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					Matakuliah    : A0134/Audit Operasional
Tahun         : 2006




             Manfaat Audit Manajemen
               Pertemuan 15 s.d 20




                                          1
         Individual Assessment


• Executives are evaluated in relative rather
  than absolute terms.




                                                2
• Accordingly, the evaluating team does not
  sit in judgement about the fundamental
  worth of each individual. They
  concentrate rather on the individual
  manager’s relative skill profile and value in
  the current or planned position within the
  organisation.



                                              3
• For each key executive who is
  interviewed, an appraisal is provided of his
  managerial strong points; the company
  can build on these.




                                             4
• At the same time the need for further
  training and development is highlighted,
  and options for future management
  assignments are indicated.




                                             5
• A Management Audit provides a dual
  perspective. It assesses both the
  adequacy of existing management
  resources to implement the company’s
  strategy, and the individual career
  perspective.




                                         6
          Team Evaluation


• An analysis is made of the pattern of
  interactions between various individuals
  within the team.




                                             7
• The actual power structure that exists is
  analysed and documented.




                                              8
• Each executive’s ambition is diagnosed,
  and then evaluated against the company’s
  expectation and the realistic career
  opportunities that are available within the
  organisation.




                                                9
• The perceptions of the client concerning
  strategy, structure and systems are
  compared with the management team’s
  evaluation; it is often found that the two
  are markedly different. Following these
  comparisons, there is reassessment of
  perceptions and synergies, which is then
  fed back to the management.


                                               10
• The benefits a company derives from a
  Management Audit team assessment
  include:
  – Interaction analysis
  – Understanding of ambitions
  – Reaction on mutual perceptions
  – Identification of possible greater synergy
  – Recommendation on team efficiancy


                                                 11
• It is not unusual to find that members of a
  team who are meant to be communicating
  with each other are in point of fact failing
  to do so.




                                             12
• A relatively typical ‘communication’ profile
  is shown in Fig. 8.1 p. 118




                                                 13
 Evaluation of the Overall Organisation


• Recommendations are made to senior
  management about the career paths and
  career management of key executives.
  Guidance is also given on selection,
  promotion and rotation decisions.




                                          14
• Decision-making processes and the
  communication network within each
  business unit are related to executive and
  team efficiency.




                                               15
• The organisation’s capacity to innovate is
  measured and processes are analysed.




                                               16
• The roles and the implications of corporate
  hierarchy (Board of Directors), Executive
  Committee, Executive Office, Operating
  Committee, task Forces are all evaluated.




                                            17
• So where overall organisation is
  concerned, the Management Audit
  enables the company to focus on
  managing change rather than looking at
  individual elements in isolation.




                                           18
The Main Benefits of Management Audit


• Awareness of Strategic Options
• Re-Evaluation of Operational Objectives
• Adaption of Organisational Concepts to
  Human and Cultural Elements
• Changes in Organisational Structure
• Concentration on Internal Resources
• Establishing Realistic Expectations


                                            19
  Awareness of Strategic Options


• Management Audit crystallises a
  company’s culture, making the
  management team aware of its strategic
  options and full potential. This is
  particularly true when the audit reviews
  several organisational and management
  layers.



                                             20
• In the course of the Management Audit
  process, individuals became aware of their
  own background potential and the
  importance of working together and it
  acted as a catalyst of a new corporate
  culture. After several months, individual
  executives commented on their feeling of
  greater identification, with the project, the
  people and the company.

                                              21
• As a result of the team patterns
  established, greater internal efficiency and
  cost effectiveness were achieved. This
  was in contrast to the period before the
  Management Audit, when the company
  concerned had faced dramatic cost
  overruns due to project delays.



                                             22
Re-Evaluation of Operational Objectives


• A large number of companies suffer from
  static behaviour; innovation is no longer an
  engine of growth.




                                            23
• Management Audit has helped before in
  the re-evaluation of operational objectives,
  encouraging innovative capability within
  the company.




                                             24
• The company had a manufacturing
  culture; marketing was only a secondary
  consideration.




                                            25
• The consultants discovered that the
  engineering talent was very important to
  the company, but that the necessary
  awareness of customer needs was
  lacking.




                                             26
• Little importance was attached to product
  applications. So the consultants helped
  the company acquire market knowledge
  and research product applications, a
  process which has been followed very
  successfully by the steel industry.




                                              27
• The company accepted the creation of a
  product manager’s position within the R &
  D department, in order link development
  with client needs. Knowing what their
  clients wanted from the product became
  as important as being an expert
  manufacturer: the focus of the group
  changed.


                                              28
• The conjunction of marketing talent and R
  & D capability led to considerable internal
  innovation, which proved to be of long
  lasting benefit to the group.




                                            29
 Adaption of Organisational Concepts to
     Human and Cultural Elements


• Management Audit aims at increasing
  organisational flexibility. This is
  particularly necessary when acquisitions
  or mergers bring fundamental changes to
  a company’s structure.




                                             30
• A large Swedish welding manufacturer
  had acquired a Dutch affiliate from a major
  competitor. Although the Swedish client
  was the European market leader at the
  time, it had been incapable of competing
  effectively against its Dutch competitor on
  the latter’s home ground.



                                            31
• The group decided to entrust the management
  of the new combined operations in the
  Netherlands to the competitor’s previous
  management team, trusting their competence to
  ensure the success of the operation. When they
  found that the performance of the Dutch
  management declined following the acquisition,
  they commissioned a Management Audit.
  Annual sales had dropped, and even more
  alarmingly, key managers were leaving the
  Dutch subsidiary.
                                               32
• The problem was tackled by consultants
  from the Scandinavian and Dutch offices.
  They found that the trouble lay with a lack
  of adaption of management style following
  the acquisition.




                                            33
• Broadly speaking, Swedish companies are
  governed by mission statements, whereas
  companies in the Netherlands are
  managed by comprehensive and definitive
  strategy instructions.




                                        34
• Following the acquisition, the Swedish company issued a
  mission statement of the Dutch General Manager. He,
  meanwhile was still apparently waiting for a
  management directive as he was used to receiving one
  form his former (Dutch) Board. As he had not received
  this management directive, he was not able to pass on to
  his subordinate managers similar management
  directives. Accordingly those subordinate managers felt,
  incorrectly as it transpired, that the General Manager
  must know something that they did not know. They were
  anxious over the future of the company under the new
  Swedish management. They felt that if there was a firm
  future for them, they would surely have received
  management directives. In the absence of such
  directives, they voted with their feet to go to other
  companies.
                                                        35
  Changes in Organisational Structure


• Specific business situations often call for
  changes in organisational structure.




                                                36
• The consultancy firm was asked to help a
  large speciality food manufacturer bring
  about such a change.




                                             37
• The company had some unique products,
  but was incapable of bringing about the
  necessary market visibility as it lacked
  sufficient internal financial resources. This
  was partly as a result of a lack internal
  flexibility.




                                              38
• Fundamental organisational and human
  issues were raised by the consultants.
  The solution came from within, as a result
  of the multiple interviews in the
  Management Audit. This eliminated
  resistance to change, and created
  endorsement for a common project; the
  company now boasts several European
  brands.

                                               39
  Concentration on Internal Resources


• The emphasis of Management Audit is on
  optimising the use of internal resources,
  not on generating jobs for external
  recruitment.




                                              40
• The management consultancy firm which
  pioneered Management Audit also has an
  Executive Search wing.




                                       41
• A Continental European group asked the
  latter to find at least 40 new executives, in
  order to strengthen the corporate
  management team.




                                              42
• The consultancy suggested that it would be
  difficult – if indeed feasible – to fit 40 new
  executives into what would then be a central
  management team of less than 250 people. So
  the consultancy recommended that prior to any
  consideration being given to commissioning
  specific Search assignments, a Management
  audit be conducted. This would establish
  whether the organisation already employed
  individuals who could match the profiles of
  positions for which Searches had been
  requested.
                                                   43
• The senior management agreed to this
  proposal. As a result of the Management
  Audit, it was found that all but four the
  required places could be filled from
  promotions or repositioning of individuals
  already employed within the Group.




                                               44
  Establishing Realistic Expectations


• Many companies still think that
  management talent is totally different from
  any other resource: they see it as
  unlimited.




                                            45
• Management Audit has played a vital role
  here, helping companies to set realistic
  expectations.




                                             46
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