Not to Judge by Color is
Everybody wants to
Rule the World
John F. Kennedy
Cold War (Vietnam, Cuba, Berlin, etc.)
The Second Civil War
Fragile Democratic Majorities
Southern Democrats are tenuous
Medical Assistance for elderly
Increased federal aid to education
Inflation & “Trickle Down” from a
Forced expansion of
CUBA and CASTRO
Second - Cuban
Alliance for Progress
1st - Bay of Pigs
April 17, 1961
CUBA and CASTRO
Cuban Missile Crisis
Effect of Cuban
•Kruschev loses validity
•hard liners in Moscow
want more military
• Americans hurry to
• Kennedy pushes
even harder for nuclear
test ban treaty
•foundation of detente
Stage I of the Cold
USA rapidly shows it is prepared to use the ultra-destructive device
in same way as conventional weapon. Believed U.S.S.R. never be
able to make an atomic bomb:
1. Soviet Iranian border (oil rights- threat of atomic bomb works)
*U.S. introduces Baruch Plan for control of nuclear material. Rejected by
2. Balkans/Yugoslavia (Greece next door! Civil war. Truman
3. Berlin (airlift)
Ended in 1949 when Soviets exploded their 1st atomic bomb
U.S. monopoly of weapons lasted 4 years.
Stage 2 of the Cold
Nuke Them First
1949 Soviets explode atomic bomb.
1. 1949China goes to Mao Tse Tung’s communist forces.
2. NSC 68 (justifies military expense- massive rearmament)
3. Korean War 1950- 1952
4. 1952 U.S. tests 1st Hydrogen bomb
5. 1954 Indochina (Vietnam) Dien Bien Phu. French fall. Must give Fr.
6. 1954 China -China moves troops to Quemoy and Matsu islands. Use atomic bomb? China
7.1956 Suez Crisis -issue Egypt’s right to control Suez canal. Br./Fr. see that at threat to their oil supply. Eisenhower
8. 1959 Berlin - rearmament W Germany. Khruschev and Eisenhower meet at Camp David- Khruschev “appeasment”
9. 1962 Cuba - Missile Crisis. Both Kennedy and Krushchev almost lost control of forces
Stage 3 of the Cold
1. Cuban Crisis - Brink of nuclear war. Worse crisis of all.
2. Khruschev ousted
3. 1964 China explodes atomic bomb
4. 1964 Vietnam- Gulf of Tonkin incident and U.S. majorily
Stage 4 of the Cold
1. 1969 Nixon administration uses multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (warheads) on U.S.
intercontinental ballistic missiles.
2. U.S. First strike capability
3. Nuclear armed submarines
4. 1969 Vietnam. Kissinger (Sec of State under Nixon) threatens Vietnam. DEFCON I threat fails.
5. 1969 Paris Peace Talks - Vietnam. If can’t get answer then escalation
6. 1970 Jordan - strategic pro-western Arab state threatened by pro-Soviet Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO). U.S. support King Hussein in Jordan. PLO defeated
7. 1973 Yom Kippur War Israel - UN troops separate Israel and Egypt since Suez crisis. Israel attacked
Egypt in 1967 - 6 day war. 1973 Egypt and Syria surprise attack Israel. Soviet and US negotiate peace.
8. 1980 Iran - revolution. Shah replaced by religious Ayatollah.
9. 1983 Geneva talks - Soviet Andropov will walk out if deployment of Pershing II and Cruise missiles begins to
10. 1985 Gorbochev elected Sov. premier
11. 1985 Reagan’s Star Wars initiative