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					Renewable Energy
  in Costa Rica




Fred Loxsom   November 8, 2002
        Sustainable Development

    Rio Declaration on Environment and
                 Development
                    Principle 3

The right to development must be fulfilled so
  as to equitably meet developmental and
  environmental needs of present and future
  generations.
          Sustainable Development
  Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
                      Principle 9

States should cooperate to strengthen endogenous
   capacity-building for sustainable development
   by improving scientific understanding through
   exchanges of scientific and technological
   knowledge, and by enhancing the
   development, adaptation, diffusion and
   transfer of technologies, including new and
   innovative technologies.
     The Economic Base

Economic Sector      % GDP
Agriculture            13
Industry               22
Commerce and Tourism   40
Costa Rica
Natural Beaches
Birdwatching
Lizard Watching
Volunteering
Observing Natural Phenomena
Being Observed as Unnatural Phenomena
Studying Geothermal
Studying Windpower
               Economic Indicators
                          United States    Costa Rica
Population                  280 million     3.8 million
Growth Rate                      0.80%          1.60%
GDP (per capita)               $36,300         $3,850
Gini Index                         0.41           0.46
Oil (per capita)            26 bbl/year   3.7 bbl/year
Auto (per capita)                  44%            34%
Imported Oil                       55%           100%
Electricty (per capita)    13,000 kWh      1,500 kWh
            Electricity Generation
                          United States   Costa Rica
Electricty (per capita)     13,000 kWh     1,500 kWh
Demand Growth                       2%            5%

Fossil Fuel                       71%            1%
Nuclear                           20%            0%
Hydroelectric                      7%           83%
Geothermal                         1%           14%
Wind                               1%            2%
   Electricity Generation Costs

                Electricity
                Generation Cost (¢/kWh)
Oil                1%           26
Geothermal         14%          3.5
Hydroelectric      82%          2.2
Wind               3%            ?
  Potential Generation Capacity
                Installed   Potential
                Capacity    Capacity
                  (MW)        (MW)
Oil                240          0?
Geothermal         140         900
Hydroelectric     1200       10,000
Wind               46         >600
             Hydrocarbons




   Imported.
   Expensive
   Negative environmental impacts
                Geothermal



   Local resource
   Inexpensive
   Renewable?
   Some negative environmental impacts.
Compatible with Eco-tourism?
               Hydroelectric



   Local resource
   Renewable
   Capital Intensive
   Some negative environmental impacts.
                     Wind



   Local resource
   Renewable
   Unknown expense
   Imported equipment
   Some negative environmental impacts.
      Is Solar Energy An Option?



   Local Resource
   Renewable
   Imported equipment
   Cost?
Insolation Map
Insolation Map
                   Insolation
    Average insolation
     ranges from
    4.0 kWh/m2/day
          to
     5.4 kWh/m2/day

   Assume 5.0 kWh/m2/day
    or 1,800 kWh/ m2/year
           Which Solar Option?



   Hot Water Systems?
   Process heat?
   We will only consider Photovoltaic
Why
Photovoltaic?


  Converts sunlight directly into electricity.
  Can stand alone.
  Very reliable.
  Modular.
  Solar Panel Output




Assume efficiency = 14%
Output = 0.14 x 5.0 kWh/m2/day = 0.70 kWh/m2/day
       = 365 day/year x 0.70 kWh/m2/day
       = 255 kWh/m2/year
Solar System
Size
Yearly Growth = 0.05 x 1500 kWh = 75 kWh
Panel Area Needed = 75 kWh / 255 kWh/m2
                  = 0.30 m2
Array Size = 1000 W/m2 x 0.30 m2 x 0.14 = 42 W


Need to add 42 Watt capacity per person
  – equivalent to 3 square feet.
Solar Economics


Array cost = $5 / Watt
System cost = $10 / Watt
Per capita cost = 42 Watt x $10 / Watt = $420


This represents 10% of the GDP
Cost of Solar
Electricity

Assume very simple economics – System lasts 25 years and cost is
   spread evenly over 20 years. Neglect inflation and interest.

Output = 75 kWh / year
System Cost = $420 / 20 year = $21 / year
Electricity cost = $21 / 75 kWh = 28 cents/kWh
    Conclusions?

   Photovoltaic is expensive.
   Uses imported equipment.
   Environmentally benign.
   Compatible with eco-tourism.
   Good for remote locations with no grid.
   Being installed in national parks.
   Compatible with Hydrogen Economy.

				
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