Introduction to Critical Theory by dfhdhdhdhjr

VIEWS: 1 PAGES: 65

									Introduction to Critical Theory

          Becky Opsata
               Modernity
The Age of Enlightenment (1600-1800)
Industrial Revolution (1800’s)
Great societal upheaval
Mobility of labor, alienation of labor
Technological changes, media and transport
Birth of the nation-state
The impact of alienation of labor
What technology brings to you: country kareoke
Modern Dance: D1 gets down at the NDT
                Modernity
1) Replacement of religion with science and
   reason
2) Belief in rational self as individuals that
   have “rights”
3) Belief in coherent society and grand
   narratives
4) Creation of the nation state
Adam believes he has individual rights, but oh is he wrong
Transition from Modernism to
Post Modernism as exemplified
             in Art
The Old Masters and Classical
         Painting
Albrect 1570
Botecelli 1370
Bronzino 1550
Canal 1735
Raphael
  Old Master/Renaissance Style
Characteristics of this type of painting??
Next: Impressionism
Picasso 1907
Picasso
Cezanne
Monet
Van Gogh
   Early 1900’s - Impressionism
• Characteristics of this type of painting?
Next: Abstraction
Klee
Pollock
Rauchenberg
Abstraction Taken to the Extreme
Duchamp 1917
Duchamp 1951
Manzoni 1962
Kosuth – 1986 (Text is Freud)
Kosuth 1989
Lewitt – 1971 – “4 Cubes”
Kosuth 1989
Sue and Sylvia: Abstraction Taken to the Extreme
Morris 1965 “Untitled - Beams
                Abstraction
What is characteristic of this type of art?
Art Transitioned from Modern to
          Postmodern
1) Old Masters = represents reality
2) Cubism, Impressionism = Crisis in
   representation of reality
3) Abstraction = presents the unpresentable
4) Non-presentation/Avant-Garde questions
   who makes art and who can say what is
   “art”
    Debate Transitioned from
     Modern to Postmodern
The DA
The Critique
The Performance
    Re-Occurring Questions of
        Postmodernism
1) Representation of Reality – what is real?
   There is no absolute, universal truth of
   reality.
Baudrillard
     Re-occurring questions of
         postmodernism
2) Legitimacy and Power – who has the right
  to decide what is “real” and “normal”
Who says what is normal?
What is normal?
                   In Sum,
PoMo is a critique of universal claims.

It believes there is not one truth, but there are
   multiple ways of representing/presenting
   the world.

It discusses power relations – who has it and
   why.
         Key PoMo Concepts
1) Structuralism/post-structuralism
(The birth of critical theory comes from
   Linguistics.)
  Sturcturalism:
  DeSaussure & Levi-Strauss in the late 1800’s-
     early 1900’s. Looked for structure in
     language.
  Poststructuralism: Language is arbitrary and
     socially created.
Discussing the meaning of words
                            Keys
     2) Deconstruction
     Derrida
     There is nothing outside of the text


http://www.humanities.mcmaster.ca/~dclark/ClarkrememberingJD.htm
Deconstruct This
                 Keys
3) Foucault
Power/Knowledge – the second main question
  of PoMo
Foucault’s Panopticon
       (Bentham)
     Foucault’s
Archeology/Genealogy
Genealogy
                   Keys
4) Marxists/Critiques of Capitalism/Critiques
  of development/Commodification
Gramsci/Althusser
Frankfort School:
Horkeimer/Adorno/Benajmin
                  Keys
5) Postmodern Feminism
Critiques of power and otherizing
  Liberal feminism, eco-feminism, and other
                 Keys
6) Post-colonialism
Consequences of Western expansion

Said/Bhabba/Mohanty
                    Keys
7) Feminist International Relations
Critiques of the state (borders/gendered), of
  power decision-makers in the nation state,
  and security.
Tickner
                   Keys
8) Language critiques like: Nuclearism, threat
  construction, disaster porn
9) Critiques of the problem-solution mindset
  (Spanos)
Threat Construction
     Critiques of Critical Theory
1) Unacceptable epistemic relativism
   Belief that there is no truth and that society is
   constructed is wrong and dangerous.

2) Is nihilistic without any values or ethical
   standards for what is right

3) Destructive of human identity, there is a core to
  humans, the western idea of rights is good
                Critiques
4) No solvency, creates an endless cycle
5) elitist/ivory tower
Review of the 2 Main Questions
      of Postmodernism
1) Representation of Reality
2) Legitimacy and Power – who has the right
   to say what is real

								
To top