Infancy and Childhood
• The fear of strangers that infants
commonly display, beginning by
about 8 months of age.
• An emotional tie with another
person; shown in young children
by their seeking closeness to the
caregiver and showing distress in
Factors of Attachment
• Body Contact
• Responsive Parenting
• It was first assumed that infants
became attached to those who
satisfied their need for
Then this guy came along……..
Harry Harlow and his
the soft body
contact of a cloth
mother, over the
nourishment of a
• Attachments based on familiarity are
formed during our critical periods.
Critical Periods: the optimal
period shortly after birth when
an organism’s exposure to
certain stimuli or experiences
produce proper development.
• The process by
during a critical
early in life. Do human’s imprint?
Do parents play a part in your attachment?
•Mary Ainsworth Stranger Paradigm
•Van den Boom’s Research
Dad’s Matter Too
• We are not just mobile
•Paternal separation puts children at
increased risk for various
psychological and social pathologies.
Secure Attachment Predicts
Deprivation of Attachment
• Often withdrawn, frightened and in
extreme cases speechless.
•Harlow’s monkeys would either cower in
fright or act extremely aggressive. Many
could not mate and if they could, the
mothers were unresponsive parents.
•Is there a connection between crime and
lack of childhood attachment?
• High Quality daycare has shown no
detrimental effects on children over
the age of two.
•The studies go both ways for children
under the age of two- no clear answer
Self - Concept
• A sense of one’s identity and self-
When does self-awareness start?
• Parenting styles have been shown to have
a positive correlational effect on a child’s
Three General Classifications of
• Impose rules and
•“Why, because I
• Parents submit to
few demands and
• Parents are both
• Exert control by
setting rules, but
behind the rules.
• Encourage open