Infancy and Childhood

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					Infancy and Childhood
   Social Development
         Stranger Anxiety
• The fear of strangers that infants
  commonly display, beginning by
  about 8 months of age.
Stranger Anxiety
            Attachment
• An emotional tie with another
  person; shown in young children
  by their seeking closeness to the
  caregiver and showing distress in
  separation.
   Factors of Attachment

• Body Contact
• Familiarity
• Responsive Parenting
         Body Contact
• It was first assumed that infants
  became attached to those who
  satisfied their need for
  nourishment.
Then this guy came along……..
Harry Harlow and his


Discovered that
monkeys preferred
the soft body
contact of a cloth
mother, over the
nourishment of a
hard/wirily mother.
               Familiarity
• Attachments based on familiarity are
  formed during our critical periods.

Critical Periods: the optimal
period shortly after birth when
an organism’s exposure to
certain stimuli or experiences
produce proper development.
             Imprinting
• The process by
  which certain
  animals form
  attachments
  during a critical
  period very
  early in life. Do human’s imprint?
       Responsive Parenting
Do parents play a part in your attachment?

 •Mary Ainsworth Stranger Paradigm

  •Van den Boom’s Research
         Dad’s Matter Too
• We are not just mobile
  sperm banks!!!!

•Paternal separation puts children at
increased risk for various
psychological and social pathologies.
Secure Attachment Predicts
   Social Competence
  Deprivation of Attachment
• Often withdrawn, frightened and in
  extreme cases speechless.

•Harlow’s monkeys would either cower in
fright or act extremely aggressive. Many
could not mate and if they could, the
mothers were unresponsive parents.

•Is there a connection between crime and
lack of childhood attachment?
              Daycare




• High Quality daycare has shown no
  detrimental effects on children over
  the age of two.
•The studies go both ways for children
under the age of two- no clear answer
yet.
           Self - Concept




• A sense of one’s identity and self-
  worth.


  When does self-awareness start?
       Child-Rearing Practices
• Parenting styles have been shown to have
  a positive correlational effect on a child’s
  self-concept




 Three General Classifications of
  Parenting Styles:
     Authoritarian Parents
• Impose rules and
  expect obedience.

 •“Why, because I
 said so!!!!”
     Permissive Parents
• Parents submit to
  their children’s
  desires, make
  few demands and
  use little
  punishment.
      Authoritative Parents
• Parents are both
  demanding and
  responsive.
• Exert control by
  setting rules, but
  explain reasoning
  behind the rules.
• Encourage open
  discussion.

				
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posted:8/13/2012
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