Interpersonal Attraction From First Impression to Close Relationships by dfhdhdhdhjr


									Interpersonal Attraction: Meeting,
  Liking, Becoming Acquainted
            Chapter 7
          Interpersonal Attraction
• What Causes Attraction?
• “Need to belong” and “self-actualize”

• Propinquity (Proximity) effect
   – Example: Friends at work, school, neighbors as children…
   – Example: Consider your closest college friends (and your least
     favorite people). Does propinquity seem to play a role?
• Mere exposure effect
   –   Example: Shoes/TV/outfit
   –   Example: Guy/girl at work
   –   Example: Stare at one another
   –   Example:
    Class Discussion: Online dating
•   Online Dating: U.S. residents spent $469.5 million on online dating and personals in
    2004, the largest segment of “paid content” on the web, according to a study
    conducted by the Online Publishers Association (OPA) and comScore Networks.
•   At the end of November 2004, there were 844 lifestyle and dating sites, a 38 percent
    increase since the start of the year, according to Hitwise Inc. However, market share
    was increasingly being dominated by several large services, including Yahoo
    Personals,, American Singles, and eHarmony. eHarmony CEO Greg
    Forgatch noted that despite the growing number of sites catering to specific niches
    "to become a major player, it still takes a large number of people."
•   In 2002, a Wired magazine article forecast that, "Twenty years from now, the idea
    that someone looking for love without looking for it online will be silly, akin to skipping
    the card catalog to instead wander the stacks because 'the right books are found only
    by accident.' ...serendipity is the hallmark of inefficient markets, and the marketplace
    of love, like it or not, is becoming more efficient"
•   What do you think of online dating? MySpace meeting? Research shows that people
    are very attracted to the person online before meeting. Do you think that this
    connection before makes the person more “physically attractive” after meeting?
        Interpersonal Attraction
• Similarity
   – Example: Are your friends similar to you?
     Boyfriend/girlfriend? Does similarity foster lasting
     relationships more than “opposites attract”?
• Other examples of similarity:
   – Opinions and personality
   – Interpersonal style
   – Interests and experiences
• Why is similarity so important?
   – Like us back
   – “Self-justification”
   – People who disagree with our beliefs
      Interpersonal Attraction
• Reciprocal liking
  – Example: Hearing that a guy/girl likes you
  – Example: Turning someone down
  – Why? “Self-fulfilling prophecy?”

• Physical attractiveness and liking
  – Example: Women vs. men
        Interpersonal Attraction
• What is attractive?
   – Facial features
      • Example: Babies
      • Example: Celebrities
   – Height
   – Body shape
      • Hip-to-waist ratio and shoulder-to-hip ratio
      • Evolutionary
          – Children  Adult  Elderly
          – Too skinny?
   – Breast/Penis size – Bigger = Better?
   – Size/weight
   – Evolutionary = good genes
        Close Relationships
• Love and Relationships
  – Evolution of love: Choosing a mate
    • Evolutionary approach to love
    • The “golden egg” and cheap sperm
  – Women are more attracted to men who…
  – Men attracted to…
      Interpersonal Attraction
• Cultural standards of beauty
  – Most individuals across cultures will rate faces
    as similar in attractiveness. Why?
• The power of familiarity
  – Example: Text – Superimposed picture
     • Why? Similarity? Propinquity?
             Class Discussion
• Does physical attractiveness or unattractiveness
  alter people’s perception of the abilities and
  efforts students bring to the academic world?
• Does the attractiveness or unattractiveness of
  male students and female students produce the
  same effects on a person’s perception?
  – Chia, et al. (1998)
• How can these results apply to students and job

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