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Endocrine by hedongchenchen


									HORMONE            SECRETED BY:         STIMULATED BY           INHIBITED BY          ACTIONS                                   PATHOLOGY
INSULIN            Pancreatic B-cells   hyperglycemia,          hypoglycemia,         anabolic: lower blood glucose,            HYPERSECRETION:
                                        amino acid-rich diet,   (nor)epinephrine,     glucose uptake (via GLUT 4),              hypoglycemia
                                        ketone bodies,          somatostatin, long-   glycogenesis, glycerol production,        HYPOSECRETION:
                                        glucagon, gastrin,      term starvation       protein synthesis, amino acid             diabetes mellitus
                                        secretin, gastric                             uptake, mitogenic response, inhibits
                                        inhibitory peptide                            lipolysis, inhibits glucagon secretion,
                                                                                      promotes A-cell monitoring of
                                                                                      glucose, enhances PRL on breast

GLUCAGON           Pancreatic A-cells   hypoglycemia,       insulin, somatostatin     catabolic: increases blood glucose,
                                        (nor)epinephrine,                             glycogenolysis, gluconeogensis,
                                        amino acids without                           lipolysis, ketogenesis, insulin
                                        glucose diet                                  secretion,

SOMATOSTATIN     Pancreatic D-cells                                                   inhibits: insulin, glucagon, self
(NOR)EPINEPHRINE Adrenal Medulla        sympathetic,            counteracts           Stimulates fat and carbohydrate           HYPERSECRETION:
                 Chromaffin cells       cholinergic             parasympathetic       metabolism                          a1:   pheochromocytoma,
                                                                                      (E>NE) vasoconstriction, uterine          neuroblastoma,
                                                                                      contraction, pupil dilation, liver        hypertension,
                                                                                      glycogenolysis                     a2:    sweating, vascular
                                                                                      (NE>E) smooth muscle contraction,         damage, anxiety, etc…
                                                                                      decreases lipolysis, decreases insulin
                                                                                      secretion (lowers cAMP)
                                                                                                      b1: (NE=E) increases
                                                                                      cardiac output, increases lipolysis
                                                                                                      b2: (E>>NE)
                                                                                      bronchodilation, vasodilation,
                                                                                      uterine/smooth muscle relaxation,
                                                                                      glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis,
                                                                                      increases glucagon secretion
ADH-VASOPRESSIN Hypothalamus             disinhibition by        normally inhibited by   V1 - contraction of vasculature          HYPERSECRETION:
                Magnocellular cells      osmoreceptors           alpha adrenergic        V2 - reabsorption of water in distal     SIADH
                (Post. Pituitary)        (increased              receptors               tubule and collecting duct               HYPOSECRETION:
                                         osmolality of blood),   (osmoreceptors)                                                  diabetes insipidus:
                                         stretch receptors       when volume is                                                   large urine volume,
                                         (decreased volume       normal                                                           increased plasma
                                         of blood),                                                                               osmolality
                                         (serious drop in
                                         bood volume)

OXYTOCIN           Hypothalamus          infant suckling,                                milk ejection, uterine contractions
                   Magnocellular cells   labor onset
                   (Post. Pituitary)

GROWTH HORMONE Ant. Pituitary            GHRH (from              GHIH (from              catabolic but also increses protein      HYPERSECRETION:
               Somatotrophs              hypothalamus),          hypothalamus),          synthesis (assists in milk               gigantism (before
                                         ARG, hypoglycemia,      obesity, FFAs,          production), amino acid uptake,          plate closure,
                                         sleep, stress,          glucocorticoids         glucose sparing, gluconeogenesis,        acromegdaly (after
                                         exercise, protein                               ketogenesis, facilitates PRL,            plate closure, insulin
                                         depletion,                                      somatomedin C (IGF-1) stimulation        resistance
                                         estrogens, starvation                           leading to: skeletal muscle/connective   HYPOSECRETION:
                                                                                         tissue/soft tissue/bone epiphyseal       dwarfism (children),
                                                                                         cartilage growth, cell proliferation,    osteoporosis (adults)
                                                                                         stimulates active Vit D

PROLACTIN          Ant. Pituitary        suckling, pregnancy, PIF (dopamine from         stimulates milk synthesis, breast
                   Lactotrophs           sleep, hypoglycemia hypothalamus)               growth, maintains milk production
                                                                                         post partum, stimulates active Vit D
ACTH               Ant. Pituitary        CRH (from               negative feedback       stimulates synthesis/secretion of:       HYPERSECRETION:
                   Corticotrophs         hypothalamus)           from cortisol           cortisol, androgens, aldosterone         Cushing's
TSH                Ant. Pituitary        TRH (from               negative feedback    stimulates thyroid hormone                  HYPERSECRETION:
                   Thyrotrophs           hypothalamus)           from thyroid hormone secretion/synthesis                         HYPOSECRETION:
THYROID HORMONE Thyroid Follicular   TSH             negative feedback      primary determinant of metabolic        HYPERSECRETION:
                cells                                from thyroid           rate, growth, catabolism, protein       muscle wasting, liver
                                                     hormone, starvation    synthesis/degradation, lipolysis, FA    glycogen
                                                     (increases rT3,        oxidation, some triglyceride and        reduced/glucose
                                                     inactive metabolite)   cholesterol synthesis, glucose          output increased,
                                                                            absorption and uptake by insulin,       pancreatic insulin
                                                                            glycogenesis (with minimal thyroid      reserve challenged,
                                                                            hormone), glycogenolysis (with large    harmfully amplified
                                                                            amounts of thyroid hormone),            cardiovascular effects
                                                                            calorigenic effects (via Na/K ATPase    (treat with B-blockers)
                                                                            upregulation): increased energy         HYPOSECRETION:
                                                                            metabolism and heat production,         net synthesis of
                                                                            increased oxygen consumption,           triglycerides and
                                                                            CNS development, skeletal muscle        cholesterol, depletion
                                                                            maturation, increased heart             of plasma FFA's.
                                                                            pressure/contraction/perfusion, lower
                                                                            circulation time and diastolic bp,

CALCITONIN         Thyroid C-cells   hypercalcemia   hypocalcemia           shuts down bone resorption (lowers      HYPERSECRETION:
                                                                            blood calcium)                          hypocalcemia
PARATHYROID        Parathyroid        hypocalcemia    hypercalcemia         increases blood Ca, stimulates bone      HYPERSECRETION:
HORMONE                                                                     resporption, inhibits renal phosphate    primary
                                                                            reabsorption, stimulates active Vit D,   hyperparathyroidism
                                                                            leading to: intestinal Ca absorption,    (stones, bones,
                                                                            kidney Ca reabsorption, intestinal       groans),
                                                                            phosphate absorption                     hypercalciuria, cardiac
                                                                                                                     arrest, depression,
                                                                                                                     weakness, poor
                                                                                                                     tetany, rickets,

CORTISOL           Adrenal Cortex (ZF) CRH -> ACTH,   negative feedback by catabolism, stress response,              HYPERSECRETION:
(glucocorticoid)                       hypoglycemia   cortisol on CRH,     gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis           Cushing's, obesity,
                                                      ACTH release         (permissively) protein                    hypertension,
                                                                           catabolism/decreased protein              weakness, moonface,
                                                                           synthesis, lipolysis (permissively),      diabetes mellitus,
                                                                           bone resorption, gastric acid             abnormal glucose
                                                                           secretion, PNMT synthesis (for            tolerance,
                                                                           epinephrine synthesis), glucose           osteoporosis, edema,
                                                                           sparing, apetite stimulation, prevents    amenorrhea
                                                                           vascular collapse (in stress),            HYPOSECRETION:
                                                                           antiinflammatory, immunosuppression       hypoglycemia,
                                                                                                                     Addison's disease,
                                                                                                                     weakness, shock,
ALDOSTERONE          Adrenal Cortex (ZG) renin-angiotensin   dopamine, elevated      renal Na reabsorption, K and H          HYPERSECRETION:
(mineralcorticoid)                       system (angiotensin Na, ANF                 excretion, elevates blood volume,       Primary-Conn's (low
                                         2), elevated K, low                         effect on sweat glands and intestinal   renin to compensate),
                                         Na, ACTH (minimal                           mucosa                                  hypertention,
                                         effect)                                                                             hypokalemia,
                                                                                                                             metabolic alkalosis

TESTOSTERONE         Testes Leydig cells    LH                 negative feedback on spermatogenesis, secondary sex
(androgen)                                                     gonadotrophs         characteristics (at puberty), muscle
                                                                                    growth, sex drive, epiphyseal closure,
                                                                                    stimulates GH at puberty

ESTROGEN (MALE)      Testes Sertoli cells   FSH                inhibin
ESTRADIOL            Ovarian Follicle       LH, FSH develops   negative feedback on follicular maturation (ovary),
                                            follicles          gonadotrophs         hyperplasia of endometrium/uterine
                                                                                    smooth muscle/vasculature during
                                                                                    follicular phase, upregulates 17B-
                                                                                    estradiol and progesterone receptors
                                                                                    in endometrium, prolactin secretion,
                                                                                    maintains pregnancy, positive
                                                                                    feedback on LH surge ovulation,
                                                                                    breast and genital development
                                                                                    during puberty

PROGESTERONE         Ovarian Corpus         LH                 negative feedback on implantation, inhibits uterine
                     Luteum, placenta                          gonadotrophs         contrations, maintains pregnancy,
                                                                                    inhibits endometrial sloughing,
                                                                                    causes mucous plug in cervical
                                                                                    canal, luteal phase, stimulates gland
                                                                                    coiling and glycogen secretion in
                                                                                    endometrium, negative feedback LH
                                                                                    and FSH, promotes development of
                                                                                    breast alveoli (prepubertal), promotes
                                                                                    lactation, supresses immune system
hCG       Syncytiotrophoblast   implantation                                binds LH receptors to stimulate
                                                                            estrogen/progesterone synthesis
                                                                            by corpus luteum
hCS/hPL   Placenta              increases through                           induces enzymes in mammary gland
                                preganacy                                   for milk synthesis, metabolically
                                                                            shunts glucose to fetus, acts like GH
                                                                            and prolactin during pregnancy

LH        Ant. Pituitary        GnRH, estradiol     negative feedback by    stimulates testosterone, estrogen,
          Gonadotrophs          surge prior to      progesterone,           and progesterone synthesis,
                                ovulation           estradiol, and          stimulates ovulation
                                                    prolactin (4 weeks
                                                    post partum)
FSH       Ant. Pituitary        GnRH                negative feedback by    stimulates sertoli cells for sperm
          Gonadotrophs                              progesterone and        maturation, development of
                                                    estradiol, inhibin      ovarian follicles
                                                    (from sertoli cells),
                                                    prolactin (4 weeks
                                                    post partum)

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