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aviation_biofuels_presentation

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 26

  • pg 1
									     Biomass R&D Board Presentation
            Aviation Biofuels

• Overview & Farm to Fly (Todd Campbell,
  USDA/RD)
• FAA R&D (Carl Burleson, FAA)
• DOE R&D (Joanne Morello, DOE/EERE)
• USDA R&D (Jeff Steiner, USDA/ARS)
                   Aviation Biofuels Supply Chain
          Feedstock                 Feedstock                    Biofuels                 Fuel Testing         Large Scale
          Production                 Logistics                  Conversion                 & Approval          Deployment




             Economic and environmental sustainability analysis across entire supply chain
Agency
           • Feedstock             • Biomass Crop              • Joint‐funded USDA‐                            • Farm to Fly
             Production R&D          Assistance Program          NIFA/DOE‐EERE Biomass                         • 9003 BAP
USDA       • Feedstock Readiness   • Feedstock Logistics R&D     Board 9008 Research 
                                                                 Program
           • Algae Production      • Feedstock Logistics R&D   • Conversion R&D
             R&D                                               • Tech. Demo: Scale‐up 
DOE                                                              and Integration  in 
                                                                 Biorefineries
                                                                                          • USAF               • DLA‐Energy
DoD                                                                                       • Navy

                                                                                          • Industry coord.    • CAAFI
                                                                                          • Testing  & ASTM 
FAA                                                                                         approvals
                                                                                          • Environmental 
                                                                                            assessment

Note: Additional agencies including NSF, EPA, DOC, NASA are contributing support to developing “drop in” Jet                   2
To Achieve Aviation Biofuels We Need….
 • Deployment: Address financing gap for 1-2 first of a kind jet
   biofuel production facilities to prove commercial viability and
   stimulate future investment in commercial production (USDA,
   DOD and Industry)
 • Testing & Approval: ensure that multiple feedstocks and
   conversion processes are qualified for use as “drop in”
   hydrocarbon jet biofuels (FAA and DoD)
 • Conversion: Develop, demonstrate and scale up multiple fuel
   conversion processes that produce jet fuel (DOE)
 • Feedstocks: identify and make available higher yield, lower
   cost, sustainable feedstocks for jet fuel (USDA)
 • Environment: Provide more certainty on biofuels life-cycle
   GHG quantification and sustainability criteria
 • Continued focus on opportunity presented by aviation as a
   coordinated biofuels “single customer”
 9003: Biorefinery Assistance Program
      2nd Deal: Sapphire Energy
• Location: Columbus, NM
• Feedstock: CO2 to Algae oil producing jet fuel and diesel
• 56 metric tons of CO2/day, 1M gallons/year on 300 acres
            Driving Numbers
RFS2 Mandate 36 billion gallons of biofuels, 21
Billion annually from 2nd/3rd Gen. by 2022
18 billion gallons consumption annually of jet fuel for
domestic air transportation
35 percent of annual expense in 2008
Every $1 increase per barrel of oil costs $500M
industry wide
Possibility to pay premium and/or share risk with off
take agreement across industry for proof of concept
               Farm to Fly
   Working Together Resolution
Signed in July 2010 by USDA, Boeing and ATA
• Work together to accelerate the availability of
  commercially viable aviation biofuel, increase
  domestic energy security, establish regional supply
  chain and promote rural development
• Use regional opportunities to evaluate: Sustainable
  Aviation Fuels Northwest, Hawaii Initiative, others
• Issue a preliminary report in the first quarter 2011,
  with final report mid-2011 to recommend options for
  public-private partnerships, pilots, enhancements
                                      Federal Aviation
FAA Sustainable                       Administration

Alternative Aviation
Fuels Development
and Deployment

          Carl Burleson
               Director
 FAA Office of Environment & Energy

      Biomass Research &
      Development Board
        December 14, 2010
Aviation Energy & Environmental Goals and Challenges

    NextGen goal to increase mobility is dependent upon addressing & mitigating
        aviation environmental impacts & dealing with related energy issues
       NOISE              AIR QUALITY      WATER QUALITY           ENERGY               GLOBAL CLIMATE




           NextGen environmental goals                 5-Pillar approach to develop solutions

•     Absolute reduction of significant community    P1 Improved science and modeling
      noise and air quality emissions impacts        P2 Accelerated maturation of new aircraft
•     Improve NAS energy efficiency and, supply         technologies
      of and access to, alternative fuel sources     P3 Renewable fuels
•     Achieve carbon neutral growth by 2020          P4 Accelerated ATM Improvements and
      compared to 2005 baseline for climate             Efficiencies
      change                                         P5 Policies, Environmental Standards,
•     Reduce significant aviation impacts               Market Based Measures and
      associated with water quality                     Environmental Management System

                                                                     Federal Aviation              8
                                                                     Administration
CAAFI: Industry Comprehensive Approach to barriers




 Environmental Team                  Certification-
                                   Qualification Team
   GHG LCA, PM2.5
    Quantification,
    Sustainability                    ASTM D7566

                                       Business &
      R&D Team                       Economics Team

    Multiple “Drop-
                                       Facilitating
     in” Solutions
                                      Deployment,
                                       Investment

                                         Federal Aviation   9
                                         Administration
Fuel Approvals via ASTM International

                          • FAA and DoD are key government contributors
                          • New Synthetic fuel specification approved Sept.
                            2009—structured for additions via annexes
                              • Biomass gasification to liquid (via FT) fuels now
Industry/Govt. Testing          approved for use at 50% blend under ASTM 7566
    and Approval
                              • Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) fuel
                                approval at 50% blend expected in 2011
                          • A group at ASTM has formed to shepherd drop in jet
                            fuels from sugars/lignocellulose as next pathway
                          • FAA is funding additional testing to support HRJ
                            approval
                          • FAA is funding initial testing of drop in “future fuels”
                            from novel feedstocks and conversion processes

     ASTM D7566           • Jet Biofuels are technically possible and approval
     Specification          pathway is developed!

                                                            Federal Aviation    10
                                                            Administration
 Environmental Assessment: GHG Lifecycle Analyses &
 Sustainability
Guidance for Jet GHG LCA
   – Issued December 2009
   – Includes Land-Use
      Impacts
USAF Led Working Group
   – CAAFI, DOE, EPA,
      Universities, FAA,
      Boeing
Currently working on
  example cases
CAAFI has established two
  groups to advance LCA
  and general sustainability
  criteria
Sustainability and LCA a key
  area of uncertainty
                                       Federal Aviation   11
                                       Administration
Why Biofuels in Aviation?
•   Aviation is dependent on hydrocarbon based liquid fuels
•   Aviation has a clear environmental and economic need
•   Concentrated airport distribution allows rapid deployment
    (80% of fuel to 35 locations)
•   Single regulatory framework creates a global market (not 50
    different states)
•   Accelerated fuel approval efforts target all feedstocks &
    conversion processes
•   Globally accepted air quality models implemented via FAA/MIT
    environmental Center of Excellence
•   Systematic approach to fuel development and approval --
    Aviation systems engineering experience in R&D helpful
•   High visibility, poised for early success
Aviation is well coordinated with a limited number of key partners
                      driving towards consensus

                                                   Federal Aviation   12
                                                   Administration
       An Overview of the Aviation Biofuels
       Research and Development Efforts,
       DOE/EERE Biomass Program




       Joanne Morello, PhD
       DOE Office of Biomass Program
       joanne.morello@ee.doe.gov
                                                         13
Program Name or Ancillary Text
Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy          eere.energy.gov
Displacing a Barrel of Crude




                                                                • Advanced biofuels and products
                                                                  are needed to displace the entire
                                                                  barrel

                                                                • Diesel and jet fuel substitutes are
                                                                  needed to displace several
                                                                  components of the barrel

                                                                • Corn, sugarcane, and cellulosic
                                                                  ethanol displace only light-duty
                                                                  gasoline



  Source: Energy Information Administration, “Petroleum Explained” and AEO2009, Updated (post‐ARRA), Reference Case.              14
Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy                                                                                   eere.energy.gov
Biomass Program Mission,
Objectives, Goals
     Develop and transform our renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost
           competitive, high performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower

         BIOFUELS TARGETS
         • At a modeled cost for mature technology:
               <$2/gallon cellulosic ethanol by 2012
               <$3/gallon renewable gasoline by 2017
               <$3/gallon renewable diesel by 2017
               <$3/gallon renewable jet by 2017
         • Support the Renewable Fuels Standard volumetric requirements

                                  Research, Development, and Demonstration

                               Biochemical and          Biopower
                                                                            Integrated
      Feedstocks               Thermochemical            Biofuels                          Infrastructure
                                                                           Biorefineries
                                 Conversion            Bioproducts




                                                 Crosscutting Activities
  Analysis, Sustainability, Strategic Partnerships, Stakeholder Communications and Outreach

                                                                                                               15
Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy                                                                eere.energy.gov
  Routes to Drop-in Aviation Biofuels*



                                                                           Upgrading
    Feedstock Options                           Conversion Options
                                                                              and
         Oil-Seed Crops                                                   Hydrocarbon
                                                   Oil Upgrading (e.g.,
              Algae                                 Hydroprocessing)        Product
                                                                           Separation
       Woody and                               Gasification (e.g., FT),
   Herbaceous Biomass                                 Pyrolysis
                                                                             Aviation
                                                Biological or Catalytic    Biofuels that
 Sugars (Lignocellulosic)
                                                 Conversion to Oils            Meet
                                                                          Specifications



* Not all possible routes to aviation fuel from biomass are included.                       16
  Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy                                           eere.energy.gov
Aviation Biofuels RD&D in
Biomass Program


             Feedstock                                                                Scale-up and
                                       Feedstock                                      Integration of          Aviation
             Production                                       Conversion
                                       Logistics                                       Conversion             Biofuels
               System
                                                                                        Processes




   Current                                        Feedstock                Conversion R&D:                 Process
                       Algae Oil R&D
Relevant OBP                                   Logistics R&D:               1) Conversion of            Optimization:
 R&D Areas                                        Systems for         feedstocks into suitable fuel      8 Integrated
                                                  harvesting,            intermediates, through           Biorefinery
                                              transporting, and         pyrolysis, gasification, or      projects will
                                                pre-processing               saccharification            demonstrate
                                                lignocellulosic                                        technologies to
                                                feedstocks for        2) Catalysts or fermentation     produce diesel
                                                   entry into         organisms for conversion of      and/or aviation
                                              conversion facility          intermediates into              biofuels
                                                                           hydrocarbon fuels




                                                                                                                           17
Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy                                                                            eere.energy.gov
Primary R&D Challenges for Aviation
Biofuels

    Feedstock Production R&D
       – Significantly bring down cost and increase productivity of algae
    Feedstock Logistics R&D
       – Bring down cost of all logistic systems, while assuring sufficiently
         dense, uniform and dry feedstock for optimized conversion
    Conversion R&D
       – Production of cost-effective sugars from lignocellulosic biomass
       – Increase stability, yield and desired composition of fuel
         intermediates while decreasing cost of production
       – Increase yield and selectivity of hydrocarbon fuel products while
         decreasing cost of production
       – Development of aviation fuel-specific catalysts and
         conversion organisms


                                                                                    18
Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy                                     eere.energy.gov
Overview of USDA Biomass Research for 
Advanced Biofuels

Biomass Research and Development Board
Washington, D.C.
December 4, 2010


Jeffrey J. Steiner, Ph.D.
Office of National Programs
USDA‐Agricultural Research Service
        Relevant DOE & USDA Research to Aviation Biofuels

         Feedstock                                                                              Scale‐up and 
                                     Feedstock                                                 Integration of             Aviation 
         Production                                              Conversion 
                                      Logistics                                                  Conversion               Biofuels
           System
                                                                                                  Processes



                                                  Feedstock Logistics:                Conversion R&D:
                         Algae Oil                                                                                        Process 
 Current DOE                                            Systems for            Conversion of feedstocks into 
                                                                                                                      Optimization: 
OBP R&D Areas                                           harvesting,              suitable fuel intermediates, 
                                                                                                                       8 Integrated 
                                                    transporting, and          through pyrolysis, gasification, 
                                                                                                                   Biorefinery projects 
                                                      pre‐processing                  or saccharification
                                                                                                                         that will 
                  Herbaceous Crops                    lignocellulosic                                                 demonstrate 
                     Energy cane                  feedstocks for entry                                               technologies to 
                  Perennial grasses                  into conversion                  Conversion R&D:                produce diesel 
                  Biomass sorghum                         facility                Catalysts or fermentation          and/or aviation 
                                                                                 organisms for conversion of              biofuels
                                               Feedstock Logistics:            intermediates into hydrocarbon 
                      Woody Biomass                                                          fuels
Current USDA                                   Optimal facility site 
                      Purpose grown                                                                                       Process 
 R&D Areas                                         placement & 
                          species                                                                                     Optimization: 
                                              environmental impact
                      Harvest residues                                               Conversion R&D:               Joint‐funded USDA‐
                                                                                  Value‐added co‐product             NIFA/DOE‐EERE 
                       Oil Seeds               Feedstock Logistics:             development and utilization           Biomass Board 
                    Brassica species          Modeling of feedstock 
                                                                                                                      9008 Research 
                 High‐oil soy & peanut         supply availability & 
                                                                                                                         Program
                                                  dependability
          Relevant USDA Research to Aviation Biofuels
                           Increase biomass          Optimally incorporate      Address the uncertainties 
   Feedstock            production efficiency to     biomass and dedicated      up‐front to avoid negative 
   Production           increase grower profits       feedstock crops into         impacts on existing 
     System             and reduce biorefinery      existing agriculture and     markets and ecosystem 
                           transaction costs.       forestry‐based systems.              services. 


      Algae Oil
                                               • Increase yields – molecular genetics/F1
                                                 population development/plant breeding
 Herbaceous Crops                                            • Reduce input costs – breeding, 
    Energy cane
 Perennial grasses                                             nutrient and waste product 
 Biomass sorghum
                                                               utilization & recycling
  Woody Biomass
  Purpose grown                                                        • Conservation practices 
      species
  Harvest residues
                                                                         development
      Oil Seeds                                                        • Co‐product development 
   Brassica species
High‐oil soy & peanut                                                    & value‐added traits
          Relevant USDA Research to Aviation Biofuels
                           Increase biomass          Optimally incorporate      Address the uncertainties 
   Feedstock            production efficiency to     biomass and dedicated      up‐front to avoid negative 
   Production           increase grower profits       feedstock crops into         impacts on existing 
     System             and reduce biorefinery      existing agriculture and     markets and ecosystem 
                           transaction costs.       forestry‐based systems.              services. 


      Algae Oil




 Herbaceous Crops 
    Energy cane
 Perennial grasses
 Biomass sorghum


  Woody Biomass
  Purpose grown 
      species
  Harvest residues

      Oil Seeds
   Brassica species
High‐oil soy & peanut
          Relevant USDA Research to Aviation Biofuels
                           Increase biomass          Optimally incorporate      Address the uncertainties 
   Feedstock            production efficiency to     biomass and dedicated      up‐front to avoid negative 
   Production           increase grower profits       feedstock crops into         impacts on existing 
     System             and reduce biorefinery      existing agriculture and     markets and ecosystem 
                           transaction costs.       forestry‐based systems.              services. 


      Algae Oil
                                                • Estimate feedstock supply dependability

                                                      • Modeling and methods development 
 Herbaceous Crops 
    Energy cane
                                                        of soil, water, air quality and other 
 Perennial grasses                                      ecosystem services
 Biomass sorghum


  Woody Biomass                                            • Many objective optimization for 
  Purpose grown 
      species
                                                             multifunctional use of landscapes
  Harvest residues

      Oil Seeds
   Brassica species
                                                                • Impacts on existing food, feed, 
High‐oil soy & peanut                                             fiber markets 
  USDA‐FAA Feedstock Readiness Level Development
                           Increase biomass          Optimally incorporate      Address the uncertainties 
   Feedstock            production efficiency to     biomass and dedicated      up‐front to avoid negative 
   Production           increase grower profits       feedstock crops into         impacts on existing 
     System             and reduce biorefinery      existing agriculture and     markets and ecosystem 
                           transaction costs.       forestry‐based systems.              services. 

                           Production Capacity:                 Production Maturity:
      Algae Oil
                           •Current production                  •Feedstock availability
                           •Geographic range                    •Potential for genetic improvement
                           •Current/Projected yields            •Long‐term contracts/agreements
 Herbaceous Crops          •Alternate land use options          •Conservation planning
    Energy cane            •Production scale‐up time
 Perennial grasses                                              Barriers to Cultivation:
 Biomass sorghum
                           Policy Supports:                     •Cultivation and management history 
                           •Crop insurance                      •“Seed” availability for planting
  Woody Biomass            •USDA program incentives  
  Purpose grown 
                                                                •Access to alternative market outlets
      species                    e.g, EQUIP, BCAP, NAP          •Access to credit
  Harvest residues                                              •Access to educational services
                           Permitting and Approvals:
      Oil Seeds            •RFS2 approval                       Conversion Efficiency:
   Brassica species
High‐oil soy & peanut      •Invasiveness documentation          •By conversion type
                           •Local and state requirements        •Coproduct option
  USDA‐FAA Feedstock Readiness Level Development

  Conversion 
   Feedstock 
                                                                                       Fuel Readiness Level
    Options
  Production            1                      2                    3                    4          5          6 7           8          9
    System




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Production capability established
                                                                                         Preliminary technical evaluation
        Oil 
      Algae Oil




                                                                                                                                                 Full‐scale technical evaluation
  Updgrading

                                               Concept formulated




                                                                                                                                                                                                   Commercialization
                                                                                                                            Process validation
                                                                    Proof of concept
                            Basic principles


 Herbaceous Crops 




                                                                                                                                                                                   Fuel approval
    Energy cane
  Gasification 
 Perennial grasses
    Pyrolysis
 Biomass sorghum

  Woody Biomass
  Biological or
  Purpose grown 
      species
    Catalytic
  Harvest residues
 Conversion to
      Oils
     Oil Seeds
   Brassica species
High‐oil soy & peanut
                                                          Research & Development                                                                 Certification &                                   Business & 
                                                                                                                                                  Qualification                                    Economic
        Whole‐government Effort for Biobased Jet Fuels



                  Feedstock             Fuel Testing 
 Feedstocks                  Conversion & Approval                Jet Fuel
                   Logistics


                     A Complete Supply Chain Approach
 USDA & DOE      USDA      USDA biomass  DoD & DOE FAA & DoD USDA & DOE  Fuel 
                               & risk 
  research &  conservation  assistance    research    Q/C    commercial purchase
grant programs programs      programs     programs programs programs guarantees

								
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