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					ME3180

         ME 3180 - Mechanical Engineering Design




                      Stresses in Threads
                              Lecture Notes




         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
                           Stresses in Threads
  When nut engages thread, theoretically all threads in engagement
  should share load

  In actuality, due to inaccuracies in thread spacing, first pair of threads
  takes virtually all load

  Conservative approach for calculating bolt stresses is to assume worst
  case of one thread-pair taking entire load

  Other extreme approach for calculating bolt stresses is to assume that all
  of engaged threads share load equally

  Better compromise is to assume that true stress lies between these two
  extremes, but most likely is closer to one thread-pair assumption.


           The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
                      Stresses in Threads Cont’d
  Power screws and fasteners for high-load applications are usually made of
  hardened high-strength steels.

  Power screw nuts may also be of hardened material for strength and
  wear resistance.

  Fastener nuts, on the other hand, are often made of soft materials, and
  thus, are typically weaker than screws (i.e. – regular fastener and nut).

    This promotes local yielding in nut threads when fastener is tightened,
     which can improve thread fit and promote load sharing between threads.


    Hardened nuts are used on hardened high-strength bolts.




           The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
                                Axial Stress

 While power screw can see either tensile or compressive axial load,
 threaded fastener sees only axial tensile load
  • This equation can be used to compute axial tensile stress in screw.
                             F
                                                    Eq. 14-2
                             At
 For power screws loaded in compression, possibility of column buckling
 must be investigated. Use screw’s minor diameter to compute
 slenderness ratio.
 Slenderness ratio is factor that determines if column is short or long.
  • For short column,
                            l       d
                     Sr                10where  is radius of gyration.
                                   
  • If it is short column, use its compressive yield strength as limiting
     stress (Page 200, Norton), if it is long column, then use buckling to
    perform failure analysis.
          The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
                              Shear Stress
   Possible shear-failure mode involves stripping of threads:
    • Out of nut
    • Off of screw
   Possibility of either of these scenarios occurring depends on relative
   strengths of nut and screw materials
   If nut material is weaker, it may strip its threads at its major diameter
   If screw is weaker, it may strip its threads at its minor diameter
   If both materials are of equal strength, assembly may strip along pitch
   diameter
   In order to calculate stresses, we must assume some degree of load
   sharing among the threads



          The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
                           Shear Stress Cont’d


  Since complete failure requires all threads to strip, all of threads can be
  considered to share load equally

    This is good approach as long as nut or screw (or both) is ductile, allowing
     each thread to yield as assembly begins to fail


  If both nut and screw are brittle (e.g., high-hardness steels or cast iron)
  and thread fit is poor

    One can envision each thread taking entire load in turn until it fractures
     and passes job to the next thread.


    The reality is again somewhere between these extremes.


           The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180                    Shear Stress Cont’d
  Stripping-shear area for each screw thread is area of cylinder of its minor
  diameter dr:
                         As  d r wi p
   where
   p = thread pitch
   wi = factor that defines percentage of pitch occupied by metal at minor
        diameter (see Table 14-5)




  This area can be multiplied by number of threads in engagement based on
          The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
  designer’s judgment.
ME3180                        Shear Stress Cont’d
  For nut stripping at its major diameter, shear area for one screw thread is:

                                 As  dwo p
  wo is the factor found in Table 14-5
  Shear stress for thread stripping is:
                                       F
                                    
                                       As
  Minimum Nut Length – If the nut is long enough, the load required to strip the
  threads will exceed the load needed to fail the screw in tension. The equations
  for both modes of failure can be combined and a minimum nut length computed for
  any particular screw size. For any UNS/ISO threads or Acme threads of d ≤ 1in, a
  nut length of at least 0.5d will have a strip strength in excess of the screw’s tensile
  strength. For larger diameter ACME threads, strip-strength of nut with length ≥
  0.6d will exceed the screw’s tensile strength. These figures are valid only if the
  screw and nut are of the same material, which is usually the case.
  Minimum Tapped-Hole Engagement – When a screw is threaded into a tapped
  hole rather than a nut, a longer thread engagement is needed. For same
  material combinations, a thread-engagement length at least equal to the nominal
  thread diameter d is recommended. For a steel screw in cast iron, brass or bronze,
             For George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
  use 1.5d. The steel screws in aluminum, use 2d of minimum thread-engagement
  length.
ME3180                       Torsional Stress
  Torsional stress will develop when:
   • Nut is tightened on screw
   • Torque is transmitted through power screw
  Torque that twists screw is dependent on friction at screw-nut interface
  If screw and nut are well lubricated, less of applied torque is transmitted
  to screw, and more is absorbed between nut and clamped surface
  If nut is rusted to screw, all applied torque will twist screw, which is why
  rusty bolts usually shear even when you attempt to loosen nut
  For power screw, if thrust collar has low friction, all applied torque at
  nut will create torsional stress in screw (since little torque is taken to
  ground through low-friction collar).
  In order to accommodate worst case of high thread friction, use total
  applied torque in equation for torsional stress in round section (page 183,
  Norton)
                              Tr 16T
                              3
                               J d r
            The George d = minor School of
   for this calculation:W.r Woodruff diameter Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
                       Types of Screws/Fasteners
   Fasteners can be classified in different ways: by their intended use, by
   thread type, by head style, and by their strength.
   These fasteners are available in variety of materials including steel,
   stainless steel, aluminum, brass, bronze, and plastics.
Classification by Intended Use
Bolts and Machine screws:
Same fastener may take on different name for particular application.
  Bolt is fastener with head and straight threaded shank intended to be used
  with nut to clamp assembly together. See Fig 14-10a
  However, same fastener is called machine screw or cap screw when it is
  threaded into tapped hole rather than used with nut. See Fig. 14-10b
Studs:
   Headless fastener, threaded on both ends and intended to be semi-
   permanently threaded into one-half of assembly. See Fig. 14-10c

            The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




                   FIGURE 14-10
                   Bolt and Nut, Machine Screw and Stud


         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180                Types of Screws/Fasteners
Classification by Thread Type
  All fasteners intended to make their own hole or make their own threads
  are called tapping screws, as in self-tapping, thread-forming, thread cutting,
  and self-drilling screws. See Fig. 14-11
  These are used in sheet metal or plastic

Classification by Head Style
Slotted Screw:
  Many different types of head styles are made, including: straight-slot,
  cross-slot (Phillips), hexagonal, hexagonal socket and others. Head shape
  can be round, flat (recessed), filister, pan,etc. See Fig. 14-12

Socket-Head Cap Screw:
  Typically made of high-strength, hardened steel, stainless steel or other
  metals, and are used extensively in machinery. See Fig. 14-13

           The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




           FIGURE 14-13
           Various Styles of Socket-Head Cap Screws
           Courtesy of Cordova Bolt Inc., Buena Park, Calif.
         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180                     Nuts and Washers

  Nuts: Please read up on nuts on pp 897 Norton. See Fig. 14-14, & Fig. 14-
  15 on next slide
  Washers:
   • Plain washer is doughnut -shaped part that serves to increase area of
      contact between bolt head or nut and clamped part. See Fig. 10.
   • Hardened -steel washers are used where bolt compression load on
      clamped part needs to be distributed over larger area than bolt head or
      nut provides
   • Any plain washer also prevents marring of part surface by nut when it
      is tightened
   • Softer washer will yield in bending rather than effectively distribute
      load




          The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180


                                              FIGURE 14-14
                                              Various Styles of Standard Nuts
                                              Courtesy of Cordova Bolt Inc.,
                                              Buena Park, Calif., 90621




         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
                     Nuts and Fasteners Cont’d


  Lock Washers:
   • Help prevent spontaneous loosening of standard nuts (as opposed to
     lock nuts)
   • Can be used under nut of bolt or under head of machine screw. See Fig.
     14-16
  SEMS:
   • Are combinations of nuts and captive lock washers that remain with nut
   • Their main advantage is to ensure that lock washer will not be left out
     at assembly or reassembly. See Fig. 14-17




          The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




           FIGURE 14-16
           Types of Lock Washers
           Courtesy of Cordova Bolt Inc.,
           Buena Park, Calif., 90621




         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180                    Bolts and Fasteners
Strengths of Standard Bolts and Machine Screws
  Bolts and screws are selected based on their proof strength Sp.
  Proof strength is quotient of proof load and tensile-stress area
  Proof Load Fp is maximum load (force) that bolt can withstand
  without acquiring permanent set.
Preloaded Fastener in Tension
  Primary application of bolts and nuts is to clamp parts together, such
  that applied loads put bolt(s) in tension. See Fig. 14-21
  Joints are preloaded by tightening bolts with sufficient torques to create
  tensile loads that approach their proof strengths.




          The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180                      Fasteners Cont’d
  For statically loaded assemblies, preload that generates bolt stress as
  high as 90% of proof strength is sometimes used.

  For dynamically loaded assemblies (fatigue loading) preload that
  generates bolt stress as high as 75% or more of proof strengths is
  commonly used.

  If bolts are suitably sized for applied loads, these high preloads increase
  reliability of the bolts.

  Reasons for this are subtle and require an understanding of how
  elasticities of bolts and clamped members interact when bolt is tightened
  and when external load is later applied.

  Clamped members have spring constant .

  Bolt, being elastic, will stretch when tightened.


           The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
                      Spring Constants of Bolt
  Fig. 14.23 shows bolt clamping cylinder of known cross section and length.
  We want to examine loads, deflections, and stresses in both bolt and
  cylinder under preload and after an external load is applied.
  To examine above parameters, we must determine spring constants of
  bolt and members.




          The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
                       Spring Constants of Bolt
 Bolt:
    For bolt of diameter d and axially loaded thread length lt within its clamped
    zone of length l as shown in Fig. 14-21, spring constant is
   1     lt     l  lt    lt      ls
                                                                         14.11a
   Kb   At Eb   Ab Eb    At Eb   Ab Eb

     where:
     Ab is total cross-sectional area and At is tensile stressed area of bolt, and
     ls is length of unthreaded shank.




          The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
    ME3180

                        Spring Constants of Bolt Cont’d


                 1
           (2d  4 ) in                      L  6 in
LT  lth                                                         Table 8.7 (Shigley)
                  1
           (2d  ) in                        L  6 in
                 2

            (2d  6) mm          L  125 , d  48 mm
           
LT  lth   (2d  12) mm           125  L  200 mm                Table 8.7 (Shigley)
           (2d  25) mm                   L  200 mm
           

    Bolts shorter than standard thread lengths are threaded as close to head as
       possible

                The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
             Determining Joint Stiffness Factor Cont’d
  Fig. 14-30 shows results of finite element analysis (FEA) study of stress
  distribution in two-part joint-sandwich clamped together with single,
  preloaded bolt.
  Stress distribution around bolt resembles truncated-cone (or cone-frusta)
  barrel shape, as shown in Fig. 14-30a.




          The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




                      FIGURE 17.19
                      Lines of equal compressive stress in joint. Bolt loaded
                      to 100 kip. (Reprinted from [20], courtesy Marcel Dekker
                      Inc.)




         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180                    Spring Constants of Members
                               (Cylindrical Model)
Members:
  For cylindrical material geometry shown in Fig. 14-23 (ignoring flanges),
  material spring constant becomes:
          1       l         l         4l1           4l2
              1  2                                               14.11b
         Km      Am1 E1    Am 2 E2    D 2eff 1 E1    D 2eff 2 E2
    where:
    Am are effective areas of clamped materials and Deff are effective diameter
    of those areas
                               Deff  D2  d 2
                                 2
                                                                        14.11c
   If both clamped materials are same
                                      Am Em
                                Km                                     14.11d
                                          l
   If Am can be defined as solid cylinder with effective diameter Deff equation
   14.11d becomes
                        Am Em                  Deff Em
                                                    2

                 Km              or K m 
                           l                       4l
            The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
                 External Load on Bolted Connection

Let us consider what happens when external tensile load P is applied to bolted
connection in Fig. 14-23.

Assume clamping force which we call preload Fi, has been correctly applied
by tightening nut before P is applied.

Fi = preload
P = external tensile load
Pb = portion of P taken by bolt
Pm = portion of P taken by members
Fb = Pb + Fi = resultant bolt load
Fm = Fi - Pm = resultant load on members          Fm < 0



            The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180        External Load on Bolted Connection Cont’d
These results are valid as long as some clamping load remains in the members.

                                P = P b + Pm                        14.12a
The load P causes connection to stretch, or elongate.


                                     K                               14.13b
                                 Pb  b Pm
                                     Km
                                      Kb                             14.13c
                               Pb          P
                                    Km  Kb
Pb = CP, where                           Kb
                                 C
                                      Km  Kb
C is called joint’s stiffness constant or joint constant.
C is typically less than 1, and if Kb is small compared to Km, C will be small
   fraction. This confirms that bolt will see only portion of the applied load P.


             The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
             External Load on Bolted Connection Cont’d
Pm  0.8P. Also members can take even greater percentage of P, if grip is
longer. See Table 8.12 (Shigley)
                                 Km
                        Pm           P  (1  C)P          14.13d
                              Kb  Km
                              Fm  Fi  (1  C)P                14.14a

                                 Fb Fi  CP                      14.14b
Load Po required to separate the joint can be found from equation 14.14a by
setting Fm = 0.                           F
                                   Po  i
                                         1 C                            14.14c
Safety factor (or load factor) guarding against joint separation is
                                  Po   Fi
                               N    
                                  P P(1  C)                             14.14d


            The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
             External Load on Bolted Connection Cont’d
Tensile stress in bolt can be found by dividing Fb = CP + Fi by At.

                                     CP Fi
                              b                          section 8.9 in Shigley
                                     At At

Limiting value of b is the proof strength Sp. Thus with introduction of load
factor, above equation becomes:
                                CnP Fi
                                          Sp
                                 At At

                                     Sp A t  Fi
                                n
                                        CP

Any value of load factor (factor of safety), n  1, ensures that
                                       b  Sp
This implies that bolt will not fail.

            The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
             External Load on Bolted Connection Cont’d


From Shigley
      0.75 Fp for reused connections also used for dynamic loading
      
 Fi  
      0.90 Fp for permanent connections also used for static loading
      




Fp = A t Sp
For other materials not in Tables 14.6 and 14.7, use Sp = 0.85Sy
Where Sy is yield strength of that material.




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ME3180




         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




                       FIGURE 14-19
                       Head Marks for SAE Bolts


         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




                    FIGURE 14-20
                    Head Marks-Metric Bolts



         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180             Joints-Member Stiffness
                       (Cone Frusta Model)
  • Both stiffness of members and fasteners must be known in order to
  learn what happens when assembled connection is subjected to external
  tensile loading.
  • More than two members could be included in grip of fastener. All
  together these act like compressive springs in series, and hence total
  spring rate of members is

               1  1 1 1        1
                                                    (Equ.8-18 Shigley)
              km k1 k2 k3      ki
 • If one of members is soft gasket, its stiffness relative to other
 members is usually so small that for all practical purposes others can be
 neglected and only gasket stiffness is used.


           The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180
                    Joints-Member Stiffness (cont.)
• Figure 8-15 illustrates general cone geometry using half-apex angle α.
Angle α = 45° has been used, but Little reports that this overestimates
                                          3
clamping stiffness. In this book we shall use α = 30° except in cases in
which material is insufficient to allow frusta to exit.




• Thus spring rate or stiffness of this frustum is
                P         Ed tan 
           k 
              ln (2t tan   D  d )( D  d )
                                                                     (8-19)

                  (2t tan   D  d )( D  d )

           The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180                 Joints-Member Stiffness (cont.)

 With α = 30°, this becomes
                                0.5774 Ed
                    k                                            (8-20)
                           (1.155t  D  d )( D  d )
                        ln
                           (1.155t  D  d )( D  d )
 • Equations (8-20), or (8-19), must be solved separately for each
 frustum in the joint. Then individual stiffnesses are assembled to obtain
 κ m using Eq.(8-18).
 • If members of joint have same Young’s modulus E with symmetrical
 frusta back to back, then they act as two identical springs in series.
 From Eq.(8-18) we learn that κ m =κ/2. Using grip as l=2t and d w as
 diameter of washer face, we find spring rate of members to be

                                     Ed tan 
                    km 
                              (l tan   d w  d )( d w  d )        (8-21)
                         2 ln
                              (l tan   d w  d )( d w  d )
           The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180                Joints-Member Stiffness (cont.)


  • Diameter of washer face is about 50 percent greater than fastener
  diameter for standard hexagon-head bolts and cap screws. Thus we can
  simplify Eq.(8-21) by letting d W =1.5d . If we also use α = 30°, the
  Eq.(8-21) can be written as

                              0.5774 Ed
              km 
                            0.5774l  0.5d                  (8-22)
                     2 ln  5                    
                              0.5774l  2.5d  




          The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
ME3180




         The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

				
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