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                                                                          Long Beach VA, Endodontic Section

                                                             Rahim Karmali DDS, Steven Merchant DDS, Stephen Davis DDS

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Author     Date Subject       Title                 Take Away
                              and direct            Made experimental lesions in cadavers. Concluded that lesions show up radiographically only if coritcal bone is
                              observation of        affected. Also, changes in trabeculation patterns will be discernable only if the junction between the cortex is
Seltzer,                      experimental          affected. The radiographic lesion always appears smaller than the actual lesion. This study did not address the
Bender     1961   Diagnosis   lesions in bone       continuity of the PDL and its radiographic appearance of a disrupted lamina dura.

                              A histological and
                              study of the          Tried to correlate RDX appearance w/ histology. Was very specific about what she termed a normal PA. Her
                              periapical region     findings show only 7% of the RCT teeth returned to normal,w/ an additional 20% showing marginal healing. Was she
                              of human upper        too discerning and dependent upon RDx too much. The RCT were done in the 40-60s. Obturations were well short,
Brynolf    1967   Diagnosis   incisors              chloroform techniques used. Some of these teeth had severe perio dz.
                              Patterns of
                              vertical root         Studied VRF using a computer model based on root shape, canal shape, and dentin thckness. Found a counter-
                              fracture: Factors     intuitive pattern of decreasing proximal dentin thickness causing a tendency of increased BL stress concentration.
                              affecting stress      Theory is that the thin proximal walls can expand more readily to force, this asymmetrical expansion creates
                              distribution in the   additional tensile force on the thicker areas. Of the three variables tested, canal shape had the largest influence, w/
Messer     2003   Diagnosis   root canal            a reduced radius of curvature strongly influencing stress conc.

                              Finite element
                              analysis and
                              studies of vertical Used a max and a md ant to do the same thing as in the above study. Compared it ti strain-guage techniques.
Messer     2003   Diagnosis   root fractures      Results were basically the same as the above study. Strain-gauge techniques are inaccurate.

                                                    Evaluated 36 pts with homozygous sickle cell anemia. 6% of teeth w/o any rests or trauma were nec. 83% of the pts
                              Pulpal necrosis       had orofacial pain w/o an obvious cause. Radiographic bone density was often shown to be deteriorated and a step
                              with sickle cell      ladder pattern was often seen. SCA causes a deformation in RBCs. Macrophages are too busy eliminating them to
Unsal      2004   Diagnosis   anemia                be available to fight off other infections. Deformed RBCs also occlude microvasculature.

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