Quiz T/F 1.) Women talk more than men. 2.) Women are more likely than men to communicate through physical touch. 3.) Women use less personal space than men. 4.) Men do not live as long as women. Sex and Gender Identity What are little girls made of? Sugar and Spice And everything nice. That is what little girls are made of. What are little boys made of? Snips and Snails And puppy dog tails. That is what little boys are made of. ► Sex-classification of people as male or female based on biological characteristics ► How are you assumed to look? ► How are you assumed to behave? ► Gender: in social science it specifically refers to social differences such as gender identity ► Gender identity: an awareness of being masculine or feminine, based on culture. Biological Determinism ►Belief that the behavioral differences are the result of inherited characteristics (male/female behavior is genetically determined). ► Parents often point out - Muscular legs and broad shoulders in baby boys - Long eyelashes, rosebud mouth, delicate curls in girls Parents stress characteristics of the ideal male or female: modes of dress, ways of walking, ways of talking, play activities, life goals, etc. Gender Identity A sense of being male or female based on learned cultural values. Biology Differences ► Muscle to bone ratios ► How fat is stored ► Reproductive organs ► Ability to impregnate or be impregnated ► Can you think of any more? Does this lead to different Social Behavior? ► Female babies are more sensitive to sound ► Male children are more likely to hit or shout in their early forms of play Across Cultures ► Males ► Females - Value physical - Value social class and appearance in a mate income in a mate - Prefer women slightly - Prefer men slightly younger than older than themselves themselves Is this Biological or Cultural? ► How do sociologists see it? -Cultural Margaret Mead the Arapesh, Mundugmar and ► Studied Tchambuli cultures in New Guinea. ► Arapesh:Females conditioned to be cooperative, unagressive, and empathetic ► Mundugumor: both men and women are “masculine”: aggressive, ruthless, unresponsive to eachother’s needs ► Tchambuli: women were dominant and aggressive , men were dependent and submissive ► Mead concludes: gender roles are not fixed at birth Section 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Gender ► Functionalism & Gender: Functionalists believe the division of responsibilities between males & females exists as long as it benefits human living. ► Ex:Early humans found that the division of labor based on sex was efficient ► Functionalists recognize that the traditional divisions of labor have created problems or “dysfunctions” in modern society Theoretical Perspectives on Gender cont. ► Conflict Theory & Gender: Conflict theorists believe that by keeping the traditional division of labor intact, men can preserve the privileges they enjoy. ► Conflict theorists see traditional gender roles as outdated and impractical in modern society Theoretical Perspectives on Gender cont. ► Symbolic Interactionism & Gender: Symbolic interactionists focus on – * gender socialization: the social process of learning how to act as a boy or girl We learn this from parents, school, the media, etc. Section 3 Gender Inequality Women as a Minority Group – ► Sexism: set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, and values used to justify sexual inequality ► Sexist ideology: the belief that one sex is naturally superior to the other What type of sexist ideology has been historically dominant? Occupational & Economic Inequality ► US labor force in 1900 82% were men and 18% were women ► Today women make up just under half of the US labor force. - What kind of jobs are women doing? - Do women earn less than men in the US? - In which country are women earning more than men? Political Inequality ► Even though women constitute more than half the population, they hold a small # of key political positions. Look at Figure 10.7 in your text & analyze the data Section 4: Ageism ► Age stratification: the unequal distribution of scarce resources based on age ► Ageism: discrimination against people of a certain age group Functionalism & Ageism say that the role of the aged ► Functionalists varies from one society to another. ► Some cultures respect and honor the aged. ► In technical societies the status of the aged may diminish if they do not possess current skills Conflict Theory & Ageism ► Competitionover scarce resources is the primary concern for a conflict theorist. ► High-pricedolder workers are replaced by cheaper younger ones. Forced retirement has been used to remove elderly competitors: This is why elderly stereotypes exist. Symbolic Interactionism & Ageism ► Through socialization stereotypes of elderly people are often firmly established. Section 5: Inequality in America’s Elderly Population ► Read pages 333-338 on your own.
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