Sex and Gender Identity by dfhdhdhdhjr

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									                Quiz T/F
1.) Women talk more than men.
2.) Women are more likely than men to
  communicate through physical touch.
3.) Women use less personal space than men.
4.) Men do not live as long as women.
Sex and Gender Identity
       What are little girls made of?
              Sugar and Spice
            And everything nice.
    That is what little girls are made of.

       What are little boys made of?
              Snips and Snails
            And puppy dog tails.
    That is what little boys are made of.
► Sex-classification of people as male or
 female based on biological characteristics

► How are you assumed to look?
► How are you assumed to behave?
► Gender:   in social science it specifically
 refers to social differences such as gender
 identity

► Gender identity: an awareness of being
 masculine or feminine, based on culture.
     Biological Determinism

►Belief that the behavioral
 differences are the result of
 inherited characteristics
 (male/female behavior is
 genetically determined).
► Parents  often point out
- Muscular legs and broad shoulders in baby
  boys
- Long eyelashes, rosebud mouth, delicate
  curls in girls
Parents stress characteristics of the ideal male
  or female: modes of dress, ways of walking,
  ways of talking, play activities, life goals,
  etc.
            Gender Identity
A sense of being male or female based on learned
  cultural values.
           Biology Differences
► Muscle   to bone ratios
► How fat is stored
► Reproductive organs
► Ability to impregnate or be impregnated
► Can you think of any more?
   Does this lead to different Social
               Behavior?
► Female   babies are more sensitive to sound
► Male children are more likely to hit or shout
  in their early forms of play
             Across Cultures
► Males                   ► Females
- Value physical          - Value social class and
  appearance in a mate      income in a mate
- Prefer women slightly   - Prefer men slightly
  younger than              older than themselves
  themselves
   Is this Biological or Cultural?
► How  do sociologists see it?
-Cultural
             Margaret Mead
       the Arapesh, Mundugmar and
► Studied
 Tchambuli cultures in New Guinea.

► Arapesh:Females conditioned to be
 cooperative, unagressive, and empathetic

► Mundugumor:  both men and women are
 “masculine”: aggressive, ruthless,
 unresponsive to eachother’s needs
► Tchambuli:   women were dominant and
  aggressive , men were dependent and
  submissive
► Mead concludes: gender roles are not
  fixed at birth
 Section 2: Theoretical Perspectives
             on Gender
► Functionalism     & Gender: Functionalists believe
  the division of responsibilities between males &
  females exists as long as it benefits human living.

► Ex:Early humans found that the division of labor
  based on sex was efficient

► Functionalists  recognize that the traditional
  divisions of labor have created problems or
  “dysfunctions” in modern society
 Theoretical Perspectives on Gender
                cont.
► Conflict  Theory & Gender: Conflict
  theorists believe that by keeping the
  traditional division of labor intact, men can
  preserve the privileges they enjoy.

► Conflict theorists see traditional gender
  roles as outdated and impractical in modern
  society
 Theoretical Perspectives on Gender
                cont.
► Symbolic  Interactionism & Gender:
 Symbolic interactionists focus on –
 * gender socialization: the social process
 of learning how to act as a boy or girl

We learn this from parents, school, the media,
 etc.
    Section 3 Gender Inequality
           Women as a Minority Group –

► Sexism:  set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, and
  values used to justify sexual inequality

► Sexist  ideology: the belief that one sex is
  naturally superior to the other

What type of sexist ideology has been historically
 dominant?
    Occupational & Economic Inequality
► US labor force in 1900 82% were men and
  18% were women
► Today women make up just under half of the
  US labor force.

-   What kind of jobs are women doing?
-   Do women earn less than men in the US?
-   In which country are women earning more
    than men?
          Political Inequality
► Even though women constitute more than
 half the population, they hold a small # of
 key political positions.

Look at Figure 10.7 in your text & analyze the
  data
          Section 4: Ageism
► Age  stratification: the unequal
 distribution of scarce resources based on
 age

► Ageism:  discrimination against people of a
 certain age group
       Functionalism & Ageism
               say that the role of the aged
► Functionalists
 varies from one society to another.

► Some   cultures respect and honor the aged.
► In technical societies the status of the aged
  may diminish if they do not possess current
  skills
     Conflict Theory & Ageism
► Competitionover scarce resources is the
 primary concern for a conflict theorist.

► High-pricedolder workers are replaced by
 cheaper younger ones. Forced retirement
 has been used to remove elderly
 competitors: This is why elderly stereotypes
 exist.
 Symbolic Interactionism & Ageism

► Through socialization stereotypes of elderly
 people are often firmly established.
  Section 5: Inequality in America’s
          Elderly Population
► Read   pages 333-338 on your own.

								
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