The Nixon Presidency

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					The Nixon Presidency
  Who was Richard M. Nixon?
• Shy and remote
• Born into poverty – always felt an
  outsider
• Often seemed stiff and lacking in
  humor and charm
• Few close friends – spent time with
  family at estates in Cal. and Fla.
  (lavishly redone at government
  expense)
      Nixon’s Vice President?
• Spiro T. Agnew
• Treated dissent as
  treason
• Called the media
  “an effete corps of
  impudent snobs”
  and “nattering
  nabobs of
  negativism”
 The Democratic candidates?
• Hubert H.
  Humphrey
  (LBJ’s Vice
  President)
• Edmund Muskie
  the senator
  from Maine
 American Independent Party?
• George Wallace – Alabama governor
• “Segregation now! Segregation
  tomorrow! Segregation forever!”
• Against school busing, antiwar
  demonstrations, urban uprisings
• Running mate – Curtis LeMay proposed
  nuclear weapons in Vietnam – “bomb
  the North Vietnamese back to the Stone
  Age”
       The Election of 1968
•Wallace won 13.5 % of the vote
  •5 southern states
  • middle-class white northerners
  tired of inner-city riots and anti-war
  protests – (“White backlash”)
•Humphrey took 42.7% of the vote
•Richard Nixon won with 43.4%
           Henry Kissinger
• National Security
  Council Advisor
  1969-1973
• U.S. could not
  appear weak and
  retain global
  leadership
• Shaped Nixon’s
  foreign policy
          Vietnamization…
• 1968 – Nixon said he had a plan to end
  the war – but wouldn’t explain
• Remove Am. forces and replace with S.
  Vietnamese
  – 1968 – 543,000
  – 1972 – 39,000
• Did not want to lose – resumed
  bombing of N. Vietnam
• Widened the war beyond Vietnam
     Nixon’s Vietnamization
• Nixon spoke of “peace with
  honor” while the US continued
  bombing campaigns into Laos
  and Cambodia to cut supply
  lines
• Nixon appealed to the “silent
  majority”
        My Lai Massacre…
• In Nov. 1969 Americans learned of the
  massacre of 504 of S. Vietnamese
  civilians – mostly women, children, and
  elderly
• Lt. William Caley, Jr. was the leader of
  the platoon responsible
• Caley was court-martialed and
  convicted of premeditated murder
              My Lai…
• Caley sentenced to life
• Nixon ordered him released
  pending appeal
• Served 3 ½ years under house
  arrest and released
• Claimed he was following orders
• More fuel to the fire for the peace
  movement
Warrant Officer
Hugh Thompson
 saves civilians
   by landing
  between US
    troops &
  Vietnamese
    civilians
  Extending the war beyond
         Vietnam…
• Cambodia – communist camps from
  which the enemy was mounting
  attacks on South Vietnam
• U.S. announced bombing of
  Cambodia in April, 1970
• Fresh wave of protests on college
  campuses –
• Largest series of student
  demonstrations in U.S. history
U.S. Bombing Points in Cambodia,
            1965-73
Cambodian children rolling an
unexploded bomb to a scrap metal
dealer…
      Kent State University
• May 2, 1970 – student protesters burnt
  down the ROTC building
• Gov. Rhodes sent Ohio National Guard
  to Kent State
• May 4 – classes were held –
  guardsmen were on campus – 200
  students and protestors
• After several confrontations – guard
  opened fire on crowd
         Campus unrest…
• 4 students killed at Kent State – 9
  wounded
• May 14 – Jackson State University –
  state troopers shot 2 students and
  wounded 12
• 900 college campuses closed down
  after shootings
• 37 college and University presidents
  signed a letter calling for war’s end
• 100,000 march on Washington
Allison
Krause

-Protester

-Shot in the
chest & arm
Sandy
Scheuer

-Not protesting

-Walking to
 class

-Shot in the
 throat
Jeffrey
Miller

-Not
protesting

-Shot in the
head
Bill
Schroeder
-Not
protesting
-Walking to
class
- Shot in the
back
-Ironically an
ROTC student
         The Hardhats…
• Construction workers
  – Building and Trades Council
  – 100,000 members held rally
    supporting government
  – broke up an anti-war rally
• Many Americans supported the
  National Guard and felt the
  students “got what they deserved”
       The War Continued…
• 1971 Nixon directed S. Vietnamese to invade
  Laos to cut supplies – defeated
• 1972 Nixon ordered the mining of N.
  Vietnamese harbors and bombing of
  Cambodia and N. Vietnam
• December, 1972, Kissinger met in Paris with
  Le Duc Tho
  – Cease-fire
  – Withdrawal of U.S. troops
  – Return of U.S. prisoners of war
             The war…
• Nixon unleashed the “Christmas
  Bombings” of Hanoi and Haiphong,
  100,000 bombs over 11 days
• Jan 27, 1973 an agreement was reached
• On March 29, 1973 the last US troops
  left for home
• February 12, 1973 - Operation
  Homecoming begins the release of 591
  American POWs from Hanoi
April, 1973

  -The last
  soldiers
arrive home
    from
  Vietnam
Nixon and
John
McCain
upon his
return
          The Fall of Saigon
• Within months of the US departure the
  cease fire was broken
• In March 1975 North Vietnamese launched a
  full scale invasion
• The US sent $ to South Vietnam but no
  troops
• Pres. Ford did not want another nightmare
• On April 30th, 1975 North Vietnamese tanks
  rolled into Saigon - renamed Ho Chi Minh
  City
       What was the Vietnam
             legacy?
• No victory parades for Vietnam Vets
• Many faced bitterness and hostility
• Many had debilitating injuries and drug
  dependencies
• 15% or 3.3 million soldiers developed post
  traumatic stress disorder
• 58,000 US troops were killed
• $150 billion
• Millions of Vietnamese were killed -
  chemicals like agent orange have polluted
  the environment and caused birth defects
  and cancer, 400,000 re-educated by the
  communists
• The Communists forced 1.5 million people
  out of Vietnam - 50,000 boat people perished
• Cambodia’s civil war in which Khmer Rouge
  led by Pol Pot killed 3 million Cambodians
• The US abolished the draft
• In Nov. 1973 Congress passed The War
  Powers Act in which the President
  must inform Congress within 48 hrs. of
  sending forces
• Troops cannot remain longer than 90
  days without authorization from
  Congress
• In 1982 the Vietnam Veterans Memorial
  was unveiled in Washington DC
       Nixon’s Foreign Policy
• Kissinger promoted the idea of the
  “realpolitik” - political realism (Foreign
  policy is based on consolidation of
  power)
• US should confront and deal with the
  powerful nations
  (Negotiations/Militarily)
• Nixon and Kissinger had a flexible
  approach in dealing with Comm.
• Pushed for “détente” or a relaxing of
  Cold War tensions
     “Playing the China Card”
• “Ping-pong” diplomacy began in 1971
• Take advantage of the rift between the
  China and the USSR
• Feb., 1972 – Nixon visited China -
  symbolic - opened up diplomatic and
  economic relations
• Major shift in U.S. foreign policy
• Both would cooperate and participate
  in scientific and cultural exchanges
Ping Pong
Diplomacy
 July, 1971

 - The ice
  breaker
 between
China & US
Nixon and Premier Zhou En-lai
     Nixon’s Visit to the USSR
• In May 1972, President to visit Moscow
• Nixon met with Soviet leader Leonid
  Brezhnev
• They signed the Strategic Arms
  Limitation Treaty (SALT I) - limited
  ICBM’s and sub missiles to 1972 levels
• Nixon offered to sell $ 1 billion in wheat
  crop to the USSR
• Détente
         “Shuttle Diplomacy”
• Secretary of State
  Henry Kissinger
  traveled between
  Middle Eastern
  countries
• In January 1974 Egypt
  and Israel signed a
  peace accord
• In May Israel signed a
  cease fire with Syria
   The
Apollo 11
 Launch

 July 16,
  1969
A
P
O
L
L
O

11 Neil Armstrong, Michael
    Collins & Buzz Aldrin
Man Walks on the Moon!
    July 20, 1969
"That's one small step
for a man, one giant
leap for mankind."
    -Armstrong
  Nixon appealed to the “silent
           majority”
• Appealed to hostility toward
  protestors and counterculture
• Americans who worked, paid
  taxes, and did not protest
• “People who love their country”
• Restore law and order
      Nixon promised…
• To appoint federal judges who
  would undercut liberal civil
  rights interpretations and be
  tough on crime
• To roll back the Great Society
• Restore law and order
        Southern Strategy?
• Democrats alienated the South – Civil
  Rights Act of 1964
• Sunbelt – retirement communities and
  rise of high tech industries  growing
  pop.
• Military bases, defense plants, and
  increasing influence of Protestant
  evangelism  conservative region
   Nixon’s New Conservatism
• Nixon was determined to turn the
  US into a more conservative
  direction with a sense of order
• The US was intensely divided over
  Nam
• Nixon felt LBJ’s Great Society
  programs gave the federal gov. too
  much power
       Two Sides to Nixon’s New
              Federalism
• The Nixon Administration
   – increased Social Security, Medicaid, and
     Medicare
   – made food stamps more accessible
   – Subsidized housing for the poor
   – Oversaw creation of Environmental Protection
     Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health
     Administration
   – Supported Family Assistance Plan
     (guaranteeing minimal income for the poor-
     defeated in the Senate)
        And the other side….
• Nixon tried to eliminate the Job Corps, and in
  1970 he denied funding for (HUD)
• By 1973 Nixon had impounded more than $15
  billion in funds for housing, health, and
  education (Courts overturned the
  impounding)
• Nixon abolished the Office of Economic
  Opportunity
        Law and Order Politics

• He played to the “silent majority”
• Nixon used the FBI and CIA to investigate
  American dissidents and political enemies
• The IRS was used to audit anti-war and civil
  rights activists returns
• Nixon had a “enemies list” of who to harass
• VP Agnew attacked liberals, the media, and
  anti-war protestors ( Pit-bull)
“Ultraliberalism
today translates
into a
whimpering
isolationism in
foreign policy, a
mulish
obstructionism
in domestic
policy, and a
pusillanimous
pussyfooting on
the critical issue
of law and
order.”
             Stagflation….
• Between 1967-1973 the US faced:
  – high inflation - caused by LBJ funding the
    war and the Great Society through deficit
    spending Heavy dependence of foreign oil
    and
  – high unemployment – caused by
    Increased international competition in
    trade and floods of new workers ( Baby
    Boomers and Foreign)
             Oil problems?
• OPEC raised the price of oil in 1960s
   – The Six Days War in 1967
   – The 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel
     and Egypt and Syria
• The US military aid to Israel  Arab OPEC
  nations cut oil sales to the US (Oil Embargo)
  By 1974 price increased 4x
• Major gas lines and shortages in the US
  early, mid 1970’s
    Nixon Battles Stagflation…
• To reduce deficit - raised taxes and cut
  the budget (Congress opposed)
• Tried to reduce the inflation by
  pushing for higher interest rates
• Took the US off the gold standard
• In 1971 froze wages, rents, fees and
  prices for 90 days-it helped temporality
  but the recession continued
         The Environment…
• Nixon supported the creation of the
  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
• Improved the Clean Air Act of 1963
• Supported the Water Quality Improvement
  Act of 1970
• In 1973 the Endangered Species Act was
  passed
• Membership in the Sierra Club took off due
  to new concerns over the environment
• On April 2d, 1970 the first Earth Day was
  held
    RMN & covert foreign
        policy…
• Military arms to…
    -The Shah of Iran
    - Philippines/ Ferd Marcos
    -South Africa (Anti-apartheid)

                     Continued>>>
RMN & covert foreign policy…
• Support for Nicaragua gov.
  …human rights violations
• CIA backs the Iranian secret
  police… human rights
  violations
• Overthrows the socialist
  government of Chile
    1972
Presidential
  Election
The 1972 Election
 George
McGovern

Democrat
     George McGovern
     Liberal Democrat
• Anti-war… Return POWs
• Reduce in defense spending
• $6,500 minimum income
• ERA Amendment & abortion
• Amnesty for draft evaders
• Acid (LSD)
Dirty Tricks…
   Results of the 1972
        Election

         Elector/ % Pop Vote
Nixon:      520… 60.7%

McGovern: 17… 37.5%
1972 Election
Nixon’s “Victory Salute”
      The Imperial Presidency
• Nixon expanded the power of the
  Presidency with little thought of
  Constitutional Checks
• Impoundment of funds for fed.
  programs
• Invading Cambodia without the
  approval of Congress
• Nixon felt the office of the Presidency
  was above the law
        The President’s Men
• Fierce loyal
  advisors
• H.R. Haldeman –
  Chief of staff
• John Ehrlichman –
  Chief Domestic
  Advisor
• John N Mitchell –
  Attorney General
• John W. Dean III –
  White House
  Council
 Nixon’s dirty tricks…
• Nixon used the FBI to gather info
  on political rivals
• Manufactured, irrelevant, cruel &
  incorrect rumors
• Nixon laundered $ to accept
  illegal campaign contributions
• CREEP & “The plumbers”…
Hunt and Liddy
Committee to Re-elect the
President (CRP or CREEP)
     A private group
   supporting RMN by
  using its money to pay
   for & later cover up
       "dirty tricks”
      The Plumbers
          July, 1971
• RMN’s covert White House
  group
• Established to stop info
  from leaking to the media
• Employed by CREEP…
  Responsible for Watergate
 The Pentagon Papers
• A secret study prepared by
  the D of D - Analysis &
  summary of U.S. political &
  military involvement in
  Vietnam
• The PPs show that the gov.
  deceived the public
47 Volumes
7,000 pages
     Daniel Ellsberg

D of D
employee
who
releases
the PPs to
The NY
Times
 The significance of the
  Pentagon Papers…
• Eroded public support for
  the war & made it difficult
  for RMN to fight the war
• As SC case it establishes
  the people’s right to
  privileged gov. info
  Ellsberg & dirty tricks…
• RMN orders the D of D to
  prosecute
• The Plumbers break into
  Ellsberg’s psychiatrist office
  seeking info. that will
  discredit him
• CIA is given orders to
  “incapacitate“ Ellsberg
         Watergate
• CREEP breaks into the DNC
  (Watergate Hotel) - 5 arrested
  & convicted
• RMN denies knowledge
             The Cover-Up
• Documents were shredded in
  Haldeman’s office
• The White House asked the CIA to urge
  the FBI to stop investigating the break-
  in
• CREEP passed out $450,000 to the
  burglars to buy their silence
• The burglary was of little interest to the
  public and the press
• Washington Post Reporters
  (Woodward & Bernstein)
  follow evidence back to the
  oval office… “Deep Throat”
W
a
t
e
r
g
a
t
e
       The Cover-Up Unravels
• In Jan. 1973 McCord (burglar) sent a letter to
  Judge John Sirica (Presiding Judge)
• He lied under oath, and hinted others were
  involved
• On April 30th, Nixon fired John Dean and
  announced the resignations of Haldeman,
  Ehrlichman, and Attorney General Richard
  Kleindiest
• Nixon went on TV to promote his new
  Attorney General Elliot Richardson and
  he suggested a “Special Prosecutor”
  be appointed to investigate Watergate
     The Senate Investigation

• Senator Sam Ervin began called
  Administration officials to give
  testimony
• Dean admitted the President had been
  deeply involved in the cover-up (White
  House denial)
• Presidential Aide Alex Butterfield
  revealed the tapes of Oval Office
  Conversations
• A year long battle for the tapes
  began
     The Saturday Night
         Massacre
• The special prosecutor (Cox)
  demanded the tapes… Nixon
  refused claiming “executive
  privilege”…
• Nixon ordered Attny. Gen.
  Richardson to fire Cox
• Richardson refused and was
  fired
• The Deputy Attny Gen refused
  to fire Cox
• He was fired
• Solicitor General (Robert Bork)
  fired Cox
• Nixon apptd. new special
  prosecutor – Jaworski
   So what did Jaworski do?
• He asked for the tapes
• The Supreme Court ordered
  Nixon to turn the tapes over
          The Fall of Nixon

• March 1974 a Grand Jury indicted
  seven presidential aids on charges of
  conspiracy, obstruction of justice, and
  perjury
• Nixon released 1,254 pages of edited
  transcripts
• In July 1974 The Supreme Court
  ordered Nixon to give up the unedited
  tapes “I am not a crook!”
• In Aug. Nixon released the tapes with an 18.5
  min. gap (Rose Mary Woods accidentally
  erased the most crucial part)
The Nixon tapes reveal…
• Anti-Semitic attitudes
• Nixon ordering government
  agencies to harass private
  citizens
• Nixon ordering the
  Watergate break-in & cover-
  up
 What? No Vice –President?
• 10 days before the Saturday Night
  Massacre
• Spiro Agnew resigned – accused
  of income tax evasion and taking
  bribes
• Gerald Ford appointed Vice
  President under the 25th
  Amendment
  Impeachment or Resignation?
• The House Judiciary Committee
  approved three articles of
  impeachment: obstruction of justice,
  abuse of power, and contempt of
  Congress
• On August 8th , 1974 Nixon announced
  his resignation
• Nixon admitted no guilt, some
  judgments “were wrong”
• Gerald Ford was sworn in as President
• Ford gave Nixon a full Presidential
  pardon
• 25 administration members served
  prison terms
RMN: Resigns August 9, 1974




  * The first President to resign.
Gerald Ford

				
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