Drug Tolerance and Dependence by ewghwehws

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									Learning
  Psy 202
 Classical
Conditioning
         Classical
        Conditioning
Classical conditioning -is learning in which organisms
associate stimuli and thus associate events. It must
include a respondent behavior (a behavior that occurs
as an automatic response to some stimulus).




              Videos on Classical Conditioning
             http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eo7jcI8fAuI
            http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FKZAYt77ZM
     http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhqumfpxuzI&feature=related
             Classical
            Conditioning
1. Before Conditioning                   2. Before Conditioning




Unconditioned        Unconditioned         Neutral                No conditioned
  stimulus             response           Stimulus                  response

3. During Conditioning                   4. After Conditioning




      +
                         Unconditioned    Conditioned              Conditioned
                           response        Stimulus                 response
                      Here’s Another Example
                                                             Pain
                     Getting
                                                             and
                     Punched
                                                             tears
         Unconditioned                       Unconditioned
         Stimulus                            Response
                                   Getting                     Pain
           Duckling                Punched                     and
                                                               tears
                          Unconditioned
Neutral Stimulus                               Unconditioned
                          Stimulus
                                               Response


               Duckling
                                             Conditioned
              Conditioned
                                             Response
              Stimulus                                       Fear of
                                                             Pain
                                                             and
                                                             tears
     Factors that Affect the Strength
       of Classical Conditioning
1.   Intensity
2.   Number of Pairings
3.   Temporal Relationship
4.   Reliability of Prediction
            Learning Vocab

•Extinction
•Spontaneous Recovery
•Generalization
•Discrimination
                                    Learning Vocab
        •Biological predispositions
 A study on biological predispositions for classical conditioning found that rats could easily learn
 that changes in taste predicted nausea (caused by radiation poisoning) and that flashing lights
 predicted electric shocks. But rats could NOT learning that taste predicted electric shock (even
 with multiple trials with 100% reliability) nor that flashing lights predicted nausea (caused by
 radiation poisoning that was presented with 100% reliability after the flashing lights).

Learned                    Radiation                                                  Electric
                           poisoning                      Couldn’t
                                                                                      shock
                                                           Learn
                           Sugared flavored                                         Sugared flavored
                                water                                                    water

                                              Radiation                             Electric
        Couldn’t                              poisoning                             shock
         Learn
                                                                     Learned
                                          Flashing lights
                                                                                         Flashing lights
           Operant
         Conditioning
Operant conditioning is the process of changing
behavior by following a response with reinforcement.

                        Behavior                              Behavior
                        increases                             decreases

       Addition of      Positive                              Positive
       stimulus         Reinforcement                         Punishment
                        Ex. $15 is given for every ‘A’ on      Ex. Slap a child every time
                        a child’s report card.                 they use a bad word.

       Removal of       Negative                              Negative
       stimulus         Reinforcement
                     Ex. Your child is crying, but when you
                                                              Punishment
                                                              Ex. No more Nintendo for a child
                     scream at him, he stops. Negative stimulus
                     = crying. Behavior that will be increase = who mouths off to their mom.
                     screaming at the child.
            Operant
        Conditioning
Schedules of Reinforcement: the frequency and
timing of a response depend on the schedule of
reinforcement

 Type              Description
 Continuous        Reinforcement for every response of the correct type.

 Fixed Ratio       Reinforcement following completion of a specific number of
                   responses.
 Variable ratio    Reinforcement for an unpredictable number of responses that
                   varies around a mean value

 Fixed Interval    Reinforcement for the first response that follows a given delay
                   since the previous reinforcement.

 Variable interval Reinforcement for the first response that follows an unpredictable
                   delay (varying around a mean value) since the previous
                   reinforcement.
             Learning Vocab

•Extinction
•Spontaneous Recovery
•Generalization Discrimination
•Biological predispositions
•Shaping
            Observational Learning
                            Also called Modeling




Mirror neurons video
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XzMqPYfeA-s

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B5dvTZOKq0c
 Observational Learning


The Power of Observational
        Learning
      http://youtube.com/watch?v=7ZscS775ek8


      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JfHB2cruJU




                             What Does the Media Teach Us?
                                   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZeE_Ymzc1rE
              Learning Vocab

Elicitation effect
•Disinhibitary effect
•Inhibitory effect

								
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