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					                              FAR’s
         Federal Aviation Regulations
                  “fun stuff”




Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative
       By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame

    “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                        FAA/FARs
Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Regulations
  Rules that apply to aviation, flight operations,
   construction of aircraft, training, and pilot
   certificates.
FARs are rules contained in the CFR –
 Code of Federal Regulations.


     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                         Development
 FAR’s are enforceable regulatory laws of the United States

 The FAA along with the DOT is allowed to issue and revise FAR’s

 Before FAR’s become law they are published in the Notices to
  Proposed Rule Making (NPRM) for a period of time.

 FAR texts are available directly from the FAA, via the FSDO or
  Internet

 FAR’s contain many sections, however the parts most relevant to you
  as private pilots are 61, 91, and NTSB 830.



        “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                                FARs
These two sections are:

FAR Part 61 (how we get our license)

FAR Part 91 (how we lose our license)




     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                       FAR Part 61
Governs the certification for pilots, flight
 instructors, and ground instructors

Includes:
    Change of Name and Address Regulations
    Medical Certificates
    Additional Training
    Logbooks
    Flight Reviews
    Flight Experience and PIC
    Night Operations

      “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                               Definitions
 Category
    Broad classification of aircraft
           Airplane
           Rotorcraft
           Glider
 Class
    Classification of aircraft within a category with similar operating characteristics
           Single-Engine
           Multi-Engine
 Type
    Required for:
           Large Aircraft
           Turbojet powered airplanes
           Other aircraft specified by the Administrator (Marion Blakey)
    Aircraft Specific
           i.e. B757




          “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
  Private Pilot Requirements
FAR §61.102 – 61.117
  Covers applicability, eligibility, aeronautical
   knowledge, flight proficiency, aeronautical
   experience, etc…

Airplane Single Engine:
  40 Hours Total
  20 with a CFI
  10 Solo Hours

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 Change of Name or Address
FAR 61.25 – Change of Name
   Send an application for name change accompanied by:
     Current airman certificate
     Copy of marriage license, court order or other document
      verifying name change
FAR 61.60 – Change of Address
   Pilot, flight instructor, or ground instructor may not
    exercise certificate privileges unless the FAA is notified
    in writing within 30 days of address change.



      “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
Change of Address Form




“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
 FAR 61.23 - Medical Certificates
 First Class
      Required for Airline Transport Pilot privileges
      Valid for 6 calendar months for pilots 40 and over
      Valid for 12 calendar months for pilots under 40
      After expiring becomes Second class
 Second Class
    Required for Commercial Pilot Privileges
    Valid for 12 calendar months
    After 12 calendar months becomes Third class
 Third Class
    Required for Student (Solo), Recreational, and Private Pilot
     privileges
    Valid for 24 calendar months for pilots 40 and over
    Valid for 60 calendar months for pilots under 40

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 FAR 61.31 - Additional Training
Operation of Complex airplanes (retractable gear,
 flaps, and constant speed propeller)
    Received and logged ground and flight training from an
     authorized CFI
    Received a one time endorsement from CFI certifying
     proficiency
Operation of high performance airplanes (one
 engine of more than 200 horse power)
    Received and logged ground instruction and flight
     training from an authorized CFI
    Received a one time endorsement from CFI certifying
     proficiency

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 FAR 61.31 - Additional Training
             (cont.)
Operation of tailwheel airplanes
    Received and logged flight training from an authorized
     CFI
    Received a one time endorsement from CFI certifying
     proficiency
Operation of pressurized aircraft (high-altitude
 endorsement - above 25,000 MSL)
    Received and logged ground and flight training from an
     authorized CFI
    Received a one time endorsement from CFI certifying
     proficiency

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  FAR 61.51 – Pilot Logbooks
Purpose of logbook is to demonstrate currency
 and qualification for additional certificates/ratings

Presentation of documents for inspection
    Logbook, pilot certificate, medical certificate, or other
    Reasonable request from Administrator, authorized
     NTSB agent, federal, state, or local law enforcement
     officer



       “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
  FAR 61.56 – Flight Reviews
No person may act as pilot in command unless
   They have accomplished a flight review in the
    preceding 24 calendar months
   They have a logbook endorsement from the authorized
    flight instructor who gave the review, certifying that the
    person has satisfactorily completed the review
Flight Review Syllabus
   Minimum of one hour of flight instruction on
    maneuvers that the CFI feels are appropriate for the
    certificate privileges being exercised.
   Minimum of one hour of ground instruction on Part 91
    of the FARs

      “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
  FAR 61.57 – Recent Flight
Experience as Pilot In Command
General Experience for Carrying Passengers
    Three takeoffs and landings within the preceding 90
     days in the same category and class
    Accomplished a flight review in preceding 24 calendar
     months – see FAR 61.56
Night Experience for Carrying Passengers
    Three takeoffs and landing to a full stop within the
     preceding 90 days in the same category and class
    Accomplished a flight review in the preceding 24
     calendar months – see FAR 61.56
Tail Wheel Aircraft – must be to a full stop day
 and night!

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                   Night Ops
FAR 61.51 – Logging of Night Time
•One hour after civil sunset
•One hour before civil sunrise


FAR 91.209 – Aircraft light
•Required for operation from sunset to sunrise
   •Turn on position lights
   •Turn on anti-collision light (strobes), if available
   • (unless PIC determines it’s in interest of safety to turn off)
       “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                       FAR Part 91
 Responsibility of PIC
 Dropping of Objects
 Alcohol and Drugs
 Preflight Action
 Use of Seatbelts
 Fuel Requirements
 MSA’s
 Required Documents
 Compliance with ATC Clearances
 ELT’s
 Oxygen Requirements
 Inspections
      “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
FAR 91.3 PIC Responsibility
Directly responsible for, and the final
 authority as to the operation of the aircraft



In an emergency, PIC may deviate from
 any stated rule to meet that emergency



     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
 FAR 91.15 Dropping of Objects
No PIC may allow an object to dropped
 from an aircraft that creates a hazard to
 persons or property

An object may be dropped if reasonable
 precautions are taken to avoid injury or
 damage to persons or property


     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
  FAR 91.17 – Alcohol and Drugs
 No person may act as crew
     Within 8 hours of drinking alcoholic
      beverages
     While under the influence of alcohol
      or drugs
     While having 0.04% (by weight)
      alcohol level in blood
 Only in an emergency is the PIC
  allowed to carry a person under the
  influence of drugs and alcohol
 Crew members must submit to
  drug/alcohol testing if requested to do
  so by law enforcement officer



         “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
  FAR 91.103 Preflight Action
 Each PIC shall, before
  beginning a flight, become
  familiar with all available
  information about the
  flight including:
    Weather reports
    Fuel requirements
    Alternates
    Traffic delays
    Runway lengths at airports
     of intended use
    Takeoff and landing
     information in POH

       “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
 FAR 91.107 Use of Seat Belts, Shoulder
 Harnesses, and Child Restraint Systems

No PIC may take off unless he/she ensures that
 each person on board is briefed on how to fasten
 and unfasten that person’s safety belt and, if
 installed, their shoulder harness

No PIC may move on the surface, take off, or land
 unless PIC ensures that each person on board has
 been notified to fasten that person’s safety belt
 and, if installed, their shoulder harness

      “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
           Fuel Requirements
VFR Requirements Part 91.151
  DAY TIME - Must have enough fuel on board
   to fly to original intended point of landing and
   30 minutes beyond that point
  NIGHT TIME – 45 mins

IFR Requirements Part 91.167
  Fly to airport of intended landing, then fly to
   the alternate filed at normal cruise, then 45
   minutes thereafter.
     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
    FAR 91.113 – Right of Way Rules
 An aircraft in distress has right of way over all other aircraft

 An aircraft being over taken has the right of way and must be passed on the
  right

 When two aircraft of the same category are converging, but not head-on, the
  aircraft to the left shall give way

 When two aircraft of the same category are converging on a head-on collision
  course, both aircraft shall give way to the right

 The least maneuverable aircraft normally has the right of way:
    balloon over glider over aircraft refueling in flight over airship over
      airplane over rotorcraft

 When two or more aircraft are approaching an airport for landing, the right of
  way belongs to the aircraft at the lower altitude

          “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
FAR 91.119 Minimum Safe Altitudes
The minimum safe altitude anywhere must allow
 an emergency landing, following an engine
 failure, without undue hazard to persons or
 property on the surface.
Congested area –
    1,000 ft. in a 2,000 ft. radius
Uncongested area-
    500 ft.
Over sparsely populated areas or open water –
    500 ft. of any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.

       “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
   FAR 91.123 Compliance with
        ATC Clearances
When an ATC clearance has been obtained, no
 PIC may deviate from that clearance unless:
   An amended clearance is obtained
   An emergency exists
   Deviation is in response to a traffic alert and collision
    avoidance system resolution advisory
When PIC is uncertain of an ATC clearance, PIC
 should request clarification
ATC clearances are not authorization to deviate
 from the rules

      “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
 Required Airman Documents
Pilot Certificate
Medical Certificate
Government issued ID




     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
 Required Aircraft Documents
Use the Mnemonic A-
 R-O-W
   Airworthiness
    certificate
   Registration certificate
   Operating handbook                                                              FAR’s
    (POH)                                                       Federal Aviation Regulations
                                                                Federal Aviation Regulations
                                                                         “fun stuff”
                                                                         “fun stuff”
   Weight and Balance
    data
                                                      Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative
                                                      Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative
                                                             By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame
                                                             By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame

                                                          “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”




      “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
Required Aircraft Instruments
            DAY VFR                                        NIGHT VFR
 TOMATO FLAMES                                 Day VFR +
     Tachometer
     Oil Pressure
                                                FLAPS
     Manifold Pressure                                 Fuses
     Altitude Indicator                                Landing Lights (for hire)
     Temperature Gauges (liquid-                       Anti-collision lights
      cooled engines)                                   Position lights
     Oil Temperature (air-cooled                       Source of Power
      engines)
     Fuel Gauges
     Landing light position indicator (if
      applicable)
     Airspeed Indicator
     Magnetic Compass
     ELT
     Seat Belts



        “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
            FAR 91.207 - ELTs
Emergency Locator Transmitter
Operates on 121.5 Mhz (or 406 Mhz)
ELT batteries must be:
    Inspected every 12 calendar months
    Replaced after one hour of continuous use or after 50%
     of useful life has expired as determined by
     manufacturer
Aircraft cannot be flown without a functioning
 ELT, except:
    When being ferried to another airport for ELT
     installations, replacement, or repair
    Only aircrews may fly on the ferry flight, no passengers
      “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
FAR 91.211 – Use of Oxygen
Flight crews must use oxygen
  12,500 ft MSL up to and including 14,000 ft
   MSL for more than 30 mins
  Above 14,000 ft MSL at all times
Passengers must be provided oxygen
  Above 15,000 ft MSL
Altitudes shown above are cabin pressure
 altitudes
     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
            Aircraft Inspections
FAR 91.409 Airframe and Powerplant Inspections
   Every 12 calendar months (annual)
   Every 100 hrs for aircraft used for hire
FAR 91.411 Pitot-Static System Tests and
 Inspection
   Every 24 calendar months
FAR 91.413 Transponder Tests and Inspection
   Every 24 calendar months



      “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                          NTSB 830
Immediate notification to a National Safety Board
 field office in the event of the following:
    Aircraft accident
    Any of the following incidents
      Flight control system or malfunction
      Inability of flight crew member to perform flight duties due to
       injury or illness
      In-flight fire
      Mid-air collision
      Damage to other property (not aircraft) of more than $25,000


      “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
           BE GREAT AND
           CONCENTRATE!


“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”

				
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