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									Match the following words with their definitions

   1.   frail (adj.)           a. a part of your body that can bend because two bones meet there
   2.   to convey (v.)         b. without any rough parts, lumps, or holes
   3.   solid (adj.)           c. hard or firm, with a fixed shape
   4.   tip (n.)               d. the end of something, especially something pointed
   5.   smooth (adj.)          e. to move something forwards and backwards
   6.   to converge (v.)       f. to come from different directions and meet at the same point
   7.   joint (n.)             g. weak and thin
   8.   to swing (v.)          h. to take or carry something from one place to another

   1. Where is blood made?
   2. What are the names of the bones that contain spongy bone?
   3. How many bones does an adult have?
   4. Which is the smallest bone in the body?
   5. Which is the longest and strongest bone in adults?

WHAT DO BONES DO?                                     the stirrup bone, which is the smallest bone
Many bones protect the soft parts inside your         in your body.
body. Skull bones around your head protect
your brain. Rib bones make a cage around              WHAT ARE BONES MADE OF?
your chest. Your rib cage protects your lungs         There are two kinds of bone one of which is
and heart.                                            called compact bone and the other spongy
                                                      bone. Compact bone is the hard and smooth
Muscles hook on to bones. Muscles pull on             part on the outside of a bone. The long bones
your bones to make them move. Muscles and             in your arms and legs have lots of compact
bones together let you stand, sit, and walk           bone. Spongy bone usually lies under the
around.                                               compact bone. Spongy bone is at the ends of
                                                      arm and leg bones as well. Bones of the pelvis
Blood is made in the center of bones. The             (hipbone), ribs, breastbone, backbone, and
center of a bone is filled with bone marrow           skull also contain spongy bone.
which is soft. Red and white blood cells are
made by bone marrow. Red blood cells                  Your skeleton also contains cartilage which is
convey oxygen to all parts of your body.              like bone but softer and can bend easily.
White blood cells help your body fight germs.         There is cartilage in body parts that must be
                                                      tough but able to bend. There is cartilage in
There are three tiny bones that help you              the tip of your nose and in the outer part of
hear. These three bones are located deep              your ear.
inside your ears. One of these bones is called
WHAT ARE JOINTS?                                    lot of cartilage when you are born. Bones
Joints are the places where two or more             replace the cartilage as you get older.
bones converge. Most bones are tied together
at joints by tough bands called ligaments.          Bones get thicker and longer as you grow
                                                    taller. Bones keep growing in teenagers.
Different kinds of joints let you move in           Bones stop growing longer in adults.
different ways. Move your lower arm up and
down. Keep your upper arm still. The joint          Some bones join together as you get older.
that joins your upper and lower arm is called       Your skeleton had more than 300 bones when
the elbow. Your elbow works like a hinge. It        you were first born. An adult has 206 bones.
lets you move your lower arm, but only up           The longest and strongest bone in adults is
and down. Now swing your arm all around             the thighbone, in the upper leg.
from your shoulder. A joint in your shoulder
called a ball-and-socket joint lets you move        Bones are replaced a little bit at a time even
your arm in many directions.                        after they stop growing. This replacement
                                                    goes on for as long as you live. Your body
Your skull is made of many bones that are           needs a mineral called calcium to keep sturdy
unmoving. They are held together in one solid       bones. Milk contains lots of calcium. Running
piece by suture joints.                             and other exercise also helps build strong,
                                                    thick bones. Some older people have thin,
HOW DO BONES GROW?                                  frail bones. Their bones can break easily.
Bones grow or change as long as you live. Your      Getting enough calcium and exercise can help
head and other parts of your skeleton have a        keep bones from getting weak and thin.

Answer the following questions

   1. What is the main function of bones?
   2. How is oxygen carried to all parts of your body?
   3. When do bones stop growing?
   4. According to the passage, what should we do to build stronger bones?
   5. Where can we find cartilage in our body?

Match the following words with their opposites

   1. smooth                   a. moving
   2. solid                    b. strong
   3. frail                    c. weak
   4. sturdy                   d. rough
   5. still                    e. soft

Sometimes people have accidents that break bones. Maybe they fall
out of a tree or down a flight of stairs. Sometimes football players or
other athletes break bones when they are playing sports.

A doctor has to fix a broken bone. First, an X-ray picture shows the
doctor what the broken pieces of bone look like. Then, the doctor fits
the broken parts of the bone back together. This is called setting the
bone. Sometimes a broken bone must be put back together with wires
or pins.

A broken bone should not be used until it is healed. The doctor makes
a hard case called a cast for an arm or leg with a broken bone. New
bone starts to grow around the break. The pieces grow together and
heal the broken bone.

                                                   A break in a bone
                                                   is known as a
                                                   fracture. In a
                                                   fracture, the bone
                                                   does not break all
                                                   of the way
                                                   through. Fractures
                                                   are called simple,
                                                   or closed, when
the bone breaks but the skin does not. A compound, or open, fracture
occurs when the broken bone tears through the skin.

                        Skeletal System
                        Your body contains 206 bones of various
                        shapes and sizes. Bones protect your internal
                        organs and support your body as you stand, sit,
                        walk, and run.
Human Spine
The human spine is a flexible chain of 33 bones.
The spine’s S-shaped curve supports the weight of
the head, keeping it in an upright position.

                 Osteoporosis is a bone disease
                 that occurs in older people. In
                 this disease, bones gradually
                 become so thin and weak that
                 they break easily. These
                 magnified pictures show a
                 healthy bone, left, which has a
                 normal spongy appearance, and
                 a bone showing signs of
                 osteoporosis, right.

               X Ray of a Broken Bone
               X rays can help doctors tell
               whether a bone is broken. This X-
               ray picture of a broken ankle
               shows metal screws holding the
               bones of the ankle together.

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