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					GRADE 9 2011 – HISTORY – NAME: ____________________ DATE: _________ GR. ______




                                           MALCOLM X




 Malcolm Little, the son of an African American Baptist preacher, Earl Little, was born in Omaha, Nebraska, on
 19th May, 1925. Malcolm's mother, Louise Little, was born in the West Indies. Her mother was black but her
 father was a white man.

 Earl Little was a member of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and a supporter of Marcus
 Garvey. This got him into trouble with the Ku Klux Klan. Malcolm later recalled: "When my mother was
 pregnant with me, she told me later, a party of hooded Ku Klux Klan riders galloped up to our home in
 Omaha, Nebraska, one night. Surrounding the house, brandishing their shotguns and rifles, they shouted
 for my father to come out. My mother went to the front door and opened it. Standing where they could see
 her pregnant condition, she told them that she was alone with her three small children, and that my father
 was away, preaching in Milwaukee." The Klansmen warned her that we had better get out of town because
 "the good Christian white people" were not going to stand for her husband "spreading trouble" among the
 "good" Negroes of Omaha with the "back to Africa" preachings of Marcus Garvey.

 The family now moved to Lansing, Michigan. Little continued to make speeches in favour of UNIA and in 1929
 the family house was attacked by members of the Black Legion, a militant group that had broken away from
 the Ku Klux Klan. "Shortly after my youngest sister was born came the nightmare night of 1929, my earliest
 vivid memory. I remember being suddenly snatched awake into a frightening confusion of pistol shots and
 shouting and smoke and flames. My father had shouted and shot at the two white men who had set the fire
 and were running away. Our home was burning down around us. We were lunging and bumping and
 tumbling all over each other trying to escape. My mother, with the baby in her arms, just made it into the
 yard before the house crashed in, showing sparks."

 In 1931 Earl Little was found dead by a streetcar railway track. Although no one was convicted of the crime it
 was generally believed that Little had been murdered by the Black Legionnaires. Malcolm's mother never
 recovered from her husband's death and in 1937 was sent to the State Mental Hospital at Kalamazoo, where
 she stayed for the next twenty-six years.

 Little moved to Boston to live with his sister. He worked as a waiter in Harlem and after becoming addicted
 to cocaine, turned to crime. In 1946 he was convicted of burglary and sentenced to ten years imprisonment.
 While in prison he was converted to the Black Muslim faith and the teachings of Elijah Muhammad: "The
 teachings of Mr. Muhammad stressed how history had been whitened - when white men had written
 history books, the black man simply had been left out. Mr. Muhammad couldn't have said anything that
 would have struck me much harder. I had never forgotten how when my class, me and all those whites,
 had studied seventh-grade United States history back in Mason, the history of the Negro had been covered
 in one paragraph. This is one reason why Mr. Muhammad teachings spread so swiftly all over the United
 States, among all Negroes, whether or not they became followers of Mr. Muhammad. The teachings ring
 true - to every Negro. You can hardly show me a black adult in America - or a white one, for that matter -
 who knows from the history books anything like the truth about the black man's role."

 After his release from prison in 1952 he moved to Chicago where he met Elijah Muhammad, leader of the
 Nation of Islam sect. He changed his name to X, a custom among Muhammad's followers who considered


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GRADE 9 2011 – HISTORY – NAME: ____________________ DATE: _________ GR. ______



 their family names to have originated with white slaveholders. Malcolm soon became a leading figure in the
 movement. He went on several speaking tours and helped establish several new mosques. He was eventually
 assigned to be minister of the mosque in New York's Harlem area. Founder and editor of Muhammad Speaks,
 Malcolm rejected integration and racial equality and instead advocated black power.

 Malcolm X began to advocate violent revolution. In a speech on 9th November, 1963: "Look at the American
 Revolution in 1776. That revolution was for what? For land. Why did they want land? Independence. How
 was it carried out? Bloodshed. Number one, it was based on land, the basis of independence. And the only
 way they could get it was bloodshed. The French Revolution - what was it based on? The landless against
 the landlord. What was it for? Land. How did they get it? Bloodshed. Was no love lost, was no compromise,
 was no negotiation. I'm telling you - you don't know what a revolution is. Because when you find out what
 it is, you'll get back in the alley, you'll get out of the way. The Russian Revolution - what was it based on?
 Land; the landless against the landlord. How did they bring it about? Bloodshed. You haven't got a
 revolution that doesn't involve bloodshed. And you're afraid to bleed. I said, you're afraid to bleed."

 Malcolm was suspended from the movement by Elijah Muhammad after he made a series of extremist
 speeches. This included his comments that the assassination of John F. Kennedy was a "case of chickens
 coming home to roost". In March 1964 Malcolm left the Nation of Islam and established his own religious
 organization, the Organization of Afro-American Unity. After a pilgrimage to Mecca, Malcolm rejected his
 former separatist beliefs and advocated world brotherhood. Malcolm now blamed racism on Western
 culture and urged African Americans to join with sympathetic whites to bring to an end.

 Malcolm X argued: "The American black man should be focusing his every effort toward building his own
 businesses, and decent homes for himself. As other ethnic groups have done, let the black people, wherever
 possible, patronize their own kind, and start in those ways to build up the black race's ability to do for itself.
 That's the only way the American black man is ever going to get respect. One thing the white man never can
 give the black man is self-respect! The black man never can be become independent and recognized as a
 human being who is truly equal with other human beings until he has what they have, and until he is doing
 for himself what others are doing for themselves. The black man in the ghettoes, for instance, has to start
 self-correcting his own material, moral and spiritual defects and evils. The black man needs to start his own
 program to get rid of drunkenness, drug addiction, prostitution. The black man in America has to lift up his
 own sense of values."

 Malcolm X was shot dead at a party meeting in Harlem on 21st February, 1965. Three Black Muslims were
 later convicted of the murder. The Autobiography of Malcolm X, based on interviews he had given to the
 journalist, Alex Haley, was published in 1965. Malcolm Little, the son of an African American Baptist
 preacher, Earl Little, was born in Omaha, Nebraska, on 19th May, 1925. Malcolm's mother, Louise Little, was
 born in the West Indies. Her mother was black but her father was a white man.

 Source: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAmalcolmX.htm [1st March, 2012]




 SOURCES ABOUT MALCLOM’S LIFE FROM HIS AUTOBIOGRAPHY – think about how useful, trustworthy, reliable
 these extracts are and what we can learn from them about: Malcolm X himself, about Civil Rights, about US society
 at the time, about what kind of events and ideas bring about CHANGE.

 (1) Malcolm X, Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965)
 My father was a big, six-foot-four, very black man. He had only one eye. How he lost the other one I have never
 known. He was from Reynolds, Georgia, where he had left school after the third or maybe fourth grade. He believed,
 as did Marcus Garvey, that freedom, independence and self-respect could never be achieved by the Negro in America,
 and that therefore the Negro should leave America to the white man and return to his African land of origin.



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GRADE 9 2011 – HISTORY – NAME: ____________________ DATE: _________ GR. ______



 (2) Malcolm X, Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965)
 When my mother was pregnant with me, … Milwaukee. … The Klansmen shouted threats and warnings at her that we
 had better get out of town because "the good Christian white people" were not going to stand for my father's
 "spreading trouble" among the "good" Negroes of Omaha with the "back to Africa" preachings of Marcus Garvey.

 (3) After his family were threatened by the Ku Klux Klan in Omaha, Earl Little moved his family to Lansing, Michigan.
 Shortly after my youngest sister was born came the nightmare night of 1929, my earliest vivid memory. I remember
 being suddenly snatched awake into a frightening confusion of pistol shots and shouting and smoke and flames. My
 father had shouted and shot at the two white men who had set the fire and were running away. Our home was
 burning down around us. We were lunging and bumping and tumbling all over each other trying to escape. My
 mother, with the baby in her arms, just made it into the yard before the house crashed in, showing sparks.

 (4) In 1940 Malcolm Little moved to Boston where he attended the high school in Roxbury. He later recalled a
 conversation with his English teacher.
 I happened to be alone in the classroom with Mr. Ostrowski, my English teacher. He was a tall, rather reddish white
 man and he had a thick mustache. I had gotten some of my best marks under him, and he had always made me feel
 that he liked me. I know that he probably meant well in what he happened to advise me that day. I doubt that he
 meant any harm. It was just in his nature as an American white man. He told me, "Malcolm, you ought to be thinking
 about a career. Have you been giving it thought?" The truth is, I hadn't. I had never figured out why I told him, "Well,
 yes, sir, I've been thinking I'd like to be a lawyer."

 Mr. Ostrowski looked surprised, I remember, and leaned back in his chair and clasped his hands behind his head. He
 kind of half-smiled and said, "Malcolm, one of life's first needs is for us to be realistic. Don't misunderstand me, now.
 We all here like you, you know that. But you've got to be realistic about being a nigger. A lawyer - that's no realistic
 goal for a nigger. You need to think about something you can be. You're good with your hands - making things.
 Everybody admires your carpentry shop work. Why don't you plan on carpentry? People like you as a person - you'd
 get all kind of work."

 (5) Malcolm X, Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965)

 The teachings of Mr. Muhammad stressed how history had been "whitened" - … SEE ABOVE

 (7) Malcolm X, speech (9th November, 1963)
 Look at the American Revolution in 1776. That revolution was for what? For land. Why did they want land? … As long
 as the white man sent you to Korea, you bled. He sent you to Germany, you bled. He sent you to the South Pacific to
 fight the Japanese, you bled … READ THE REST HERE : http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAmalcolmX.htm

 (9) On his return from Mecca, Malcolm X explained his new views on racism and violence (March, 1964)
 I don't speak against the sincere, well-meaning, good white people. I have learned that there are some. I have learned
 that not all white people are racists. I am speaking against and my fight is against the white racists. I believe that
 Negroes have the right to fight against these racists, by any means that are necessary.

 I am for violence if non-violence means we continue postponing a solution to the American black man's problem - just
 to avoid violence. I don't go for non-violence if it also means a delayed solution. To me a delayed solution is a non-
 solution. Or I'll say it another way. If it must take violence to get the black man his human rights in this country, I'm for
 violence exactly as you know the Irish, the Poles, or Jews would be if they were flagrantly discriminated against.


 SOURCE: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAmalcolmX.htm




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