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History of Music 1700s to the 20th century

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					History of Music
1700s to the 20th century
Beethoven
   Transition between the Classical and
    Romantic periods
   Created and mastered a new musical
    language
       enlarged the orchestra
       Changed musical structure
       Began the tradition of program music
Beethoven (cont’d)
   Wrote to please himself
   Wrote much less than Haydn or Mozart
   Best known pianist in Vienna
   Temperamental
   Unsettled life with family difficulties,
    poor health, and money problems
Romantic Period (1800-1900)
   Ideals of the Enlightenment inspired the
    French Revolution left Europe with
    shattered economies and disrupted life
   Industrial Revolution created a new
    class system based on wealth; standard
    of living rose for the middle class, but
    the lower classes were exploited
Art of the Romantic Period
   Painting was the ideal medium for the
    romantic artist; landscapes were
    prominent
   Literature flourished poetry and prose
    were important; fantasy tales were
    popular subjects
   Architecture did not advance much;
    builders were imitative
Music
   Most important developments:
       Stretching and eventual breakdown of the
        tonal system
       Use of instrumental color/orchestration
   Art Song 1st example of “free
    standing” vocal solo literature;
    importance of the individual; reflects
    the romantic importance of words
Music (Cont’d)
   Schubert well known for his art
    songs; wrote over 900 compositions;
    died of syphilis at age 31
   Schubert & Mendelssohn represent the
    transition between the Classical &
    Romantic philosophies
   Mendelssohn presented Bach’s music to
    the world
More Music
   Solo piano music flourished with Chopin
    & Liszt
   Wagner & Verdi were the primary opera
    composers of the romantic period
   Tchaikovsky was one of the nationalist
    composers & had a gift for emotional
    melody
Still More Music
   Brahms used classic and baroque forms
    with romantic techniques
   Mahler is best known for his huge
    symphonies & beautiful orchestration;
    1st composer with an American
    connection conductor of the NY
    Philharmonic
Impressionism
   Movement began in France in the late
    1800s
   Works are atmospheric & vague open
    to interpretation
   Debussy was the most important
    impressionist composer
Debussy
   1st to abandon the restrictions of
    tonality; looked at the possibilities of
    harmonies
   Led the introduction of new scales into
    the musical language
   Innovative orchestrator; carried on
    traditions of Berlioz & Liszt
Arts of the 20th Century
   Simultaneous development of diverse
    artistic styles
   A trend toward intellectualization; often
    alienated audiences
   Movements back to the “classical”
    approach as reactions to the extreme
    emotional expression of the Romantic
    period
20th Century Music
   Harmony was freed from tonality
   Melody became secondary;
   Rhythm was underdeveloped in
    Western music before 1900; became
    more complex in the 20th century
   Timbre was explored in depth
   Recording technology increased
    accessibility
Expressionism (1910-40)
   Centered in Vienna
   Focused on the subconscious & extreme
    inner emotions
   Not intended to be “real” or pretty
   Van Gogh was the initiator of this style
    in art, though he died before the period
    began
Schoenberg
   An Austrian Jew who spent most of his
    career writing & teaching in the U.S.
   Early work revolved around atonality
   Developed the “12 tone system”
Primitivism
   Developed in art & music in the early 1900s
   Fascinated with the unstructured life,
    directness, & exoticism of uncivilized cultures
   Music & paintings are “raw”
   Gauguin & early Picasso represent the artists
   Stravinsky is the primary composer of this
    period
Neo-Classical
   Borrowed forms, textures, and concepts
    from the Baroque & Classical period
   Used 20th century techniques to express
    their ideas
Stravinsky
   May be the most important composer of
    the 20th century
   Born in Russia, but spent his career in
    the U.S.
   Made contributions to several musical
    styles
   Wrote of all combinations of voices &
    instruments & in all genres

				
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posted:8/13/2012
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