A Little Communication Theory by ewghwehws

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									A Little Communication Theory
                 II



    Introduction to Public Relations
   School of Communication Studies
       James Madison University
         Dr. Michael Smilowitz


                                       1
     Shannon and Weaver’s Model:

Shannon and Weaver’s model provides:
  1. A simple view of the communication
  process.
  2. A useful vocabulary.
  3. A model that is consistent with most
  people’s understanding of the
  communication process.
                                            2
    Shannon and Weaver’s Model:

Shortcomings:
  1. The model is too simplistic.
  2. The model is too mechanistic.
  3. The model is too linear.




                                     3
 Some of the complicating factors:
• Any action, object, event, person can itself
  be symbolic and used in communication.
• Meaning is a subjective process.
  – Denotative meaning
  – Connotative meaning
• Time is a three layered phenomenon.
• Communication is a process of mutual
  influence.

                                                 4
A coorientation model of the relationships
      between clients and public’s views.

                             Public’s
Client’s views
                           views of the
 of the issues
                              issues



   Client’s                   Public’s
 estimate of                estimate of
 the public’s               the client’s
    views                      views         5
A coorientation model of the relationships
      between clients and public’s views.

                 Agreement        Public’s
Client’s views
                                views of the
 of the issues
               The extent to which issues
                both sides hold
              similar views of the
   Client’s          issue.        Public’s
 estimate of                     estimate of
 the public’s                    the client’s
    views                           views       6
A coorientation model of the relationships
      between clients and public’s views.

                 Agreement          Public’s
Client’s views
                                 views of the
 of the issuesPerceived agreement
                                      issues
              refers to the extent to
                                Perceived
     Perceived one side regards its
            which
     agreement                  agreement
              views as similar to its
    Client’s                        Public’s
           estimate of the other side’s
  estimate of          views      estimate of
 the public’s                     the client’s
     views                            views      7
A coorientation model of the relationships
      between clients and public’s views.

                                     Public’s
Client’s views
             Accuracy refers to the
                                  views of the
 of the issuesextent that one side’s issues
              estimate of the other
             side’s views is similar
                   Accuracy
               to the other side’s
    Client’s      actual views.      Public’s
  estimate of                      estimate of
 the public’s                      the client’s
     views                            views       8
A coorientation model of the relationships
      between clients and public’s views.

                 Agreement      Public’s
Client’s views
                              views of the
 of the issues
                                 issues
    Perceived                Perceived
    agreement    Accuracy    agreement
   Client’s                     Public’s
 estimate of                  estimate of
 the public’s                 the client’s
    views                        views       9
  A coorientation model of the relationships
        between clients and public’s views.
Why are each of these relationships important?
  Because each of the following four conditions
  require different public relations strategies.
  1. True consensus: occurs when both sides
  actually agree and accurately perceive their
  agreement.
  2. Dissensus: occurs when both sides
  accurately perceive that they are is
  disagreement.
                                                 10
  A coorientation model of the relationships
        between clients and public’s views.
Why are each of these relationships important?
  Because each of the following four conditions
  require different public relations strategies.

  3. False consensus: occurs when there is
  actual disagreement that is inaccurately
  perceived as agreement.
  4. False conflict: occurs when there is actual
  agreement that is inaccurately perceived as
  disagreement.
                                                   11

								
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