)
                                                            Sandy M.K. Song is Senior                and Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) initiatives are
                                                            Scientific Officer of the Hong Kong      the corresponding programmes now ongoing in the USA and
                                                            Observatory. She is a member of          Europe to help effectively address this challenge.
                                                            ICAO’s ASIA/PAC METATM Task
                                                            Force and a core member of the           It is under this evolving environment that the concept of
                                                            Expert Team on MSTA and the              Meteorological Services in the Terminal Area (MSTA)1 was
                                                            Task Team on MSTA User Needs             conceived of by the Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology
                                                            of WMO.                                  (CAeM) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in its
                                                                                                     13th Session in 2006. In recent years, with increasing air
                                                                                                     traffic leading to issues of airport and route capacity limits, as
                                   The international air navigation system is presently under-       well as the advancement of meteorological sciences such as
                                   going a paradigm shift: one that is moving it away from past      numerical weather prediction and ‘nowcasting’ techniques,
                                   Air Traffic Control (ATC) environments to the more integrated     different meteorological products tailored for supporting Air
                                   and collaborative Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems now        Traffic Management (ATM) have been developed.
                                   needed to meet aviation’s needs in the 21st century.
                                                                                                     These developments have occurred in parallel across
                                   These requirements have stemmed from the more or less             various Regions in order to address the gap between the
                                   continuous growth in aviation and the ever present risk that      data products stipulated in ICAO’s existing standards and
                                   the capacity of Regional air navigation systems may soon be       guidance and the newer and evolving 21st century ATM
APAC Regional Report – 2010




                                   exceeded by operator demand. This issue is presently of           user needs for meteorological information. Currently, ICAO
                                   particular importance in the European (EUR) and in North          Annex 3 stipulates meteorological data products such as the
                                   American (NAT) Regions, but it has also become an                 Aerodrome Forecast (TAF), Trend-type Landing Forecast
                                   increasingly urgent priority in the Asia/Pacific (APAC) Region,   (TREND) and Aerodrome Warnings, which are presented to
                                   where the number of intra-APAC air travellers has recently        the users in highly-condensed codes in textual format.
                                   surpassed associated domestic passenger totals from the
                                   North American market, making today’s Asia-Pacific the            The coded aspect of this weather data was a necessity in the
                                   world’s largest aviation market.                                  mid-20 th century, primarily to overcome the severe bandwidth


                              34
limitations in legacy telecom systems. It has since become a                                         of convection, winds, low ceiling/visibility and winter weather.
severe constraint for meteorologists as they seek to convey the                                      In addition, probability attributes of the various weather
specific details of available weather information to modern                                          elements will be included as possible inputs for user decision-
aircraft operators.                                                                                  support systems. A number of core experts from various
                                                                                                     Regions are working together on MSTA development, including
A case in point is how convective weather, which impacts                                             several from the APAC Region (Australia, Hong Kong/China
busy approach areas, flight routes, corner posts and fixes over                                      and Japan).
the wider terminal area2, is already causing significant impacts
to ATM operations and capacity. Currently this cannot be                                             Prototypes of convection (see Figure 1, below) and wind products
addressed by the regulated products which only provide                                               have already been developed and were presented to the
generic weather information for the aerodrome—i.e. within                                            14th Session of the CAeM held in Hong Kong, China in February 2010.
approximately eight kilometres of its centre. Other products
under development, in trial, or already in operational use at                                        To facilitate further development of MSTA prototypes and input
some airports in the APAC Region, include wind forecasts over                                        from the aviation community, a web site (http://www.msta.
approaches, crosswind probability forecasts for runways,                                             weather.gov.hk/) is currently being hosted by the Hong Kong
strike probability for tropical cyclones, etc.                                                       Observatory with access available to WMO members and aviation
                                                                                                     users. In addition to the WMO expert team, a new Task Force on
In more advanced applications of these weather products, specific                                    MSTA User Needs was also set up by the CAeM to strengthen
information of the weather impact on air traffic capacity is also                                    engagement with aviation user communities, focusing on user
generated and provided to ATM and airline users. One such                                            needs and gathering feedback on the MSTA concept.
example is the Air Traffic Meteorology Center (ATMetC) of Japan.
                                                                                                     On the ICAO side, the Aerodrome Meteorological Observation
To address these new and evolving ATM user needs and to avoid                                        and Forecast Study Group (AMOFSG) has established an ad
the costly parallel development of similar weather products of                                       hoc group to work closely with the WMO Task Force to
varying and confusing data formats, an expert team has been                                          coordinate inputs from the requirements perspective. Its work
set up by the WMO in order to work closely with ICAO to develop                                      programme also includes consultations with the ICAO Air Traffic
a proper MSTA proposal. This proposal would be based on                                              Management Requirements and Performance Panel (ATMRPP).
commonalities in similar products developed thus far and would
also recognize current technical capabilities and limitations.                                       The objective of these efforts is to develop a detailed MSTA
                                                                                                     proposal, supported by ICAO and the aviation user commu-
It is envisaged that this new MSTA data product would provide                                        nities, ready for endorsement by the next Conjoint ICAO
forecasts of weather elements critical to aviation in the wider                                      MET/AIM Divisional Meeting/WMO CAeM Session (currently
terminal area, along with longer lead times and much finer                                           scheduled for 2014) and reflected in ICAO Annex 3.
resolution in space (both the horizontal
and vertical domains) and time (especially
                                                     Figure 1: A prototype MSTA convection product presented in an integrated display.
in the first couple of hours of the forecast)
compared to currently available aviation
MET products. While MSTA is intended
primarily for busier airports and terminal
areas, it is also envisaged as a significant
enhancement to aviation safety in general.

The new MSTA will be produced in a
digital, gridded format, initially being
available as a web-based colour graphic
with alerting criteria. It will provide
common situational awareness for data
                                                                                                                                                                                            APAC Regional Report – 2010




sharing by different user groups in
support of CDM, and could be supple-
mented by textual descriptions as
appropriate and simplified/condensed to
facilitate uplinks to aircraft cockpits.

At this early stage in its development,
the MSTA product will focus on forecasts

1
    The term ‘New Terminal Forecast (NTF)’ was initially used when the MSTA concept was first developed. It was subsequently renamed as Meteorological Services in the Terminal        35
    Area (MSTA). This was done to avoid possible misinterpretation that the new services were intended to replace the conventional ‘Aerodrome Forecast (TAF)’.
2
    The terminal area is the portion of the airspace within the proximity of a controlled aerodrome, within which arriving and departing aircraft are managed to provide separation,
    assurance, appropriate arrival spacing, appropriate departure spacing and final approach sequencing.
                                           UPCOMING ICAO APAC EVENTS*
 Meetings                                                                   Site                                  Duration
 ARAST & Flight safety                                                      TBA                                   21–24 February

 SEA ADS-B WG/6                                                             Singapore                             24–25 February

 National Inspectors Course                                                 Auckland, New Zealand                 23 February – 3 March

 BBACG/22                                                                   Bangkok, Thailand                     7–10 March

 Aviation Cargo and Mail Security Course                                    Kunming, China                        7–11 March

 SOCM/2 Meeting                                                             Bangkok, Thailand                     14–16 March

 AAITF/6                                                                    Bangkok, Thailand                     15–18 March

 COSCAP MRB Seminar                                                         Bangkok, Thailand                     23–25 March

 OPMET/M TF/9                                                               Bangkok, Thailand                     21–23 March

 FPL&AM/TF/4 & Seminar                                                      TBA                                   21–25 March

 METWARN/I TF/1                                                             Bangkok, Thailand                     23–25 March

 COSCAP MRB Seminar                                                         Bangkok, Thailand                     23–25 March

 Dangerous Goods Course                                                     Bangkok, Thailand                     28 March – 8 April

 ADS-B Seminar and ADS-B SI TF/10                                           TBA                                   25–29 April

 Seamless ATM Workshop + Ad Hoc Group                                       Tokyo, Japan                          11–13 April

 PBN TF                                                                     Delhi, India                          18–22 April

 Environment Workshop                                                       Bangkok, Thailand                     TBA

 SEACG/18 & FIT-SEA/11                                                      Bangkok, Thailand                     9–12 May

 SMS Implementation Seminar                                                 Bangkok, Thailand                     16–20 May

 ATNICG/6                                                                   Seoul, Republic of Korea              23–27 May

 AVSEC Instructors Course                                                   Hong Kong, China                      24 May – 1 June

 CMRI                                                                       Bangkok, Thailand                     TBA

 Aviation Cargo and Mail Security Course                                    Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia                6–10 June

 11 SCM of COSCANA
    th
                                                                            Mongolia                              21–23 June

 ATM/AIS/SAR/SG/21                                                          Bangkok, Thailand                     27 June – 1 July

 CNS/MET SG/15                                                              Bangkok, Thailand                     25–29 July

 BOB/RHS/TF/6                                                               Bangkok, Thailand                     TBA

 RASMAG/15                                                                  Bangkok, Thailand                     1–5 August

 AVSEC Crisis Course                                                        Auckland, New Zealand                 15–19 August

 AVSEC Crisis Course                                                        Kunming, China                        22–26 August

 APANPIRG/22                                                                Bangkok, Thailand                     5–9 September
 National Civil Aviation Security Training
                                                                            Hong Kong, China                      6–14 September
 Programme Workshop
 SEA-RR/TF/5                                                                Bangkok, Thailand                     TBA

 ATNICG WG/10                                                               TBA                                   TBA

 48th DGCA Conference                                                       New Caledonia                         9–14 October

 Crisis Management Workshop                                                 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia                31 October – 4 November

 3rd SCM of FPP                                                             TBA                                   7–8 December

 RASMAG/16                                                                  Bangkok, Thailand                     TBA

* This is a partial list and many dates are subject to change. Please consult the ICAO APAC Web site for more up-to-date details on specific meetings and dates.

				
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