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Northern Ireland Tuaisceart éireann Northern Ireland

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Northern Ireland Tuaisceart éireann Northern Ireland Powered By Docstoc
					Tuaisceart Éireann
Northern Ireland, administrative division of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland, situated in the north-eastern portion of the
island of Ireland.
The remaining portion of the island is part of the
Republic of Ireland.
Northern Ireland constitutes about 17 percent of the
land area of Ireland and has 31 percent of the
island’s population.
 The capital of Northern Ireland is Belfast. Northern
Ireland’s population is deeply divided along religious
and political lines. The schism between the
Protestant majority and the Roman Catholic minority
extends deep into Northern Ireland’s past and has
strongly influenced the region’s culture, settlement
patterns, and politics
Historical links
  The whole of Ireland was part of the United
   Kingdom until 1920, as the British
   government—faced with growing violent
   resistance—offered limited local government to
   Ireland.
  The island was divided into two regions,
   Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland, both
   under the control of the United Kingdom. Each
   region was granted the right to elect a local
   parliament while maintaining representation in
   the British Parliament.
 When local parliamentary elections were held in
  1921, the southern Irish parliament refused to
  recognize British control.
 As a result, of the original 32 counties of Ireland,
  the 6 north-easterly counties became a British
  province officially known as Northern Ireland.
 The remaining 26 counties became independent
  in 1922 as the Irish Free State (later Eire, and
  subsequently the Republic of Ireland).
 Catholics seeking integration with Ireland are
  often referred to as republicans or nationalists,
  while Protestants who want Northern Ireland to
  remain part of the United Kingdom are often called
  unionists or loyalists
Political Murals in Northern Ireland
Many buildings in the Catholic and Protestant working-class
neighbourhoods of Belfast, feature political murals.




    a mural supporting the republican political party Sinn Fein, left,
    and one supporting the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), a loyalist
                       paramilitary group, right
 From 1921 to 1972 Northern Ireland had its own regional
  parliament that exercised considerable authority over local
  affairs.
 The Protestant, unionist majority dominated the parliament,
  which made the government unpopular with the Catholic,
  nationalist minority. Northern Ireland experienced a nearly
  continuous period of violent conflict between these two groups
  from the late 1960s through the mid-1990s.
 The violence extended beyond Ireland, as republican
  paramilitary groups—in particular the Irish Republican Army
  (IRA)—also struck targets in London and elsewhere in
  England. The clashes, bombings, and assassinations in this
  period were often referred to as “the troubles.”
 In 1972 the British government shut down Northern Ireland’s
  regional parliament and governed the region directly from
  London. A 1998 accord known as the Good Friday Agreement
  restored some powers to a new provincial government.
 Bloody Sunday in Northern Ireland




The so-called Bloody Sunday incident on January 30, 1972, is one of
  the most notorious events of the sectarian violence in Northern
    Ireland. British troops opened fire on a crowd of civil rights
    protesters marching in Londonderry/Derry, killing 13 people.
 The Protestant community often refers to
  Northern Ireland as Ulster. Catholics seldom
  use this name. For most Catholics the term
  Ulster is used only to refer to the historic Irish
  province of Ulster, which consisted of the
  current six counties and three other counties
  that are now in the Republic of Ireland.
  Catholics tend to refer to the territory as “the
  north of Ireland,” and those of strongly
  nationalist views also use the term “the six
  counties.”
 LAND AND RESOURCES
 The total area of Northern Ireland is 14,160 sq km,
  of which 628 sq km is inland water.
 Northern Ireland is bounded on the north and
  northeast by the North Channel, on the southeast
  by the Irish Sea, and on the south and west by
  Ireland. The border with Ireland is 360 km long.
  The region’s coastline consists of wide, sandy
  beaches, broken by steep cliffs in the north,
  northeast, and southeast.
 Near the northernmost point of Northern Ireland is
  Giant’s Causeway, an unusual formation of basalt
  columns created by the cooling of an ancient lava
  flow. Rathlin Island and several smaller islands lie
  off the northern coast.
Giant’s Causeway
REGIONS

 The different regions of Northern Ireland
  are frequently referred to by the names of
  the province’s six traditional Irish
  counties, even though they are no longer
  the units of local government. These
  are—clockwise from the northeast—
  Antrim, Down, Armagh, Fermanagh,
  Tyrone, and Londonderry (Derry).
six traditional Irish
      counties
Hillsborough Castle
Enniskillen
Carrickfergus Castle
Scrabo Tower
Londonderry
Newry
Beaghmore Stone Circles
Castlewellan Forest Park
 Rivers and Lakes
 Lough Neagh, in the centre of Northern Ireland, is the
  largest freshwater lake in the British Isles, with an area of
  396 sq km
 All the region’s counties border it except Fermanagh.
  Upper and Lower Lough Erne, in Fermanagh, are the only
  other major freshwater lakes. Belfast Lough, Carlingford
  Lough, Strangford Lough, and Lough Foyle are the largest
  sea inlets.
 The major river of Northern Ireland is the Bann, which rises
  in the Mourne Mountains and flows northward through
  Lough Neagh to become a wide and navigable waterway
  to the sea.
 The Foyle flows north to the sea at the port city of
  Londonderry (Derry), forming the border with Ireland for
  part of its length. The Lagan flows northeast to the sea at
  Belfast.
Lough Neagh
 Area 388 sq km
 The largest freshwater lake in the British Isles
 Recreation, bird watching, eel fishing, sand
  dredging
Enniskillen Castle on the Erne River
                 .
 Climate
 Northern Ireland’s climate is temperate, with warm
  winters and cool summers. In January the average
  daily temperature is around 4°C, and in July it is
  about 15°C. Annual precipitation is about 1,100
  mm (42 in)
 Spring is normally the driest season. Overcast
  skies are the norm: Average daily hours of clear
  skies range from less than two from November to
  January to around six in May and June. Northern
  Ireland tends to be breezy, and gales are common
  in spring and fall.
POPULATION

 The total population
  of Northern Ireland is
  1,710,300 (2004).
  The overall
  population density is
  121 persons per sq
  km.
 Belfast is the capital and largest city of
  Northern Ireland. Almost half of the province’s
  population lives in the greater Belfast area.
  Founded on the sandy mouth of the Lagan
  River in 1613 by settlers from Britain, Belfast
  took its name from Beal Feirsde (Irish for “the
  mouth of the sandbank”). Belfast remained a
  small trading port until about 1800. It
  subsequently became a major industrial city,
  growing from about 20,000 people at the
  beginning of the 1800s to a peak of 443,671 in
  1951.
City Hall, Belfast
Panorama of Belfast, taken from
a tower of Queen's University.
 Northern Ireland’s second largest city,
 Londonderry (Derry), is much smaller.
 Derry (Irish Doire, for “place of the oaks”), a
 small community centred around a 6th-
 century abbey, was rebuilt by British settlers
 in 1613, and the official name of the city
 became Londonderry. This name was never
 fully accepted or used by Catholics, who in
 general still refer to the city as Derry. The
 city is therefore often referred to in books
 and other text sources as Londonderry/Derry
Armagh
 The only other urban centre designated as a city is
  Armagh, which is actually a small town. Armagh owes
  its prominence to its historic role as the centre of
  Christianity in Ireland and the home of both the
  Catholic and Anglican primates of all Ireland.
 Major towns include the market centres of Coleraine
  (headquarters of the University of Ulster), Dungannon,
  Enniskillen, Omagh, and Strabane; the ports of Larne
  and Newry; and the historic linen manufacturing towns
  of Ballymena, Lurgan, and Portadown.
                                Armagh is the
                           ecclesiastical capital of
                          Ireland and has been an
                             important religious
                          centre since the days of
                                Saint Patrick




the rolling countryside
of the southern part of
  the Armagh District
 Language
 Almost all residents of Northern Ireland speak English. Only
  a tiny percentage speak Irish, a Gaelic language, except in
  remote upland areas in the Glens of Antrim, the Mourne
  Mountains, and the Sperrin Mountains, where Irish is more
  widely spoken.
 The Catholic and nationalist community has tended to
  become more enthusiastic about learning Irish as a second
  language during periods of heightened political activity—for
  example, from 1900 to 1920 and from 1970 to the present
  day.
 Recent government policies and the expansion of university
  education have encouraged mutual respect for the two
  cultural traditions in the province. This has boosted the Irish
  language movement, as well as the rise in popularity of
  Ulster-Scots, or Ullans, among the Protestant community
        Way of Life and Social
               Issues
 Northern Ireland’s Catholic and Protestant communities are both
  predominantly conservative in their social and religious outlook.
  Church attendance remains high, although it has been falling in recent
  years. Catholic and Protestant attitudes on matters of sexual morality
  and abortion are notably similar. Divorce levels are low in comparison
  to those in the rest of the United Kingdom. The proportion of mixed
  Catholic-Protestant marriages has risen recently but remains only a
  small percentage of all marriages.

    Many people believe that the decades of political violence
    strengthened the women’s movement in Northern Ireland. Women
    often came to the forefront of political life to demand peace and an end
    to terrorism. Two Belfast women jointly received the Nobel Peace Prize
    in 1976 for working to reconcile Northern Ireland’s religious
    communities.
 Sports are popular in Northern Ireland. In the Catholic
  community Gaelic football and hurling are popular
  among men, and camogie (a sport similar to hurling) is
  popular among women. Among Protestants popular
  games are rugby union football, cricket, and field
  hockey. Association football (soccer) and golf are
  popular games in both Catholic and Protestant
  communities.
 The Catholic-Protestant segregation extends to
  Northern Irish society in general. Urban residential
  neighbourhoods are highly segregated.
 Protestants hold higher-status jobs more frequently
  and Catholics are somewhat more likely to be unskilled
  or unemployed. The Fair Employment Commission
  (originally the Fair Employment Agency) has statutory
  powers to investigate cases of alleged discrimination
  and patterns of ethnic imbalance in all but the very
  smallest companies.
 ECONOMY
 The economy has revived in recent years as major
  British retailing chains have moved into the
  province, and the tourism industry has begun to
  achieve its full potential. Most of Northern Ireland’s
  import and export trade is with other parts of the
  United Kingdom. The Republic of Ireland is the
  next most important trading partner.
 Most farms in Northern Ireland are small.
  Historically they began as tenant farms owned by
  the landlords of large estates. Agriculture in
  Northern Ireland largely revolves around livestock
  production—cattle, pigs, sheep, and poultry are the
  main animals raised. Barley is the most important
  crop, followed by potatoes and oats.
                      Sheep Grazing on a Hillside
  Agriculture dominates the economy of Northern Ireland outside the
   heavily industrialized cities of Belfast and Derry. The climate of
   Northern Ireland, with its frequent rain and high humidity, is not
conducive to extensive farming but provides rich pasture for sheep and
                                  cattle
 GOVERNMENT
 Northern Ireland is part of the United
  Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
  Ireland, which is a parliamentary monarchy
  and an electoral democracy. The province is
  represented by 18 members in the British
  Parliament's House of Commons. Voting age
  in the United Kingdom is 18.
 The head of Northern Ireland is the British
  Monarch {currently Queen Elizabeth II}
   Northern Ireland
      Assembly
 Established under the terms of the Good
  Friday Agreement.
 Often has been suspended since its
  establishment.
 Consists of 108 members.
 Of the 108 members, 59 are Unionists and 42
  are Nationalist.
 The Assembly is based on the principle of
  power-sharing.
 Secretary of State for
   Northern Ireland
 The British cabinet
  minister.

 The office was
  created in 1972.

 The Secretary of State
  resides in
  Hillsborough Castle.
        Subdivisions
1.Provinces {Ulster}

2.Traditional counties.

3.Districts of Northern Ireland.
Districts of Northern
       Ireland
 1. Antrim         14. Down
 2.   Ards         15. Dungannon and
 3.   Armagh          South Tyrone
 4.   Ballymena    16. Fermanagh
 5.   Ballymoney   17. Larne
 6.   Banbridge    18. Limavady
 7.   Belfast      19. Lisburn
 8.                20. Magherafelt
    Carrickfergu   21. Moyle
    s              22. Newry and Mourne
 9. Castlereagh    23. Newtownabbey
 10. Coleraine     24. North Down
 11. Cookstown     25. Omagh
 12. Craigavon
                   26. Strabane
 13. Derry
                  City status
 City status in the United Kingdom is granted by
  the British monarch.

 The status does not apply automatically on the
  basis of any particular criteria.

   Currently there are five cities in Northern Ireland:
   Armagh
   Belfast
   Derry/Londonderry
   Lisburn
   Newry
 Ulster Fry -bacon, eggs, sausages, the
  farl form of soda bread, potato bread,
  tomato
 Irish Breakfast –Ulster fry +black pudding,
  mushrooms, beans
  Traditionally fried in lard
 Farls-term used for roughly triangular flat
  breads and cakes, made by cutting a
  round into four pieces.
            Symbolism
 There is no longer an official Flag of
  Northern Ireland, it was abolished 1972
 Unionists tend to use the Union Flag or
  The Flag of Northern Ireland (The Ulster
  Banner, Red Hand Flag), while
  nationalist the Flag of Ireland or Flag of
                Ulster.
 The national anthem, God Save The Queen or
  Londonderry Air (Danny Boy)
 Saint Patrick (17th March)

				
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