VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 4 POSTED ON: 8/13/2012
Match the following words with their definitions 1. frail (adj.) a. a part of your body that can bend because two bones meet there 2. to convey (v.) b. without any rough parts, lumps, or holes 3. solid (adj.) c. hard or firm, with a fixed shape 4. tip (n.) d. the end of something, especially something pointed 5. smooth (adj.) e. to move something forwards and backwards 6. to converge (v.) f. to come from different directions and meet at the same point 7. joint (n.) g. weak and thin 8. to swing (v.) h. to take or carry something from one place to another 1. Where is blood made? 2. What are the names of the bones that contain spongy bone? 3. How many bones does an adult have? 4. Which is the smallest bone in the body? 5. Which is the longest and strongest bone in adults? BONES WHAT DO BONES DO? the stirrup bone, which is the smallest bone Many bones protect the soft parts inside your in your body. body. Skull bones around your head protect your brain. Rib bones make a cage around WHAT ARE BONES MADE OF? your chest. Your rib cage protects your lungs There are two kinds of bone one of which is and heart. called compact bone and the other spongy bone. Compact bone is the hard and smooth Muscles hook on to bones. Muscles pull on part on the outside of a bone. The long bones your bones to make them move. Muscles and in your arms and legs have lots of compact bones together let you stand, sit, and walk bone. Spongy bone usually lies under the around. compact bone. Spongy bone is at the ends of arm and leg bones as well. Bones of the pelvis Blood is made in the center of bones. The (hipbone), ribs, breastbone, backbone, and center of a bone is filled with bone marrow skull also contain spongy bone. which is soft. Red and white blood cells are made by bone marrow. Red blood cells Your skeleton also contains cartilage which is convey oxygen to all parts of your body. like bone but softer and can bend easily. White blood cells help your body fight germs. There is cartilage in body parts that must be tough but able to bend. There is cartilage in There are three tiny bones that help you the tip of your nose and in the outer part of hear. These three bones are located deep your ear. inside your ears. One of these bones is called WHAT ARE JOINTS? lot of cartilage when you are born. Bones Joints are the places where two or more replace the cartilage as you get older. bones converge. Most bones are tied together at joints by tough bands called ligaments. Bones get thicker and longer as you grow taller. Bones keep growing in teenagers. Different kinds of joints let you move in Bones stop growing longer in adults. different ways. Move your lower arm up and down. Keep your upper arm still. The joint Some bones join together as you get older. that joins your upper and lower arm is called Your skeleton had more than 300 bones when the elbow. Your elbow works like a hinge. It you were first born. An adult has 206 bones. lets you move your lower arm, but only up The longest and strongest bone in adults is and down. Now swing your arm all around the thighbone, in the upper leg. from your shoulder. A joint in your shoulder called a ball-and-socket joint lets you move Bones are replaced a little bit at a time even your arm in many directions. after they stop growing. This replacement goes on for as long as you live. Your body Your skull is made of many bones that are needs a mineral called calcium to keep sturdy unmoving. They are held together in one solid bones. Milk contains lots of calcium. Running piece by suture joints. and other exercise also helps build strong, thick bones. Some older people have thin, HOW DO BONES GROW? frail bones. Their bones can break easily. Bones grow or change as long as you live. Your Getting enough calcium and exercise can help head and other parts of your skeleton have a keep bones from getting weak and thin. Answer the following questions 1. What is the main function of bones? 2. How is oxygen carried to all parts of your body? 3. When do bones stop growing? 4. According to the passage, what should we do to build stronger bones? 5. Where can we find cartilage in our body? Match the following words with their opposites 1. smooth a. moving 2. solid b. strong 3. frail c. weak 4. sturdy d. rough 5. still e. soft FURTHER READING WHAT HAPPENS TO BROKEN BONES? Sometimes people have accidents that break bones. Maybe they fall out of a tree or down a flight of stairs. Sometimes football players or other athletes break bones when they are playing sports. A doctor has to fix a broken bone. First, an X-ray picture shows the doctor what the broken pieces of bone look like. Then, the doctor fits the broken parts of the bone back together. This is called setting the bone. Sometimes a broken bone must be put back together with wires or pins. A broken bone should not be used until it is healed. The doctor makes a hard case called a cast for an arm or leg with a broken bone. New bone starts to grow around the break. The pieces grow together and heal the broken bone. Common Fractures A break in a bone is known as a fracture. In a greenstick fracture, the bone does not break all of the way through. Fractures are called simple, or closed, when the bone breaks but the skin does not. A compound, or open, fracture occurs when the broken bone tears through the skin. Skeletal System Your body contains 206 bones of various shapes and sizes. Bones protect your internal organs and support your body as you stand, sit, walk, and run. Human Spine The human spine is a flexible chain of 33 bones. The spine’s S-shaped curve supports the weight of the head, keeping it in an upright position. Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a bone disease that occurs in older people. In this disease, bones gradually become so thin and weak that they break easily. These magnified pictures show a healthy bone, left, which has a normal spongy appearance, and a bone showing signs of osteoporosis, right. X Ray of a Broken Bone X rays can help doctors tell whether a bone is broken. This X- ray picture of a broken ankle shows metal screws holding the bones of the ankle together.
Pages to are hidden for
"BONES"Please download to view full document