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MANAGEMENT-OF-CULTURAL-WORKFORCE-DIVERSITY

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					    MANAGEMENT OF CULTURAL WORKFORCE DIVERSITY: AN
     EFFORT TO IMPROVE INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
              AMONG TEACHING FRATERNITY

                                             SONAL PUNDHIR
                  Asst. Prof., Anand Engineering College, Keetham Agra-Mathura Road, Agra
                                             sonalaec@gmail.com

                                             ANKITA SAXENA
               Associate Lecturer, Anand Engineering College, Keetham Agra-Mathura Road, Agra
                                         ankitaaecsaxena@gmail.com

                                              CHETNA VERMA
             Associate Lecturer, Anand Engineering College, Keetham Agra-Mathura Road, Agra.
                                       chetnamahaur@rediffmail.com

Abstract

Workforce diversity means similarities and differences among employees in terms of age, cultural background,
physical abilities and disabilities, race, religion, gender, and sexual orientation. No two humans are alike.
People are different in not only gender, culture, race, social and psychological characteristics but also in their
perspectives and prejudices. Society had discriminated on these aspects for centuries. Diversity makes the work
force heterogeneous. "Culture is a set of rules or standards that, when acted upon by the members of a society,
produce behavior that falls within a range of variance the members consider proper and acceptable." This
paper focuses on cultural diversity and its impact on interpersonal relationships among employees. The
research will be conducted in various institutes situated at Agra Mathura highway. The main objective of the
research is to find out the various methods that can help in managing the culturally diversified workforce. After
all management is the ultimate solution.
Key words: Diversity, Culture, Workforce, Interpersonal relations
Introduction                                               Cultural diversity includes the range of ways in
                                                           which people experience a unique group identity,
No two humans are alike. People are different in not       which includes gender, age, place, gender,
only gender, culture, race, social and psychological       nationality, language, religious beliefs. An
characteristics but also in their perspectives and         organization’s culture tends to determine the extent
prejudices. Society had discriminated on these             to which it is culturally diverse. Every individual is
aspects for centuries. Diversity makes the work force      different from each other because of their different
heterogeneous. Dominant groups including top-level         religion, educational background to which they
managers are not fully prepared to accept the reality.     belong, age and the perception. When different types
There are communication problems as well.                  of people in terms of thinking, perception, generation
However, then there are enormous benefits too.             come together to work at the same place then
Organizations that are still lacking in this field will    definitely a situation may come where not all these
have to initiate measures to make their workforce          different types of people may agree at the same
diverse in order to compete or even survive in the         point. At that point of time it is going to affect the
coming decades. A modern definition of culture is          interpersonal relationship among people. Culture is a
given by anthropologist William A. Havilland in            very wide term that is why the researcher is focusing
Cultural Anthropology as follows: "Culture is a set of     over some psychological aspects like perception and
rules or standards that, when acted upon by the            behavior and the third aspect is language. First, we
members of a society, produce behavior that falls          will take perception. Perception is a process by
within a range of variance the members consider            which individuals organize and interpret their
proper and acceptable." In other words, culture does       sensory impressions to give meaning to their
not refer to the behavior that is observed but to          environment. It is not necessary that two people view
values and beliefs, which generate behavior. The set       the same thing in same manner this thing will
of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that     definitely going to affect the interpersonal
characterizes an institution, organization or group is     relationship among individuals. The next aspect is
known as culture.                                          behavior. People react differently in different
situations it means how an individual react or           "Diversity Management" is a strategy to promote the
responds towards a particular situation, person and      perception, acknowledgement and implementation of
object describes his behavior. Perception is formed      diversity in organizations and institutions. The
through culture and perception helps in forming          organization should create such a working
behavior. The third aspect that affects interpersonal    environment as will increase the motivation,
relationship is language. People may speak different     satisfaction, and commitment of diverse people.
languages at work place because of different             Managers must understand their firm’s culture first
geographical region to which they belong. An             and then implement diversity strategies according to
organization's success and competitiveness depends       that culture (Hayes, 1999).Training and development
upon its ability to embrace diversity and realize the    programs will improve the skills in dealing with the
benefits. When organizations actively assess their       day-to-day diversity dilemmas. Mentoring programs,
handling of workplace diversity issues, develop and      involvement of experienced advisors and helps
implement diversity plans, multiple benefits are         others for a period of years. Encourage the use of a
reported such as: Diversity stimulates innovation and    common language in the workplace. Recommended
productivity and creates an excellent culture that can   steps that have been proved successful in excellent
outperform the competition.          A multicultural     organizations are: Top companies make assessing
organization is better suited to serve a diverse         and evaluating their diversity process an integral part
external clientele in a more increasingly global         of their management system. A customizable
market. Such organizations have a better                 employee satisfaction survey can accomplish this
understanding of the requirements of the legal,          assessment for your company efficiently and
political, social, economic and cultural environments    conveniently. It can help your management team
of foreign nations (Adler, 1991). In research-           determine which challenges and obstacles to
oriented and hi-tech industries, the broad base of       diversity are present in your workplace and which
talents generated by a gender-and ethnic-diverse         policies need to be added or eliminated.
organization becomes a priceless advantage.              Reassessment can then determine the success of you
                                                         diversity in the workplace plan implementation.
“Creativity thrives on diversity” (Morgan, 1989).        Choosing a survey provider that provides
Multicultural organizations are found to be better at    comprehensive reporting is a key decision. That
problem solving, possess better ability to extract       report will be the beginning structure of your
expanded meanings, and are more likely to display        diversity in the workplace plan. The plan must be
multiple perspectives and interpretations in dealing     comprehensive, attainable and measurable. The
with complex issues. Organizations employing a           personal commitment of executive and managerial
diverse workforce can supply a greater variety of        teams is necessary. Leaders and managers within
solutions to problems in service, sourcing, and          organizations must incorporate diversity policies into
allocation of resources. Employees from diverse          every aspect of the organization's function and
backgrounds bring individual talents and experiences     purpose. Attitudes toward diversity originate at the
in suggesting ideas that are flexible in adapting to     top and filter downward. Management cooperation
fluctuating markets and customer demands. A              and participation is required to create a culture
diverse collection of skills and experiences (e.g.       conducive to the success of an organization’s plan.
languages, cultural understanding) allows a company      Recommended diversity in the workplace solutions
to provide service to customers on a global basis. A     include: Involve every employee possible in
diverse     workforce     that    feels   comfortable    formulating and executing diversity initiatives in
communicating varying points of view provides a          your workplace. Encourage employees to express
larger pool of ideas and experiences. However, there     their ideas and opinions and attribute a sense of equal
are some of the disadvantages also due to culturally     value to all. This practice provides visibility and
diversified workforce some of them are: There is an      realizes the benefits of diversity in the workplace.
increase in the cost of training. This increase comes    Use it as a tool to shape your diversity policy.
from costs associated with seminars, programs and
lectures given to promote diversity in the               As the economy becomes increasingly global, our
corporation. A disadvantage of diversity in the          workforce      becomes     increasingly     diverse.
workplace is an increase in conflicts. Increases in      Organizational success and competitiveness will
labor turnover and absenteeism are another               depend on the ability to manage diversity in the
disadvantage in having a diverse workplace.              workplace effectively. Evaluate an organization's
Diversity does not fare as well under conditions of      diversity policies and plan for the future, starting
uncertainty and complexity, which may lead to            today.
confusion and frustration. Diversity can make it
harder to arrive at an agreement on a particular         Literature Survey
course of action, and can result in negative dynamics    This study tries to assess the impact of cultural
and cultural clashes.                                    diversity on interpersonal relationship among
teaching fraternity. From past years, many                 Barak (2005) the researcher has discussed one’s
researchers have studied different aspects of              perceptions, values, and behavior in such situations
interpersonal relationship in educational institutes       reflect deep-seated beliefs about the nature of
and various other areas not only at all India level but    interpersonal work relationships. He further
also at international level. The various findings of       emphasized that to understand and manage these
past researches were of great help for the researcher      differences requires understanding the nature of
to sort out the different factors to be used in the        cultural diversity and how it influences relational and
study. This review also helped in finding out the          communication styles.
differences between the past researches and the
current research on the same topic. Let us look at         Research Methodology
glance on the earlier researches.                          Statement of the Problem
Cultural diversity : “Implications for workplace           Diversified workforce is the latest and current trend
management” Donatus I. Amaram (Nov.4 2007).In              in every organization today. Due to the culturally
this study the researcher is emphasizing on the            diversified workforce in some or the other way,
effects of cultural diversity on organizational            people are facing lot many problems at the
behavior and the advantages & disadvantages of             workplace. As if the diversified workforce may
culturally diversified workforce.“Critical review of       experience less cooperation from some of their
literature on workforce diversity” Ongori Henry &          colleagues but to achieve the organizational goals
Agolla J. Evans (27 June, 2007) the author focuses         each member must be effective in terms of its
on how to increase the organizational effectiveness in     functioning in the particular department. However,
this competitive world by nurturing, cultivating &         firing is not the solution. This research is focused on
appreciating the diverse workforce.Cultural diversity      finding out the problems faced by the employees due
and negotiations – a global perspective” Prof. Rajesh      to culturally diversified workforce. A second
Asrani. In the first part of this paper the researcher     contribution of this chapter is to suggest the ways to
tries to explore the meaning of culture, role of culture   manage the diversified workforce in such a way that
in finding global opportunities and second part has a      people can easily work with the diversified
major emphasis in understanding the dynamics of            workforce and can bring quality results altogether.
successful international business negotiations and         This research has been conducted in various
strategies that work in the current multi cultural         Institutions situated at NH-2 Agra- Mathura
business arena. This paper gives some suggestions on       highway.
appropriate behavior coupled with acculturation,
assimilation & maintenance of the new culture. A           Proposed Work
journal of the “Bombay Management Association”
                                                           The major concern of the research is to focus on
(Jan. 2009) emphasizing over the reasons responsible
                                                           culturally diversified workforce and its consequences
for the diversity in Indian workplace, different kinds
                                                           on interpersonal relationships in educational
of diversities and how to manage those diversities.
                                                           institutions and an attempt has been made to
“Workforce diversity in India & the U.S.” Dr. Karine
                                                           associate the variables of workforce diversity with
Schomer (2007) focuses on demographic differences
                                                           the success of any organization. Nowadays to find a
between India and U.S.
                                                           homogeneous workforce, especially in big
                                                           organizations is rarely possible, whereas the fact is
“Workplace diversity” Josh Greenberg (2004)
                                                           that people from different cultural backgrounds are
focuses on the challenges faced by the organization
                                                           working together under one roof. The another main
due to culturally diversified workforce and how to
                                                           motive of this research is to suggest counseling &
make best possible use of culturally diversified
                                                           mentoring techniques that can help removing the
workforce. Interpersonal Relationship between
                                                           problems like absenteeism, employee turnover due to
Teachers and Students: An Intercultural Study on
                                                           culturally diversified workforce from educational
Chinese and Australian Universities by Suxian Zhan
                                                           institutes.
This paper investigates the differences in
interpersonal relationship between teachers and            Research Objectives
students at Chinese and Australian universities. The
results indicate that cultures, ideology and gender           To identify whether diversified workforce exist
have a great influence on the perceptions of                   in various educational Institutions situated at
interpersonal relationship between teachers and                Agra Mathura Highway
students, particularly from the Chinese perspective;          To find out whether workforce diversity can
the significance of this relationship goes beyond the          hinder interpersonal relationship.
setting of current teaching and learning and                  To find out whether workforce diversity is
strengthens further in a wider social context.                 actually a boom or a curse for an organization.
Interpersonal Relationships in a Global Work
Context Jeffery Sanchez-Burks and Michal E. Mor
To prove that management of workforce diversity is          Hypothesis Testing
a future trend to maintain healthy relationships.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the thought of having problems with diversified workforce and
experience among the employees.


           Factor              Calculated χ2           Table Value    DF                  Remarks
          Experience              7.872                   .706         8         significant at 5 percentage

Population and sample design                                questionnaires. Therefore, the sample size for the
                                                            research came out to be 150.
Keeping all the objectives of research in mind, we
conducted a detailed study and collected primary            Analysis and Interpretation
data through questionnaires and personal interviews
from the faculty members of different colleges of           Profile of the respondents
Sharda Group. This research has been conducted in
Sharda Group of Institutions situated at NH-2 Agra-         For the purpose of this research, the institutes of
Mathura highway. There are six colleges of Sharda           Sharda group situated at Agra Mathura highway were
Group of Institutions at Agra – Mathura highway.            selected. The total population in the institutes was
These six colleges consist of total population of           1500 and the sample chosen for the research was 150
1500 faculty members. For the purpose of the                employees. Population & sample size is depicted in
research, 10% of the total population was selected          table no.1 along with the column-chart presentation.
by random proportionate sampling method, as there           The personal characteristics like age and experience
was a chance for every faculty member to fill the           are depicted together in table no.2 and total.

                                                      Sampling
                                   Total population                           1500
                                    Sample study                              150


                                         Table 1- Sampling Procedures

    1200
    1000
     800
     600
                                                                                                     Series1
     400
     200                     1500                                       150
       0
                               1                                         2
                                      1 - Total Population ,2 - Sample Size

                            Table 2 - Demographic Details of the Respondents

    Age                             Number of respondents                            Percentage
    20-30                                    58                                         37.9
    30-40                                    51                                         33.3
    Above 40                                 41                                         26.9
    Experience                      Number of respondents                            Percentage
    0-2                                      61                                         39.9
    2-5                                        52                                         34
    Above 5                                    37                                        24.2
Factors affecting interpersonal relationship and             and they have gained weightage more than normal
culturally diversified workforce                             mean, which is three, and therefore they are
                                                             considered as unfavorable, like having problems due
To find out the effects of diversified workforce on          to diversified workforce 3.8 and employees
working employees the analysis was made on the               preferring working with the people of their own
factors explaining effects of diversified workforce          culture 3.97 etc. The factors, which were positive and
and need for management of diversity. The given              gained weightage more than 3, which is again more
table shows all the factors that were analyzed and           than normal mean, so were considered as favorable
their frequencies along with its percentage and the          responses. So all the above factors which were
weighted average that was arrived using the Likert’s         negative and have weightage more than 3(normal
scaling technique. The factors included some                 mean) are considered to be the major problems due
negative aspects                                             to culturally diversified workforce.

                                                      Table.3

Factors relate to
                              SA        A        N       D       SD       Point      Agreeabili              Stand.
culturally diversified                                                                             Mean
                               5        4        3       2        1      analysis       ty                    Dev.
workforce
I am working with                     52.3%    13.1
                            32.7%                        0%       0%
culturally diversified                 (80)     %                           4.2                     1.80      .655
                             (50)                       (00)     (00)
workforce                                      (20)
I am facing some                               26.1      6.5
                            19.6%     45.8%                      0%
problems due to                                 %        %                  3.8           x         2.20      .835
                             (30)      (70)                      (0)
diversified workforce                          (40)     (10)
I am facing problems
                                               29.4      1.3
like language, attitude     22.9%     44.4%                      00%
                                                %         %                3.90           x         2.09      .763
clashes, difference in       (35)      (68)                      (00)
                                               (45)      (2)
perceptions etc.
If I get an opportunity I
                                               26.1      3.3
would prefer working        29.4%     39.2%                      0%
                                                %        %                 3.97           x         2.03      .839
with the people of my        (45)      (60)                      (0)
                                               (40)     (05)
own culture
I have informal
relationships only with                        29.4
                            32.7%     35.9%             00%      00%
the people of my own                            %                          4.03           x         1.97      .798
                              (50)     (55)             (00)     (00)
culture.                                       (45)

I have good
                                               26.1      3.3
understanding only with     39.2%     29.4%                      00%
                                                %        %                 4.07           ×         1.93      .895
the colleagues of my         (60)      (45)                      (00)
                                               (40)     (05)
own culture
I feel lack of
                                                         3.3
understanding between       19.6%     35.9%    39.2               0%
                                                         %                 3.73           x         2.27      .816
me and my culturally         (30)      (55)    (60)              (00)
                                                        (05)
diversified colleagues
   Management should
                                               19.6
   suggest various          42.5%     35.9%             00%      00%
                                                %                          4.23                     1.77      .763
   strategies to manage      (65)      (55)             (00)     (00)
                                               (30)
   diversified workforce
   Diversified workforce
   management is                               22.9
                            35.9%     39.2%             00%      00%
   essential for healthy                        %                          4.13                     1.87      .766
                             (55)      (60)             (00)     (00)
   interpersonal                               (35)
   relationship

      (Note: numbers in bracket represents the frequency; numbers in the bottom represents the percentages.
         The tick symbol represents the favorableness and cross symbol indicates the unfavourableness)
Findings                                                  professionals as one side we say that we should
                                                          include new trends in HR policies and on the other
As this paper focused on cultural workforce diversity     hand, the latest trend like workforce diversity is
and its impact on interpersonal relations, it has been    treated as a problem. However, this problem can be
found that: Employees are facing various problems         solved by adopting various policies like encouraging
due to culturally diversified workforce like language     the use of common language in the organization
problem (which is acceptable and is not due to            among the employees, by conducting various
thoughts of the employees), attitude clashes, and         motivational and mentorship programs, by keeping
difference in perceptions, which is directly related to   the channels of communication open among the
human behavior. Further taking diverse workforce as       employees and employers, by encouraging employee
a problem employees felt that they are more               participation. Further one should accept the fact it is
comfortable and in tune with the people of their own      not the matter of culture in fact it is the matter of
caste, creed, religion etc which leads to                 quality. Therefore, quality has to be maintained and
discriminatory behavior and unhealthy relations in        not thrown out.
the organization. The problem do not ends here it
continues with the thought of the employees that they     References
form informal groups only with the employees of
their own culture which shows that their will be lack     A journal of the “Bombay Management Association”
of organizational citizenship behavior due to such        (Jan., 2009)
thoughts.                                                 Adler, N.J. (1991). International Dimensions of
                                                          Organizational Behavior, Boston: PWS –Kent
Suggestions and Conclusion                                Publishing Company.
                                                          Dr. Karine Schomer (2007) “Workforce diversity in
After considering all the findings in the research it     India & the U.S.” Donatus I. Amaram (Nov.4 2007)
becomes a compulsion for the researchers to suggest,      Cultural diversity: “implications for workplace
the ways to handle the shortcomings found during the      management”
survey. It is really a big matter of concern for all HR

				
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