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					CMI Tiny Tech Meeting
Meeting Agenda:
15.00   Welcome                                                       5 mins    Ted Acworth (MIT)
15.05   Introduction & Review of Projects                             40 mins
                                                                                Prof W I Milne (CU)
            o   MEMs: material design and processing for MMAs
                                                                                Prof D Boning (MIT)
                                                                                Prof K A Nelson (MIT)
            o   Optical properties of nanoscale arrays
                                                                                Prof J F Scott (CU)
                                                                                Prof C A Ross (MIT)
            o   Magnetoelectronic devices
                                                                                Prof J A C Bland (CU)
                                                                                Prof A H Windle (CU)
            o   Ultimate Polymer: Carbon nanotube enabled materials
                                                                                Prof M C Boyce (MIT)
15.45   An outline of CMI’s rationale for a TinyT ech KIC             10 mins   Ted Acworth
15.55   Conclusions from meeting and development of action plan       30 mins
            o   A list of grand vision ideas
            o   A list of potential collaborators
            o   Who should be included from Industry / Go vernment              All

            o   Should CMI hire a KIC Manager to go after funding
                sources
            o   Next steps
16.25   Closing remarks                                               5 mins    Ted Acworth
16.30   Networking / refreshments                                     30mins
17.00   End of meeting
   CMI Project Review:
Project Name: MEMS Research:
Materials Design and Processing
           for MMAs
         Number: P/059
Report Period 05/2004-10/2004
               1                  3
             Page 1
                         MEMS Research:
          Materials Design and Processing for MMAs
Cambridge PI’s: Prof. Bill Milne, Prof. Norman Fleck, CU
  Engineering Dept.
MIT PI:         Prof. Duane Boning, EECS (replaces Prof. Spearing)

Co-investigators: Flewitt, Moore, Seshia, Schmidt, Sutcliffe,
  Thompson, Wardle, Williams
• Objective: To establish an intellectual community at Cambridge,
  focused on the development of MicroElectroMechanical Systems
  (MEMS), introducing new materials, processes and design
  methods.
• Intended Outcomes: Establishment of intellectual community at
  Cambridge, linked to MIT, built upon existing strengths at CUED.
  Generation of research results, and IP in areas of new materials,
  processes, material/process/sensor/actuator selection,
  actuator/sensor optimization, test methods for MEMS/MMA’s
Progress In Past Six Months (beyond technical)
• Important activities, collaborations:
   – Collaborations
      • Mark Spearing has visited CUED several times during this period and
        has now moved to Southampton University
      • Carl Thompson has visited CUED during this period
      • Weekly MEMS meetings continuing at CUED and MIT
      • Discussions with Richard Syms I.C, Paul Kirby Cranfield, Julian
        Gardner Warwick University re interactions
      • Hayden Taylor (CU@MIT exchange ’02-03) completed MEng at CU
        (’04) with D. Moore, has started Ph.D. at MIT in Fall ‘04
   – Several papers published or in preparation with joint
     authorship between CUED and MIT
   – Web Site has been set up       www-g.eng.cam.ac.uk/edm

                                     Page 4
        Progress In Past 6 Months (technical)
•   Sutcliffe et al working on CMP.
•   Luo, Flewitt, Milne and Chua have continued work on DLC MEMS growth, material
    development and device design and fabrication. Also the DLC work has been further
    extended by Luo et al to optimise the Ni/DLC bimorph actuated normally closed
    microgrippers- modified for Bio applications
•   Flewitt and Moore worked on Micro-test system development.
•   Tribological behaviour of MEMS materials by K S Faszer and John Williams .
•   Chua, Milne et al investigated DLC for SAW devices.
•   Fleck , Chua et al worked on microshear testing facility- new
•   Flewitt and Ahsan worked on deployable locks based on a variety of material systems.
•   Seshia continued work on MEMS devices specifically, micromechanical resonator
    oscillators for wireless transceiver and sensor applications, micromechanical
    biosensors, and inertial sensors
•   Published guidelines/protocols for direct wafer bonding (K. Turner Ph.D. May ‘04)
•   Boning continued work on DRIE wafer-level and pattern-dependent models
•   Wardle joined effort and worked on piezoelectric vibrational energy harvesters- new



                                          Page 5
New Material Development - DLC Devices
 Luo, Milne, Flewitt, Spearing and Fleck              Pages 14 & 15
• Creation of bimorph structures to create normally closed grippers
• Combination of DLC and electrolytic Ni
• Thermal actuation by resistance heating
• Builds on earlier work on electro-deposition, DLC, micro-
  mechanical testing and modeling
• Potential applications for bio-MEMS cell capture
         Bio-compatible structure_1
                                             120.0


                                             100.0




                         Displacement (µm)
 d3          Polymer                          80.0


                                              60.0
d2
               Ni
                                              40.0


d1             DLC                            20.0
                    L
                                               0.0
                                                     0             1             2     3           4           5           6       7

      DLC/Ni:100/500nm                                   Bi-layer
                                                                                     Input Voltage (V)
                                                                                                    SU8 Tri-layer
                                                         Polyimide Tri-layer                        Poly. (Bi-layer)
      Polymer:100nm                                      Poly. (SU8 Tri-layer)                      Poly. (Polyimide Tri-layer )

      Stress: 6GPa                                          A thin polymer on a bimorph structure
                                                            does not change the displacement of
                                                            the device, but acts as a coating layer
  Variable capacitor with DLC insulator
                                     Page 17




DLC as insulator
                                Cantilever type
                    (d)
              (e)
              (c)         (f)




                                Bridge type
     Micro Piezoelectric Vibration
     Energy Harvester (MPVEH)
             Brian Wardle, MIT Aero/Astro
• Objectives
   – Power for wireless sensor node
     applications such as infrastructure &
     structural health monitoring (SHM), RFID
     tags, homeland security, etc.
   – MEMS fabrication development
   – Low-level ambient sources targeted
   – Predictive design tools


• Needs
   – Pervasive power from pervasive ambient
     sources
   – Wireless sensor’s power trending down,
     currently in 10-100s of mW range
   – Voltage levels on order of Volts (3V std.)
Other Items
• Developments worth publicizing: Nano/MEMS
  M.Phil now up and running.

• Modifications to statement of work and/or
  funding: essentially unchanged from original
  proposal.

• Expected financial profile: near constant spend
  rate to end of project. All staff now in place.
    Plans For Next Six Months
•   Expected activities, collaborations:
     – Continued interchange of personnel, ideas
     – Increased interaction with industry as project thrusts yield results (wafer bonding/CMP,
        DRIE, materials selection)
     – Increased focus on devices in research
          • Integration of thermal grippers into practical devices - need to discuss further with
             Ted Acworth
•   Expected milestones/deliverables:
     – Publish guidelines/protocols for DRIE (MIT)
     – Challenges and/or Issues To Address
•   Problem/Concern:
     – Continuation of MEMS activity beyond CMI funding (one year to go)
•   Plan for resolution:
     – CU side actively looking for other funding sources for CU MEMS activities, some EU
        and EPSRC funding obtained, other sources sought
     – Funding for MEMS at CUED is continuing to increase
•   How CMI can help
     – KIC -Tinytech?
                                               Page 22
Project 1/97 slides
  CMI Project Review:
  Optical Properties of Nanoscale
              Arrays
             CMI-001
Fabricate Voltage-Tunable Photonic
              Devices
     Filled with Ferroelectrics
               P/097
          May – Nov 2004
Optical Properties of Nanoscale Arrays
Voltage-Tunable Photonic Devices
Cambridge PI : Prof. James F. Scott, Earth Science Dept.
MIT PI : Prof. Keith A Nelson, Chemistry Dept.
• Brief Description of Project:
Fabricate micron- or submicron-arrays of voltage-tunable
  ferroelectric devices consisting of two-dimensional
  patterns of high refractive index rods
Characterize GHz-THz dielectric responses through
  "polaritonics" measurements w/ micron spatial resolution
• Summary of Intended Outcomes:
Delivery and test of a small number of prototype devices
Prototype apparatus for GHz-THz dielectric metrology
 Progress In Past Six Months
•Important activities, collaborations:
    • Investigation of Pd-acetate based precursors for electroding
    • Continued collaboration with Finlay Morrison (Royal Soc. URF)
    • Continued discussions with Company X – exploratory pro bono
      experiments underway for microfluidics (ink-jet printers)
    • Contractual discussions with Company Y – drug delivery systems
      (monodisperse inhalers)
    • Contractual discussions with Company Z – venture capital company
      offering an initial £100,000.
    • Fabrication of 10-20 micron polaritonics structural elements
    • Direct imaging of polariton fields in 10-20 micron structures
    • FDTD simulations of polariton propagation in small structures
    • Study of candidate materials for smaller polaritonics length scales
    • Basis of ~ 50 kV/cm THz electric fields established
                       THz polaritonic bandgap
                     materials fabricated in FE films
                         by fs laser machining
                     Can control THz polariton wave
                         propagation, focusing
                     Will reach 1-5 mm feature sizes
                                                        Polariton bandgap movie
•Milestones achieved:
   • Alternate electrode material (Ru) sourced : DER (2,4-
     Dimethylpentadienyl)(ethylcyclopentadienal)ruthenium
   • Nanotubes fabricated using both Trento and KTH
     substrates
•Deliverables completed:
   • Nanotube arrays from Trento and KTH substrates
   • Thin film polaritonics paper submitted for publication
 Plans For Next Six Months
• Expected activities, collaborations :
   •   Use of ruthenium for electroding (DER from Tosoh Corp)
   •   Receive delivery of Rapid Thermal Processor
   •   Continuation toward smaller length scales, higher THz fields
   •   Renewed attempt at THz polaritonics in FE nanotubes
• Expected milestones:
   •   Nanotubes with concentric electrode structure (Pd/SBT/Ru)
   •   Investigate electrical properties of single electroded nanotube
   •   Addressable array of electroded nanotubes
   •   1-5 micron polaritonics length scales
   •   50 kV/cm THz fields
• Expected deliverables:
   • Fabrication of single electroded nanotube and evaluate piezoelectric
     response
   • Fabricate a small (4x4, 16 bit) array of addressable nanotubes
   • Publications on simulations & THz measurements in small structures
Other Items
• Modifications to statement of work and/or
  funding:

• Expected financial profile:
   • MIT is out of funds!
• Anything else:
   • PDRA Dr Veronika Kugler successfully attained
     permanent post in UK industry (Carl Zeiss SMT Ltd)
   • JFS has given 5 invited talks in the last 6 months:
     MAGEL (La Rochelle, July), Eur. Physical Soc
     (Prague, Aug), Int. Conf. On Domains (Tsukuba, Aug),
     Eur. Conf on Appl of Polar Dielectrics (Liberec, Sept),
     NATO Adv Research Workshop (Lvov, Oct).
PR / Communications / Events
• Any previous press interest in your project? By
  whom? What media?
   • Cambridge Univ. Research Services expects a press
     release by March or April.
• Upcoming events, major publications, noteworthy
  dates in the next six months:
   • No publications on Cambridge work due to
     proprietary/patent reasons.
   • Publications on simulations & THz measurements in
     small structures
• Do you need any help with your PR /
  communications / event planning?
Challenges And/or Issues To Address
• Problem/Concern:
   • The deposition of Pd electrodes has turned out to be a
     complex materials science problem. Although Pd-acetate is
     a confirmed methodology (Steinhart, 2003), the processing
     does not normally produce an atomically flat, uniform sheet
     of metallic Pd as the electrode; rather, it yields crystals (see
     attached figures). Although these do conduct, in our
     judgment they are not suitable for commercial devices.
                                          Figure. Pd particles formed
                                          by thermal decomposition of
                                          a Pd-acetate thin film


  1.0 μm              0.5 μm
Challenges And/or Issues To Address
• Plan for resolution:
   • Ongoing investigation of incorporation of co-polymer
     (e.g. polyethylene glycol) to improve Pd microstructure
   • We have already taken delivery of a new Ru precursor
     chemical [Ruthenium-DER] from Tosoh (Tokyo) which
     has been shown in an unpublished Samsung-Tokyo
     collaboration to produce superior electrodes in DRAM
     trenches, compared with Pd.
• How CMI can help:
   • This electroding problem has caused a 3-month delay
     and associated unbudgeted costs.
Project 61 slides
       Magnetoelectronic Devices
Cambridge PI: Prof. J. Anthony C. Bland, Cavendish Lab.
MIT PI: Prof. Caroline A. Ross, Materials Science and
 Engineering Department
MIT Co-PI: Dr. Jagadeesh S. Moodera, Francis Bitter Magnet
 Laboratory

Brief Description of Project:
To develop the technology of magnetoelectronic devices. This will
  be achieved by work on two specific devices : an MRAM
  (magnetic random access memory) and a spin-diode. To select
  at least one of these devices for prototyping. To interact with
  potential manufacturers in the UK to bring a magnetoelectronic
  device to market.
 MRAM prototypes based on
    Elliptical Ring cells
      F. J. Castaño, C. A. Ross

Top: Made using evaporation: Co/Cu/NiFe
ring, Au/Ti metal
Bottom: Made using sputtering: 20nm NiFe
ring, Ta/Cu/Ta metal                              500 nm




                    2 um                   2 um
20 nm NiFe/10 nm FeMn rings of different widths: note
exchange bias
Determination of vortex state circulation in a single
ring during one applied field cycle
T.J. Hayward, T.A. Moore, CU                                 O-V V-O
                                                             Hc1
Two major switching routes
                                                  +
                                                                                 Hc2
• Vortex state has same circulation (+
or -) on both downward and upward
field sweeps                                                                            +
Focused Kerr microscopy
                    Incident beam                            V-O O-V

                                                  -
                                    NiFe ring
                                    dout = 5 mm       Hc2
                                    din = 3 mm
 Sinusoidal field
                                                                        Hc1             -
Observed transitions:                                 -400 -200     0    200      400
O-V = onion-vortex, V-O = vortex-onion
                                                            Applied field (Oe)
Design for a ring sensor element                                                               T.J. Hayward,
                                                                                               J. Llandro
             Applied             Fixed layer: onion state
             field               Free layer: has vortex state at remanence

      Bead                      • Bead absent: free layer oscillates between onion
                                and remanent vortex state
                                • Bead present: switching to onion state is
 GMR                            suppressed
 ring                           • Measured as a change in the MR
 stack                                                           Varaiation of relative            with b for
                                                               Resistance vs. resistancefree layer all four possible
                                                                                         current contact position
                                                                                     states of the

External field distn:
     on present
bead nottop of ring                                                                                              Max
                        Ring d = 2 mm    Relative resistance
                                                               1.015
                                                                                                                 separation
                        Bead d = 2 mm
                                                                            Anti - Aligned Onion
                                                                            Vortex 1
                                                                            Vortex 2
                                                                            Aligned Onion

                        Mbead = 3Hext                          1.005



                                                                                                                  Sensor
                                                                       0             0.2            0.4

                         • Signal amplitudes up to ~1 mV                                   b
    Spin-injection into Silicon by spin filtering using EuO

EuO allows efficient spin
        injection              spin-injector             spin-detector
        2nm


                                                         Si spin diffusion channel
                                                         2mm x 2mm x 10mm,
                                                         SOI wafer, photolith. & RIE


Ag or Y EuO    Si           Spin-injector, detector, contacts by e-beam lithography
Future possibilities for TinyTech KIC
A TinyTech KIC could be focussed towards developing
hybrid nanoscale devices - those incorporating electronic,
magnetic and/or optical materials, allowing a range of new
functionalities. The group might select several examples for
collaborative development.
Examples:
Magnetoelectronic memory, or Sensor for biofunctionalized
beads, based on magnetic rings; Spin transistor; Optically
addressed ferromagnet/semiconductor memory element or
processor; CNT-based transistor …
Project 38 slides
          Carbon Nanotube Enabled Materials:
          CMI Program Summary, Nov. 2004
       Synthesis
           Patterned arrays and vertically aligned CNT coatings
           Properties of directly spun CNT fibre
       Modeling
           Deformation Effects on Electrical Conductivity
           Equivalent Orthotropic Model of MWNT
       Properties of Vertically Aligned CNT Coatings
           Nanoindent and Nanoscratch Behavior
           Wetting Behavior
           Heat Transfer Behavior
       CNT Polymer Nanocomposites
           Stable suspension of SWCNTs
           Rheology of tube-filled melts and suspensions
           Mechanical behavior of thermoplastic composites

   M.C. Boyce, R.E. Cohen, J. Robertson, A.H. Windle, K.K. Gleason, G. McKinley, D.M. Parks
M. Hamm, Q. Li, M. Motta, A. Pantano, M. Garg, K. Lau, C. He, B. J. Bico, V. Arnim, Kleinsorge, S
                                    Hofmann, K Teo, M Cantoro
Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

•   Large area, selective growth. Not bulk growth
•   Ni catalyst.
•   DC plasma
•   C2H2:NH3 1:3, 60 mbar pressure
•   Bias voltage aligns CNTs (600V)
•   Selective growth. Nanotubes only grow where there is catalyst (Ni)
•   NH3 etches away unwanted a-C
 Patterned Growth

• Patterned catalyst gives selective growth
• Shadow mask or
• Lithography




• Side view
Prior Work on CMI Project: Nanoindentation on
Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube (VACNT) Forests
                         Produced by PECVD method

                         Dimensions can be better controlled

                         Applications: field emission devices,
                          hydrophobic coatings, composite
                          materials

                                                       8000




                                                       6000




                              Indentation force (nN)   4000




                                                       2000




                                                          0
                                                              0   200            400   600
                                                                   Penetration (nm)



                        Typical indentation force-penetration curve
                                 from nanoindentation tests
            Continuous wind up
           Feedstock                         Feedstock

                                                                     Ethanol*
                                                                    Thiophene
                                                                     Ferrocene
                                                                  1100 to 1200 °C
HOT ZONE




                                  HOT ZONE
                       HOT ZONE




                                                       HOT ZONE
                                                                   H2 carrier gas




           Wind-up                           Wind-up
      “Vertical”                     “Horizontal”
                Multi wall CNTs:
       Microstructure of the fibre products




                                                                                                       50 mm
                                50 mm


                                   Image
                                                                                                       Experimental data
                                                                                                       Fitted curve


                                  analysis

                                        Intensity (A.U.)



                                 1mm                       0   45   90   135     180       225   270       315        360
                                                                               Angle (°)




Fibre diameter of 20 to 50 mm
                 Mechanical Properties
                                        The range of diameters along a fibre occurs
                                        due to differences in the local packing density
                                        of nanotubes and/or instabilities in the gas-
                                        phase reaction.
                                                   1.0           s
                                                                 1
                                                                 2




                                             GPa
                                                         0

                               100 mm
                                           t             0
                  g
           TEX 
                 km
                                                     0
Force                                                        2   4   6   8    10   12   14   16   18 20
             g  N 
    N  m 10Density  Stress
            3
                                                                               i
                                                                             Strain %
TEX g    m 10    m 10   GPa
   
              
                 3   6
                     
                           2
                              
                               9
              Nematic Dispersion




                                  50 mm
Optical micrographs of carbon nanotube dispersions, imaged in reflected light with
crossed polars.
                                  Song, W. Kinloch, I.A. and Windle, A.H. Science, 302, 1277 (2003)
                      –1/2 Disclination




Scanning electron micrograph showing details of orientation around a disclination of
strength –1/2.
        New UK Collaborations arising:-
            Synthesis and processing of CNT

(i)      “Canape” EU funded 8 M Euros
         Cambridge University
         + 14 partners in France, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy

(ii)     DTI Consortium            £3 M (Fibre process)
                 Boeing
                 Hexcel
                 Thomas Swan
                 Inst. of Occupational Medicine
(iii)    New Company
                 “CUFLO” To bridge the University/industrial divide in UK
(iv)     TinyTech KIC ?
           The CMI Mission
To enhance the competitiveness, productivity and
  entrepreneurship of the UK economy…
By improving the effectiveness of knowledge exchange
  between university and industry, educating leaders,
  creating new ideas and developing programmes for
  change in universities, industry and government …
Using an enduring partnership of Cambridge and MIT,
  and an extended network of participants.
CMI: Defining a space for knowledge exchange
   across research, education and industry



       Research              Education



                   KE



                  Industry

				
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