Document Sample
					Radiation Safety procedure


Procedure Title        Radiation Safety

General Information                             Relevant Dates
File Number       200007390                     Effective Date   14 Oct 2003
Purpose           To assist the ANU in          Date Approved    DD MM 2011
                  achieving and maintaining
                  best practice and
                  compliance with radiation
                  legislation and the
                  University’s ARPANSA
                  licence conditions.
Relevant To       This procedure applies to     Next Review      DD MM 2014
                  all staff, staff- academic,
                  students, contractors and
                  visitors at designated ANU
Relevant                                        Modification     Updated template and
Legislation (if   Australian Radiation          History          format. Conditions inline
any)              Protection and Nuclear                         with ANU APRANSA
                  Safety Act, 1998,                              Licence requirements
                  Australian Radiation
                  Protection and Nuclear
                  Safety (Licence Charges)
                  Act, 1998, Australian
                  Radiation Protection and
                  Nuclear Safety
                  Amendments) Act, 1998,
                  Australian Radiation
                  Protection and Nuclear
                  Safety Regulations, 1999.,
                  Australian Radiation
                  Protection and Nuclear
                  Safety (LICENCE CHARGES)
                  Regulations 2000, Nuclear
                  (Safeguards) Act 1987

                                                Related Topics
Responsible                                     Related          Radiation Safety Policy
Executive                                       Policies         and Occupational Health
                                                                 and Safety Policy

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Responsible            Director Human resources   Related           Disposal of Hazardous
Officer                                           Procedures        waste, ANU Procedures
                                                                    for control of access to
                                                                    hazardous and restricted
                                                                    locations, Risk Control
                                                                    Protocol for Ionizing
Approved By            Vice-Chancellor            Related
Contact Area           HR Help desk               Related Forms     New work Radiation
                                                                    Application cover page
                                                                    Ionizing radiation
                                                                    Apparatus Application
                                                                    Ionizing radiation Isotope
                                                                    Application Form
                                                                    Laser Application Form
                                                                    Non Ionizing Radiation
                                                                    Equipment Application

Part 1: Introduction
1. This procedure has been developed by The Australian National University (ANU) to assist with the
    implementation of the University’s Radiation Policy and principles, including compliance with
    legislation, licence conditions and relevant standards, ensuring that exposure and risks to health, safety
    and the environment from radiation are minimised.

2. A risk management approach is employed to minimise the risk to staff, students, contractors and
   visitors in relation to work, storage, handling, transportation and disposal of radioactive materials and
   apparatus associated with the University’s research, teaching and operational tasks. These procedures
   cover all forms of radiation – ionizing (isotopes and machine generated) and non-ionizing, including
   lasers, radiofrequencies, microwaves, ultraviolet light, visible light and infrared.

   1. Introduction
   2. Legislative requirements
   3. Responsibilities
   4. Hazards
   5. Risk Management process
   6. New Work approval
            In house Assessment
            Radiation committee Assessment
            ARPANSA Approval
            ASNO
   7. New Radiation Laboratory Design
   8. Existing lab Compliance
   9. Radioactive material handling at ANU
           A. Radiation Stores
           B. Storage
           C. Transport
   10. Relocation of radioactive material
            Within in ANU
            Commonwealth Agency
            Non- Commonwealth Agency
   11. Disposal of radiation waste
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    12. Personnel Issue
              Age
              Competency/ Training/ Qualifications
              Pregnancy
              Medical Condition and Implants
              ANU Staff visiting External organisations
              Contract Researchers, etc
              Trade Contractors, etc
    13. Radiation Monitoring
    14. Records Keeping
    15. Security Arrangements
    16. Emergency Procedures
    17. Incident Notifications
    18. Radiation detectors and Monitor
             Testing, Calibrations and Efficiency checks
             Special Radiations detectors
    19. Non Ionizing Radiations
             Ultra Violet
             Infra Red
             Radio Frequency
             Visible light
    20. Appendix 1
             Definitions

Part 2: Legislative Requirements
3. The ANU aims to comply with the ARPANSA Act, Regulations and licence conditions. The ANU has been
    issued by ARPANSA with a Source License (S0027) and 3 Facilities Licenses to possess and conduct
    various Ionizing and Non- Ionizing radiation dealings (research, teaching, etc). Additional legislative
    compliance information can be found in the ANU Radiation Safety Policy.
         See: Radiation Safety Policy

4. Nuclear material dealing associated with the Nuclear Safeguards and Non- Proliferation legislative
   requirements are addressed in the University’s ASNO Guidelines.
      See: ASNO Guidelines

Part 3: Responsibilities
5. Responsibilities associated with Radiation and this procedure can be found in the ANU Radiation Safety
    Policy and ASNO Guidelines.
         See: Radiation Safety Policy and ASNO Guidelines

6. As supervisors and research leaders, there are various expectations and responsibilities placed upon
   you. As a supervisor, you should –
    Conduct research and dealings that are justified, that is, they must produce a net benefit to the
       individual or the community, taking into account social, economic and other relevant factors.
    Documenting the proposed work/research
    Complying with the ANU ‘new work’ approval process
    Conducting a risk assessment as part of the ANU hazard management process. Where significant
       risks are identified, these should be acted upon to reduce those risks to an acceptable level.
       See: Risk assessment
    Ensuring an individual’s exposures are kept below relevant exposure limits and to the lowest level
       that can be achieved consistent with best practice.
    Providing appropriate training and supervision to staff and students
    Providing appropriate resources (work area, safety devices, personal protective equipment etc.)
    Communicating with and involving your Radiation/Laser Safety Officer.

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        Being aware of personnel issues.

Part 4: Hazards
7. A hazard is the physical entity with innate properties of an agent or process that has the potential
    capacity of causing harm or adverse effect on the health of people. Workplace accidents and
    occupational diseases are caused by definable and identifiable hazards in the workplace. Under the
    umbrella of ‘radiation’ we have both ionizing radiation (alpha, beta, gamma, x-rays, neutrons) and non-
    ionizing radiation (infrared, visible, ultraviolet light, microwaves, radiofrequency waves, static magnetic
    fields) that have various hazards. It is however the risk that these radiations pose to us that we should
    concentrate on. The risk is the likelihood that the hazard will cause harm. The level of risk to health
    increases with the severity of the hazard and the duration and frequency of exposure to the hazard.
    The risk can be evaluated by the appropriate exposure measurements.

Part 5: Risk Management Process
8. Detailed information about the Risk management process is covered in Assessing Risk.
         See: Assessing Risk

9. The effects radiation exposure includes some element of uncertainty. As such the Precautionary
   Principle in dealing with radiation risks must be applied. Consideration should also be given to the
   Principle of Optimisation of Protection, with the University’s aim being to always minimise exposure
   and to be well within legislated dose limits or dose constraints.

10. Risk management is a five stage process:
1. Establish the Context;
Consider the scope and nature of operations and specializations with in the laboratory area when working
with radioactive substances or apparatus.
2. Identify the Hazards;
Hazard identification is covered in detail in the ANU Safety courses.
        See: ANU Safety courses

3. Assess the risk associated with the hazard;
The risk assessment process is covered in the assessing risk guidelines and ANU Safety courses. In addition,
conducting the new work approval process, and considering information in the risk control protocols. Both
Actual and Potential exposures need to be assessed.
        See: ANU Safety courses and risk control protocols

4. Control the risk; and
This involves providing appropriate measures to reduce identified risks to an acceptable level. The plan for
control of exposure to radiation in the workplace is based on a hierarchy of controls, including:
     avoidance or elimination of exposure, where practicable;
     isolation of sources of radiation, where practicable, through shielding, containment and remote
         handling techniques;
     engineering controls to reduce radiation levels and intakes of radioactive materials in the
     adoption of safe work practices, including work methods that make use of time, distance and
         shielding to minimize exposure, safety signage; and
     Where other means of controlling exposure are not practicable or not sufficient, the use of
         approved personal protective equipment.
In general OHS situations, risk reduction can be achieved by a combination of the ‘hierarchy of controls’ -
Elimination, substitution, segregation (distance), process control (by using pellet material or solution rather
than powder, master batching, pre-packaging, power level reduction etc.), automation, enclosure/isolation
(shielding) of the process, exhaust ventilation, timely equipment maintenance for optimal performance,
restriction of exposure (by limiting/controlling the number of employees, time, hours worked, loads, rest
periods, job rotation, overtime etc.), safe work practices, education and involvement of the workers, work

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environment (control of temperature, humidity, noise, air movement, etc.), supervision, personal
protective equipment (safety glasses etc.).
5. Review the process
Regular reviews of protocols, procedures, and equipment will encourage safe thinking, as well as a
requirement of the regulations. In addition, new processes and techniques may have become available and
should be considered. In the event of an accident or incident (or near miss) the recommendations and
improvements should be incorporated into the protocols.
Education is a major aspect of achieving appropriate risk management. The relevant ANU safety training
courses and associated notes are an integral part of the risk management process and licence

Part 6: New Work Approval
11. It is an ANU requirement that no new work is undertaken without a risk assessment being conducted. In a
    radiation context, all radiation work should be considered and assessed in terms of hazards and risk
    involved in handling, storage, transport and disposal. Please discuss your proposal with your RSO/LSO or
    the OHS Branch to determine which approval process category is appropriate for the work. Approval may
    occur at one of four levels:
 In-house Assessment – may be performed on a new experiment readily conducted with methodologies
    and/ or apparatus currently in use within the same budget unit and where the researchers proposing
    the new experiment are involved in established and ongoing interactions with current users. This will
    ensure ready access to already developed techniques and methodologies. The material/process must
    already exist in the School’s inventory.
    Process: Conduct a risk assessment as per ANU risk assessment guidelines and document. Some
    guidelines can be found for ionizing radiations in the Risk Control Protocol for Ionizing Radiation, and
    for lasers and non- ionizing radiations in Laser Application Form, Non Ionizing Radiation Equipment
    Application Form. The ANU or local document should be submitted through the group supervisor to
    the local RSO for approval prior to commencement of the procedure. The RSO may wish to inform the
    local OHS Committee. The risk assessment document should form the basis of the safe work practices
    and be attached to it.

          See: ANU risk assessment Guidelines and document, Risk Control Protocol for Ionizing Radiation,
         Laser Application Form and Non Ionizing Radiation Equipment Application Form.

    The following ARPANSA documents will assist in developing radiation procedures and licence
        See: Radiation Protection Series, Radiation Health Series and Australian Standards.

   Radiation Safety Committee Assessment - New work includes: possession, use of a material, use or
    operation of an apparatus, or disposal of material or an apparatus that is not currently undertaken.
    Thus the following proposals by a Budget Unit would constitute new work that would need to be
    reviewed by the University’s Radiation Safety Committee:
        See: Radiation Safety Committee
    o A new radiation-producing apparatus;
    o A new sealed source;
    o A new unsealed source not currently listed in the School’s inventory;
    o An unsealed source of a radioisotope that exceeds the cumulative activity for that radioisotope
        shown on the inventory;
    o An unsealed source of a radioisotope of different physical form (i.e. solid, liquid, gas) than shown
        on the inventory for that radioisotope;
    o An unsealed source of a radioisotope to be used in a different application or use than that shown
        on the inventory for that radioisotope (i.e. the risks are significantly different);
    o Disposal of radiation apparatus (ARPANSA approval); and
    o Some other scenarios as determined by the OHS Branch or RSOs.
    Please discuss your proposal with your RSO/LSO or the OHS Branch to determine which approval
    process category is appropriate for the proposed work.
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    Process: Complete the application forms new work Radiation Application cover page, Ionizing radiation
    Apparatus Application Form, Ionizing radiation Isotope Application Form, Laser Application Form, and
    Non Ionizing Radiation Equipment Application Form as required and submit via your local RSO. The
    RSO will provide comments and suggestions before forwarding to the OHS Branch
    ( and the ANU Radiation Safety Committee for consideration.

         See: New work Radiation Application cover page, Ionizing radiation Apparatus Application Form,
         Ionizing radiation Isotope Application Form, Laser Application Form, and Non Ionizing Radiation
         Equipment Application Form.

   ARPANSA approval - A new radiation dealing, which involves radiation apparatus or materials not
    currently listed on the ANU inventory (ARPANSA Workbook) needs to be approved by ARPANSA.
    Disposal of radiation apparatus also falls in this category.
    New dealings having completed the application as new work (above) will be assisted through the
    required official notification and approval process with ARPANSA.
    Process: Complete the application forms New Work Radiation Application cover page, Ionizing
    radiation Apparatus Application Form, Ionizing radiation Isotope Application Form, Laser Application
    Form, Non Ionizing Radiation Equipment Application Form as required and submit via your local RSO,
    OHS Branch and the ANU Radiation Safety Committee for consideration. Please allow some time for
    ARPANSA approval.

         See: New work Radiation Application cover page, Ionizing radiation Apparatus Application Form,
         Ionizing radiation Isotope Application Form, Laser Application Form, and Non Ionizing Radiation
         Equipment Application Form.

    Note: Please complete the relevant application forms listed in related forms and forward to
    your Coordinating RSO. Copies from approval process 2 or 3 should be forwarded to the OHS
    Branch ( Electronic copies are acceptable. Your application will be considered

   ASNO - A new experiment involving a nuclear source acquisition or disposal as per the ANU license
    permit according to ASNO Act 1987.
    Process: Discuss any proposed dealing with the OHS Officer ( who is the
    University’s ASNO liaison person.

         See: ASNO Guidelines

Part 7: New Radiation Laboratory Design
12. The design and construction requirement for new (wet chemistry) radiation laboratories should comply
    with AS/NZS 2982.1 and if not in full compliance, shall achieve an equivalent level of safety. The design
    and construction of laboratories housing radiation apparatus should ensure that any radiation
    measured externally to the laboratory is below the appropriate public exposure limits (e.g. 1 mSv/ year
    for 5 consecutive years on average).

13. Contact OHS Branch ( for advice.

Part 8: Existing Lab Compliance
14. Compliance with the current Australian Standards on laboratory safety can be assessed by using the
    check lists for Ionizing radiations, Non-ionizing radiations and Lasers.

         See: Ionizing radiations, Non-ionizing radiations and Lasers

15. Deficiencies should be discussed with the RSO and local management. In the event of a dispute, the
    OHS Branch should be contacted.

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Part 9: Radioactive Material Handling at ANU
A. Ionizing Radiation Stores
16. Radioactive substances stores should comply with the following attributes:
     Location should be secure and restricted to authorised personnel only;
     Only Radioactive Substances should be stored there;
     A register (for waste stores) or Chemical Inventory System (for radiation stores) should be kept and
         readily accessible by authorized staff;
     A person should be made responsible for the housekeeping associated with the store;
     A Radiation warning sign shall be displayed at the entrance to the store;
     Provided with spillage trays on which the containers of radioactive substances shall be placed;
     Stores should have adequate level of lighting to read the labels, good natural or mechanical
         ventilation and emergency contact details displayed;
     Packages should be stored in an appropriate manner to prevent physical damage, reduce effects of
         the chemical properties, contain spill or leak and segregated from incompatible materials (packages
         will not need to be opened once placed in store); and
     The average and maximum radiation dose rates should be determined and recorded by RSO.
         Measure centrally within the store, outside the entrance and any major path or public area next to
         the store.

Note: For the storage of long lived radioactive material no longer required please contact your RSO.

B. Storage
17. All radioactive substances should be stored in appropriate containers and in a location where there are
    appropriate conditions for the type of substance and its container. Radioactive substances should be
    stored separately from non- radioactive substances. The storage containers should be:
     Strong;
     Durable;
     Made of compatible material;
     Kept closed; and
     Labelled clearly and correctly.

Note: Unsealed radioactive residues at tracer level may be stored in glass vessels with appropriate
polyethylene or rubber stoppers. Ionizing radiations can induce decomposition of water; hence vented
containers may be needed to store aqueous radioactive solutions. Thermally unstable radioactive
substances needs particular care and shall always store in vented containers. Storage containers for beta
emitting isotopes should reduce bremsstrahlung radiation.
        See: Reduce bremsstrahlung radiation.

18. Label: All storage containers and ionizing apparatus should have an appropriate label for identification
    of the radioactive substance. Label should have the following information:
     Name of Radio nuclides;
     Activity details;
     Description of contents;
     Physical form;
     Chemical form; and
     Encapsulating material.

 Note: Special labelling and storage containers are required for long lived radioactive material no longer
required please contact your RSO.

         See: Appropriate label for ionizing apparatus and appropriate label for storage container

C. Transport

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19. Within the building: This includes the transportation of the radioactive material between radiation
    store to laboratory, laboratory to laboratory, laboratory to radiation store and/ or laboratory to
    waste store. The following attributes must be meet before the transportation of the radioactive
    material between the above mentioned places within the building:
        a. Radioactive substance must be contained appropriately (e.g. primary and secondary
        b. Labelled with a radiation trefoil and substance/ material identification; and
        c. Shielded to reduce exposure to an acceptable level (generally less than 10 microSv/hr or <500
    This part of the procedure is to be read in conjunction with ANU Hazardous Waste Disposal
        See: ANU Hazardous Waste Disposal Procedures.

20. Outside the Building: Outside the building comprises the area around the ANU campus. The
    radioactive material and/ or radiation producing apparatus can only be transported around the ANU
    campus with the approval of the (two) RSOs. The transportation of radiation material and/ or radiation
    producing apparatus by rail, road and waterways must comply with the requirement of Radiation
    Protection Series 2- Code of practice for the safe transport of radioactive material (2008). The
    transportation by air must also comply with Civil Aviation Act 1988 and IATA requirements. Material to
    be transported (off campus or) by air must be packaged and documented by an IATA certified person.
    Packaging requirements for radioactive materials is available from the OHS Branch.
        See: RSOs, of Radiation Protection Series 2- Code of practice for the safe transport of Radioactive
        material (2008)., Civil Aviation Act 1988 and IATA certified person.

Part 10: Relocation of Radioactive Material or Apparatus

21. Within ANU: This may only occur between areas of the ANU that are covered by the ARPANSA licence
    and with the approval of the Radiation Safety Officer in both the areas involved. This type of
    movement of controlled items does not require notification to ARPANSA, but must be notified on the
    subsequent ARPANSA quarterly report and radioactive materials updated on the chemical inventory
    system. For licence details please contact your RSO or OHS Branch.
    For relocation or transfer of nuclear material within ANU or externally, contact the
        See: Radiation Safety Officer and ARPANSA quarterly report.

22. Relocation to another commonwealth agency: Under the ARPANSA Regulations (Regulation 53),
    relocation of controlled items to another licensed Commonwealth agency is called a “transfer”.
    ARPANSA must be informed of a transfer of controlled material or controlled apparatus within 7 days,
    via the completion of a Transfer Notice. For further information contact OHS Branch and submit a copy
    of the completed form to
         See: Transfer Notice

23. Relocation to Non- commonwealth Agency: Under ARPANSA sub regulation 53 (1) relocation of
    controlled apparatus or controlled material or disposal of laboratory waste to non commonwealth
    agency is defined as “Disposal”. Prior written approval from ARPANSA is required. Your local RSO or
    coordinating RSO can assist in completing the Disposal Request Form, must be signed by the
    appropriate ANU Radiation Delegate (usually the School Director. Under sub regulation 48(3), licence
    holders must ensure that disposal of controlled material or apparatus is in accordance with the Code of
    Practice for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste by the User (RHS13); the Code of Practice for the Near-
    surface Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Australia (RHS 35); the Code of Practice for the Safe Transport
    of Radioactive Material (RPS 2) and the Code of Practice for the Security of Radioactive Sources (RPS

    The disposal of radioactive laboratory wastes released in accordance with the relevant Radiation
    Disposal Permit issued by the ACT Radiation Safety Section does not require written approval.

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         See: Code of Practice for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste by the User (RHS13, the Code of Practice
         for the Near-surface Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Australia (RHS 35), the Code of Practice for
         the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (RPS 2), Disposal Request Form , Code of Practice for the
         Security of Radioactive Sources (RPS 11).And disposal of radioactive laboratory wastes.

24. Once an ARPANSA approved disposal of a source/apparatus has occurred, please notify your local RSO
    for the next quarterly report.

Part 11: Disposal of Radiation Waste/Sources or Apparatus

25. It is an expectation under the ANU Hazardous Waste Disposal Procedures that every effort will be made
    to minimise the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Where radioactive waste is to be
    generated, the disposal of any residual material, contaminated equipment, consumables or other
    items, and waste products, shall be considered at the design stage of the experiment. A protocol or
    waste disposal route must be available (and approved) before the work can commence. Please discuss
    with your local RSO.
          See: ANU Hazardous Waste Disposal Procedures

26. Radioactive material disposal usually involves either:
     Returning to manufacturer/ supplier for processing.
     Concentrating and Containment;
     Storing and allowing it to Decay; or
     Diluting and dispersing the material into the natural background levels.

27. The details are provided in the ANU Hazardous waste disposal procedures. Therefore radioactive waste
    can only be disposed under the disposal requirements and restrictions imposed. ANU radiation safety
    committee and regulator approval is required to dispose the larger quantities of the radioactive waste.
    You must notify your RSO of disposal amounts approaching the allowed limit, or levels above average
    disposal amounts. Report any unusual events that may lead to excessive waste generation. For more
    information contact your budget unit Radiation Safety Officer.
        See: ANU Hazardous waste disposal procedures and Radiation Safety Officer.

For unwanted sealed sources disposal contact your Radiation Safety Officer.

For disposal of nuclear sources complete the form and submit it to for approval.

Part 12: Personnel Issue

28. Age: Persons under the age of 16 should not be directly involved in work with ionizing radiation or
    radiation exposure.
    No person under the age of 18 years is permitted to work in a hazardous or restricted area (radiation
    controlled area) unless supervised, and then only for the purpose of training.
         See: ANU procedures for control of access to hazardous and restricted locations.

 29. Competency/ Training/ Qualifications: Operational activities, which may affect safety, are only carried
     out under the control of suitably qualified, experienced and authorised personnel, and according
     to approved written protocols. In general, the minimum training, qualifications, and experience
     required are:
                       Education, Qualifications or      Related Experience                 Authorization
Undergraduate          Year 12, Training/ Studying       None, Requires supervision         -
Radiation worker,      Budget unit Induction course, Minimal experience, but requires From Supervisor
(Class 3 and 4) Laser ANU safety course, on the          supervision (should understand
user, PhD and          job training in techniques and theory, and for isotope work
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honours students             processes                       conduct a dry run of the

Equipment                    Relevant technical              Relevant technical expertise and      Supervisor,
maintenance                  qualifications, ANU safety      understanding of the hazards          RSO/LSO
officer/ technician          course (highly                  associated with the equipment
Supervisor                   Budget Unit Induction           1 year +                              From Dean /
                             course, Academic                                                      Director
                             qualifications, ANU safety
                             course, ANU OHS for
                             Managers and Supervisors
Deputy Radiation             Budget Unit Induction           1 yr +, with practical experience.    Business/Laborat
Safety Officer,              course, ANU safety course       The deputy RSO may occupy the         ory Manager,
deputy Laser Safety                                          role of RSO for a period of up to 6   RSO
Officer                                                      months to cover absences of the
                                                             incumbent RSO.
Radiation Safety             Budget Unit Induction           3 yrs+, with practical experience     Dean / Director
Officer, Laser Safety        course, ANU safety course, or
Officer                      Radiation Safety Training
                             (optional) and encouraged to
                             attend an external radiation
                             safety course.
Coordinating                 Budget Unit Induction course    Basic radiation safety and            Dean/Director
Radiation Safety             and ANU safety courses (both    awareness is necessary to ensure
                             ionizing and lasers and         an understanding of the issues
                             Radiation safety Training). A   and materials. A coordinating
                             coordinating RSO may also be    RSO should be able to network
                             a RSO or a user of radiation.   with the other area RSOs and
                                                             attend the ANU's Radiation
                                                             Safety Committee. They are
                                                             responsible to the Dean/Director
                                                             to maintain the area's ARPANSA

         See: ANU safety Courses and approved written protocols.

30. Exceptions - External courses/ other institutional courses may be recognised as a substitute for the
    ANU safety courses by agreement with your local Budget Unit Radiation Safety Officer / OHS Branch or
    ANU Radiation Safety Committee.

31. Re-training – Personnel relying solely on the ANU safety courses should consider re-training every 5
    years. All personnel should re-visit the ANU radiation web sites on a regular basis, or upon notification
    of changes/additions to its information.

32. Female Personnel and Pregnancy: The new work application process and associated risk assessment
    should indicate and provide appropriate measures to reduce all occupational exposures to a safe level.
    However, in some instances additional risks to an embryo, foetus or through lactation may be present.
    The risk of ionising radiation causing detriment to the foetus is higher than the risk to the worker. The
    normal dose limit for a worker is therefore reduced during pregnancy. ARPANSA recommends the same
    level of protection as for a member of the public. This is a dose of 1 mSv in a year, which is equivalent
    to a limit of 0.75 mSv to the abdomen during the pregnancy. It is for these reasons that female
    members should notify their supervisor (or RSO or OHS Branch) as soon as a pregnancy is suspected, or
    an infant is receiving breast milk. Once pregnancy is confirmed, appropriate measures must be taken
    to control exposure. Information on the associated risks to the embryo or foetus, or to infant ingesting
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    radioactive substances in the breast milk, can also be discussed. Supervisors and managers of the
    Budget Unit should make every reasonable effort to provide suitable alternative employment in
    circumstances where it has been determined that the person, for health reasons, may no longer
    continue in employment which involves occupational exposure to radiation.

33. Medical Condition and Implants: Where a person has a medical condition or medical implant that may
    be affected by exposure associated with the radiation work (e.g. a heart pace maker in a magnetic
    field), these should be discussed with the supervisor, RSO or OHS Branch. Supervisors and managers of
    the Budget Unit should make every reasonable effort to provide suitable alternative employment in
    circumstances where it has been determined that the person, for health reasons, may no longer
    continue in employment involving occupational exposure.

34. ANU Staff visiting external organisations: When ANU staff is to be involved in radiation work in
    external organisations, the type of radiation work should be documented and approved by their ANU
    Supervisor and relevant RSO. The external contractor form can be used for this situation. Consideration
    needs to be given to which organisation provides the radiation monitoring and how these results will
    be combined with their ANU dose results. Many external organisations (e.g. ANSTO) issue visitors a
    radiation badge for their duration. ANU Staff are expected to comply with an external organisations
    induction/ training requirement.
        See: External contractor form

35. Contract Researchers / Visiting Fellows / Summer students and other short-term workers -
Contract researchers, visiting fellows, summer students and other short-term workers (and other non-ANU
employed workers) participating on ANU projects or working in ANU buildings or on ANU grounds, are to
have an ANU Supervisor responsible for their work. The type of radiation work, conditions and approval
must be documented (see form) before the work can commence.
It is an expectation that these external people will meet (or exceed) all the appropriate ANU requirements.
These people need to be made aware of –
       o Their roles in continuing best practice and maintaining a safe and healthy workplace;
       o Their responsibilities in conducting their work and how that may impact on ANU operations,
           safety, and the environment;
       o ANU and local Budget Unit requirements for conducting work with radiation; and
       o ANU personnel issues regarding age, pregnancy and medical implants.
They should also be introduced to the local RSO and discuss their tasks with them.
Persons working in a radiation area must undergo the induction section related to radiation safety. When
their stay at ANU is expected to exceed 10 business days, they should undergo the full local Budget Unit
Induction process. When the duration of stay exceeds 4 months, a training requirement similar to that for
ANU staff should be offered. Contract workers may enter a formal safety agreement with their employing
          See: External Contractor form

36. Trade Contractors, Maintenance Personnel, and Workshop Staff
Tradesmen, workshop and maintenance staff (including equipment technicians) must abide by the ANU
control of access to hazardous and restricted locations policy. They must seek prior approval from the
laboratory/area supervisor, or in their absence, the Radiation Safety Officer. Approval should be requested
at least 1 day before access is required.
Facilities and Services Supervisors of trade contractors must ensure that access and the type of work
undertaken is gained well in advance of the work. In the event of an emergency situation requiring urgent
access, staff in the laboratory/research group must be consulted and approval gained.
These requirements are also applicable to after-hours access.
         See: ANU control of access to hazardous and restricted locations policy

Part 13: Radiation Monitoring
A. Ionizing Radiation

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37. Personal Monitoring: ARPANSA have established radiation protection standards and have set annual
    effective dose limits for radiation workers in order to minimise the chance of adverse effects occurring.
    These standards recommend that the annual dose received by radiation workers should not exceed 20
    mSv, averaged over 5 years, with no more than 50 mSv in any one year. (Note average ANU radiation
    exposures are around 22 microSv/yr).
     Various exposure standards exist for non-ionizing radiations. Please discuss these with the University’s
     Occupational Hygienist (or contact ).
     Personal monitoring not only documents occupational radiation dose, it is useful for checking the
     adequacy of radiation protection measures. An individual should notify the RSO of any unusual
     radiation doses received. In addition, whole body ionizing radiation dose results of greater than 1000
     microSv/year, 250 microSv/reporting quarter, or 80 microSv/month should be reported using the
     University’s notification system.
     It is the staff responsibility to wear the radiation monitoring badges/ dosimeters during their radiation
     work and regularly check the monitoring badges/ dosimeter for contamination, and maintained and
     kept cleaned as per manufactures guidelines.
     The type and details for monitoring personnel is available.

38. On completion of their employment at ANU, a staff member is entitled to copy of their cumulative
    dose report and incident/ accident report on request.
     Note: Prior to commencing employment at ANU in radiation department or work involving radiation
     exposure, an individual’s radiation exposure reports (e.g. a cumulative radiation dose report, accident
     reports, etc) can be requested by RSO, Supervisor or monitoring agency from the individual. Where a
     person’s dose approaches or exceeds recommended dose limits, radiation work should be strictly
     monitored and reviewed to ensure compliance with in the limits.

         See: monitoring personnel and recommended Dose limits.

39. Area/ zone/ equipment monitoring: Area monitoring is done to find any areas/ zones where an
    appreciable dose rate exists, or where changes have occurred, so that appropriate actions may be
    taken to reduce the dose to personnel. This also includes the regular monitoring for leaks,
    contamination and personal exposure. The different type of monitoring is External Radiation, Surface
    Contamination and Airborne Contamination Monitoring.
        See: Area/ zone/ Equipment monitoring.

40. Environmental Monitoring: The release of radioactive material into the environment is strictly
    regulated and controlled. Consult the ANU Procedure for the Disposal of Hazardous Waste .
        Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas that originates from rock and concrete, permeates into
        buildings. When the ventilation is poor, radon levels may increase. The ANU OHS Branch conducts
        radon monitoring of buildings. The radon concentrations to date are within dose constraints for
        the majority of buildings and areas on campus. Various environment monitoring details are
        available. Please consult your RSO or the OHS Branch for further information.
        See: ANU Procedure for the Disposal of Hazardous Waste and environment monitoring.

41. Sealed Sources: Leak testing shall be performed at regular intervals (at least every 10 years) and
    whenever leakage is suspected as per ISO 9978 or similar. Please consult your RSO or the OHS Branch.

  B. Lasers

42. Eye Testing: Staff involved with class 3B or 4 lasers should under go an ophthalmic screening to
    determine the baseline condition of their eyes. More information on testing requirement is outlined in
    Health Surveillance Procedure.
        See: Health Surveillance Procedure.

Part 14: Record Keeping
The following documents are the minimum that should be held by each relevant –

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43. Budget Unit
    Radiation Safety Officer contact details;
    Radioactive waste disposal records;
    ACT Radiation Council – Waste Disposal Permits; and
    Local OHS committee minutes/ agenda that discuss radiation issues.

44. Radiation Safety Officer
     The ARPANSA Inventory Workbook is accessible through the local coordinating Radiation Safety
     ANU radiation safety course documentation;
     Applications for new conduct / dealings;
     Safety assessments, reviews and approvals;
     Personal radiation dose records;
            o ARPANSA Personal Radiation Monitoring Service records
                     TLD badge whole body
                     Extremities results, or
            o Other exposure monitoring results. E.g. QFE (quartz fibre electroscope) results or electronic
                dosimeter results, together with the appropriate dose calculation methods.
            o OHS Branch exposure assessment reports
     Records of ionizing radiation doses that have been received by a radiation worker, including details
       of monitoring results and dose calculation methods, are to be kept during the working lifetime of
       the person and afterwards for not less that 30 years after the last dose assessment and at least
       until the person reaches or would have reached the age of 75 years;
     Radiation dose report file (Central Records file nomenclature: OHS- RM – ‘area name’- Radiation
       dose reports);
     Area monitoring results (contamination checks of equipment etc);
     Radiation Store radiation survey results and dose rates; and
     Radiation apparatus and laboratory design specifications for new or refurbished installations.
     Sealed Sources: Records should be kept by the RSO which comprises of the following:
            o Serial number or other identification of each source;
            o The physical nature of the source, the radionuclide, its date of receipt and its activity upon
            o All movements of the source in the establishment; and
            o The date and manner of disposal of the source when it leaves establishment.
       See: coordinating Radiation Safety Officer.

45. Radiation User Group
     Documentation for new work / dealings;
     Safe operating procedures/protocols (which are regularly reviewed, at least annually);
     Waste disposal guidelines, based on ANU Hazardous waste disposal procedures;
     Calibration certificates;
     Source certificates;
     Seal source leak testing methods and results;
     Area monitoring results (contamination checks of equipment etc); and
     OHS Branch exposure assessment reports
       See: ANU Hazardous waste disposal procedures and leak testing.

46. Personal File
     Training and qualifications obtained;
     Relevant radiation experience;
     Medical records;
           o Eye/Optical examination for persons using class 3B or 4 lasers.
           o Accident/Injury/hazard/near miss reports
           o Accident related medical tests/reports

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        A copy of the final cumulative radiation dose report upon leaving the University (or wearer register
         identification); and
        A copy of relevant radiation incident reports / investigation results.

47. OHS Branch
     ANU ARPANSA Licence and conditions;
     Training attendance records (ANU course details only);
     Minutes of Radiation Safety committee meetings;
     (OHS Branch) exposure assessment reports;
     (Centralised) Environmental monitoring results (e.g. radon); and
     Incident/Accident reports and resultant investigation reports.

48. An individual’s exposure report should be available to them on request.
Records shall be made available for inspection to the appropriate authority.
When records can no longer be retained, the records should be forwarded to ARPANSA.

Part 15: Security Arrangements
49. Radiation areas are considered hazardous locations under ANU procedure for the control of access to
    hazardous and restricted locations. Only an authorised person may access a radiation area. Trade
    persons or visitors must be accompanied by an authorised person except for emergency services
    personnel in an emergency situation.

50. Security requirements must be implemented for sealed radioactive sources in order to decrease the
    likelihood of unauthorised access to or acquisition of the source by persons with malicious intent.
    Security arrangements must align with the RPS11- code of practice for the security of radioactive
    sources (2007).

51. An initial security inspection of a radiation area should be conducted to ensure that the area meets the
    security requirements as per AS 2243.4. Regular audits of the area should also address the security
        See: control of access to hazardous and restricted locations. , RPS11- code of practice for the
        security of radioactive sources (2007) and Security audits

52. Radioactive sources and Apparatus not in use:
Radioactive sources not in use should be stored appropriately as per AS 2243.4.
Radioactive apparatus not in use should be secure against the unauthorised access and operation.

53. Class 3B and 4 lasers products should be protected against unauthorized use by removing the key from
    the control. Exposure to unauthorised persons may also be prevented by a remote interlock connected
    to an emergency master disconnect interlock or beam stop. Detail information is outlined in ANU safety
    Courses and Laser Hazard Procedure.
        See: ANU safety Courses and Laser Hazard Procedure.

Part 16: Emergency Procedures

54. Any incident involving radioactive materials or apparatuses must be reported to the area supervisor
    and local RSO. These people are able to provide initial assistance. Additional assistance may be
    required from the RSO, OHS Branch, ANU Security, University Maintenance staff, Emergency Services
    personnel, and ACTEWAGL staff in dealing with the emergency.

55. Spillage: Any serious injury to a person shall be treated immediately, taking care to minimize the
    spread of contamination. Emergency treatment for serious or life- threatening injury shall take
    priority over treatment for contamination. To minimise the impact of a spill, at risk areas should have

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    access to a Spill kit. Spill kit contents and requirements are available from the ANU OHS Branch and
    Ionizing Radiation Safety course folder.
        See: Laboratory Spill Management Guidelines.

56. Fire/ Explosion: Fires and explosion are likely to spread radioactive contamination. In the event of a
    fire/explosion senior officers of the attending fire brigade shall be informed of radioactive and radiation
    hazards. Fire fighting shall take precedence over contamination control.
         See: ANU Emergency procedures and ANU Emergency Procedures in Building.

57. Chemical Incidents: For detailed information on emergency procedure please refer to ANU Chemical
    Safety Folder, ANU Risk Management for chemicals and Laboratory chemical Spill management
        See: ANU Risk Management for chemicals and Laboratory chemical Spill management Guidelines.

58. Biological Incidents: For detailed information on emergency procedures please refer to ANU biological
    safety folder.

59. First Aid: ANU First Aid, Provision for services defines in details about the first aid treatment in an
    event of emergency. Every Budget unit will have first aid attendant to deal with emergency situations.
        See: First Aid, Provision for services.

60. Personnel Decontamination: Persons who might have had an accidental intake of radioactive material
    shall be referred to the RSO as soon as possible for consideration for medical monitoring. Where
    necessary, they should also be referred to a medically qualified person with knowledge of appropriate
    procedures to reduce the effect of, or assist elimination of, internal radioactive contamination.
    Assistance on this matter is available through the RSO, OHS Branch, ACT Radiation Health Section and
    the Canberra Hospital. Laboratory Spill Management Guidelines and ANU OHS Branch Radiation Safety
    Folder explain the Body decontamination procedure.
        See: Laboratory Spill Management Guidelines

61. Floods: Radiation items should be stored such that they will not be affected by water damage.

Part 17: Incident Notifications

62. All the incidents involving the radiations must be reported using the University Incident Notification
    Form. The reporting of incidents, accidents, significant exposures and dangerous occurrences assists
    the University community avoiding repeated incidents.

63. Major Radioactive accidents with radioactive materials involving a spill of more than 20 ALI (Annual
    Limit of Intake) or radioactive contamination on a person or clothing exceeding 50 Derived Work limits
    (DWL) or above the INES scale should be reported to ARPANSA within 24 hours of an incident.
        See: INES Scale, ARPANSA reporting and Reporting Form.

Part 18: Radiation Detectors and Monitors
Simple operational checks should be conducted regularly for all type of radiation detector or monitor.
64. Testing, Calibrations and Efficiency checks: Radiation detectors must have their efficiency checked
    every year and calibrated at least every 5 years. Radiation Detectors and Monitors outline the
    efficiency requirement according to ARPANSA calibrations and efficiency checks. RSO should conduct
    the efficiency checks as outline in efficiency check document.
         See: Radiation Detectors and Monitors, ARPANSA and efficiency check document.

65. Radiation Monitors and Special Radiation Detectors: Radiation monitors that are required to provide
    a dose rate must be calibrated annually. The special radiation detectors (for low energy x-ray detection
    or neutrons) should be calibrated annually.

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Part 19: Non-Ionizing Radiations
Non-ionizing radiation apparatus producing potentially hazardous exposures are also managed within the
University’s radiation licence. These apparatus include:
66. Lasers: of class 3 and 4, producing ultraviolet, visible or infrared radiation. A laser Safety Officer must
    be able to monitor the use of these hazardous lasers and is able to provide advice. All users of Class 3
    and 4 lasers (and laser systems) must attend the ANU Laser Safety course. Please contact your Laser
    Safety Officer or the OHS Branch ( for further information and assessment.
        See: ARPANSA Laser radiation basics and AS 2211.1.

67. Ultra Violet: Ultra Violet radiation (wavelengths from 200 to 400 nm) may be produced by low pressure
    gas discharge lamps for germicidal control in biological safety cabinets, or UV curing, reaction vessels
    and in Transilluminators. The UV procedure outlines the precautions required while working with UV
    sources. Please contact the OHS Branch ( for further information and
        See: UV procedure, ARPANSA UV radiation Basics and AS 2243.5.

68. Infra Red: Infra Red (IR) radiations (wavelengths between 760 nm and 1 mm) may be produced by IR
    lamps or associated hot materials (e.g. furnaces). Please contact the OHS Branch
    ( for further information and assessment.
        See: AS 2243.5.

69. Radiofrequency: Radio frequency (RF) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum with frequencies
    between 3 KHz and 300 KHz. The sources of RF are microwave ovens, induction heaters, plasma
    sources, radio transmitters, etc. Please contact the OHS Branch ( for further
    information and assessment.
        See: ARPANSA RF radiation basics and AS 2243.5

70. Visible light: Visible light spectrum extends at a wavelength of about 380nm to about 760 nm. The
    maximum sensitivity of human eye occurs at 555nm. Sunlight is the main source of visible light and
    eyes are at high risk. Please contact the OHS Branch ( for further information
    and assessment.
        See: Outdoor work and AS 2243.5

71. Other non-ionizing radiations: for concerns about any non-ionizing radiation please contact the OHS
    Branch ( for further information and assessment.
       See: ARPANSA and Electromagnetic spectrum.

72. All users of non-ionizing radiation must be aware of the hazards and risks associated with the particular
    radiation they are using or likely to be exposed to. The University’s safety courses provide information
    on many of these hazards.

Part 20: Appendix 1

73. The Radiation safety procedures contain the following definitions:
ACTEWAGL: ACT’s electrical, natural gas, water and sewage services provider
ARPANSA: Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency
ASNO: Australian safeguard and Non Proliferation Office
Authorized Person: An authorized person is a person who is authorized to deal with the radioactive
source(s) or radiation apparatus (es) by the management of the area.
Budget Unit: A university unit listed on the Academic units (1) and Administrative units’ (2) pages. In
general it refers to a college, school, division, department, cost centre or unit designated by the Vice-
Chancellor as responsible for an activity of the university.

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Controlled Apparatus: An apparatus that produces ionizing radiation when energised or that would if
assembled or repaired, be capable of producing ionizing radiation; or produces ionizing radiations because
it contains radioactive material; or equipment prescribed by the regulations that produces harmful non-
ionizing radiation when energised.
Controlled Material: Any natural or artificial material which emits ionising radiations spontaneously
DWG: Designated Work Group.
Dose: A generic term which can mean absorbed dose, equivalent dose or effective dose, depending on
context. It is an amount related to an individual’s exposure.
Emergency Procedures: Basic plans, established in advance, stating what action to take in the event of an
emergency. These are used in order to minimise the consequences of an incident, such as injuries, or
damage to property or the environment.
Exposure: The circumstances of being exposed to radiation.
Hazard: A hazard is the innate properties of an agent or process that has the potential capacity of causing
harm or adverse effect on the health of people.
Ionizing radiation: Radiation which is capable of causing ionization, either directly (for example, from
radiation in the form of gamma rays or charged particles) or indirectly (for example, from radiation in the
form of neutrons).
Licence: Means a source licence or a facility licence.
LSO: Laser Safety Officer
Non- Ionizing Radiations: Any electromagnetic radiation of wavelength greater than 100 nm in air or
vacuum, (for example, infrared, ultraviolet, visible light, microwaves, radiofrequency waves).
Occupational exposure: Exposure of a person which occurs in the course of the person’s work and which is
not excluded exposure.
OHS: Occupational Health and Safety
Packaging: The assembly of components necessary to enclose the radioactive contents completely.
Radioactive Substances: A substance which spontaneously emits ionizing radiations as a consequence of
radioactive decay.
Radioactive Contamination: The presence of a radioactive substance(s) in or a material or in a place where
it is undesirable or could be harmful.
Radiological Incident: As an unexpected deviation from normal conditions leading to an actual, or
potential, abnormal situation which may cause excessive exposure, irradiation or contamination of persons
or contamination of the working environment.
Radiation Monitor: a device that measures radiation in terms of an exposure assessment.
Radiation detector: a device that detects radiation e.g. displays counts per second.
Risk: Effect of uncertainty on objectives
Risk Management: Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to risk
RSO: Radiation Safety Officer
Sealed Sources: Means controlled material permanently contained in a capsule, or closely bound in a solid
form, which is strong enough to be leak tight for the intended use of the controlled material and any
foreseeable abnormal events likely to affect the controlled material.
Sievert (Sv): The special name of the SI unit for both equivalent dose and effective dose.
TLD: Thermo-Luminescent Dosimeters
Unsealed Sources: A source which is not a sealed source and which under normal conditions of use can
produce contamination.
UV: that part of the Ultra Violet spectrum

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Metadata        Please use the following key words and phrases in the metadata to aid staff searches.
                (Separate each word OR phrase with a semi-colon)
                Radiation; ionizing; non-ionizing; laser; ultraviolet; infrared; visible; radiofrequency; ARPANSA;
                ASNO; Licence; exposure; health surveillance;

Procedure Approval

Consultation                          College/Divisional HR Managers
Consultation has occurred             College/Divisional General Managers
with the following areas
                                      College/Divisional Deans/Directors
(Tick relevant boxes)
                                      HRD Strategy and Workplace Development
                                      HRD Workplace Diversity and Inclusion
No consultation required
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      (minor change etc)
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                                      HRD Advisory Services
   State reason below
                                      HRD Business Solutions
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Lead Author Name                  Roy Schmid                              Phone Contact       X54485
                                  Signature                               Date                11 February 2011

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Instructions for CMS
Entered into CMS (HRBS)           Signature                               Date Live and/or                   Signature                               Date
Deans/Directors notified
of changes and document
is live (Document author)

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