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					Delegate                                                                                    Student
AUSTRALIA, ECONOMIC AND SOCAIL COUNCIL 2                        Thea Madsen, Nyborg Gymnasium 1st S



                Position Paper for the Economic and Social Council Sub-Council 2
The issues before the Model United Nations of Lübeck Economic and Social Council Sub-Council
2 plenary 2012 are: Tackling the problem of youth unemployment worldwide, the measures to
maintain a balance between food production and the increasing demand for biofuel, the rights and
responsibilities of multinational companies in a globalized world, and empowerment of women as a
method of dealing with social and economic exclusion. Australia urges its fellow member states to
contribute in order to have rewarding debates on these important issues.
I. Tackling the Problem of Youth Unemployment Worldwide

The great nation of Australia is well aware that youth unemployment is a serious worldwide prob-
lem that needs solving now. The world’s youth, 15 to 24 year olds, is facing a world in financial
crisis affecting them more than the older generations as seen in the everyday increasing percentages
of the youth unemployment. The factors behind this devastating situation are many for instance the
fact that the youth cannot equally compete with the older generations’ work experience from being
on the job market longer. According to ILO nearly 40 percent or about 81 million people of the
worlds’ 15 to 24 year olds are unemployed. Around 130 million or 24 percent of the world’s work-
ing youth live off less than US$1 per day, the poverty line. Australia strongly believes all youth
deserves a respectable job and a life without poverty.

Australia fully supports Millennium Development Goal target 16 committing the international
community to produce strategies for decent and productive work for the youth. Australia also ap-
proves of the Youth Employment Network (YEN) that works towards improving employment for
youth, as well as International Labour Organization Program on Youth Employment (YEP) that
provides assistance to better youth employment. Australia recognizes all strategies in giving young
people a sincere chance to find a respectable job as set forth in the United Nations Millennium Dec-
laration. Australia is well aware of the importance of the 2005 World Summit Outcome seeking
employment for both genders including the youth in addition to achieve the Millennium Develop-
ment Goals. Australia invites all fellow Member States to renew the General Assembly resolutions
57/167 of 18 December 2002 and 58/133 of 22 December 2003 in collaboration with ILO and all
appropriate agencies within YEN for the best outcome.

Australia believes that to address and solve this problem of youth unemployment first and foremost
establishing a policy framework for the promotion of youth employment is vital. Then providing
work experience for young people and supporting the private sector to create decent jobs for youth
to enforce an integrated strategy for growth and job creation to ensure long-term, sustained and
concerted action for the promotion of decent work for young people. Australia stresses the signifi-
cance of national and local jobs pacts for youth to be developed through tripartite consensus and
implemented to foster growth and create decent jobs for young people. Education quality and rele-
vance to labour market needs must be improved as well. Reliable and timely information on the
youth labour market should be collected, analyzed and disseminated on a regular basis while also
monitoring and evaluation systems should be developed to assess the effectiveness and impact of
youth employment policies and programs. Finally, youth participation on issues regarding them
must increase.

Ii. Measures to Maintain a Balance Between Food Production and The Increasing Demand
for Biofuel




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Delegate                                                                                     Student
AUSTRALIA, ECONOMIC AND SOCAIL COUNCIL 2                         Thea Madsen, Nyborg Gymnasium 1st S


Australia proclaims that the growing number of the world’s population. However, the Earth is not
growing with its population which means that the world is now facing being unable to feed its
population. Meantime the world is also facing economic and environmental crisis meaning that
much attention is being taken away from the world’s 2 billion poorest and starving people and put
on renewable energy sources building a more bio-based economy. FAO estimates that the number
of chronically undernourished people has risen from 842 million at the beginning of the 1990s to
over one billion in 2009. Biofuel production requires massive cultivable land which of cause affects
agricultural productivity. Many industrialized nations have switched from a petroleum-based to a
more bio-based economy making the biofuel crops such as rapeseed, corn, and soybean prices in-
crease drastically. The World Bank report states that global food prices have been forced up by 75%
due to biofuels. 200 kg of maize is enough to feed a person for a year however it only produces 50
liters, one tank full, biofuel.

Australia reminds its fellow member states of the tireless effort of the 1996 World Food Summit in
Rome aimed at ending hunger and malnutrition and achieving food for all. Australia is well aware
of UN’s International Biofuels Forum established in 2006, and the UN Special Rapporteur on the
Right to Food, Jean Ziegler, who was in 2007 requested by the Human Rights Council to “urgently
examine the impact of agro fuels on the realization of the right to food“ resulting in the 2008 Spe-
cial Session in the Human Rights Council on biofuel’s impact on the food crisis from a human
rights perspective and by the ECOSOC from a general perspective. Finally in 2011, FAO Interna-
tional Technical Conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies in Developing Countries was pub-
lished.

Australia affirms that in order to overcome this crisis these actions must be carried out in unison:
The investment in developing country agriculture has to increase by at least 60 percent over current
levels through a combination of higher public investment and better incentives for farmers and the
private sector to invest their own resources and better technology for productivity growth. Then
greater priority has to be given to agricultural research, development and extension services in order
to achieve the yield and productivity gains that are needed to feed the world in 2050. Subsequently,
global markets have to function effectively as food security for an increasing number of countries
that depend on international trade and access to a stable supply of imports.

Iii. The Rights and Responsibilities of Multinational Companies in a Globalized World

Australia proclaims that while the world becomes more globalized, multinational companies be-
come huge influences in people’s lives and start leading top economies. Foreign Direct Investment
(FDI) means a company from one country makes a physical investment, e.g. building a factory, in
another country. This is vital, however, some issues concerning the rights and responsibilities of
multinational companies in a globalized world still needs addressing as seen, in for instance, the
South Asian and the Middle Eastern nations’ raise in economies not corresponding to the UN Hu-
man Development Index (HDI).

Australia draws attention to the contribution of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human
Rights (OHCHR), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Industrial
Development Organization (UNIDO), International Labor Organization (ILO), and their subordi-
nate departments. Australia acknowledges the UN Global Compact and the Guidance on Responsi-
ble Business in Conflict-Affected & High-Risk Areas A Resource for Companies and Investors




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Delegate                                                                                     Student
AUSTRALIA, ECONOMIC AND SOCAIL COUNCIL 2                         Thea Madsen, Nyborg Gymnasium 1st S


which can help ensure that markets, commerce, technology, and finance advance in ways that bene-
fit economies and societies globally.

Australia also stresses the importance of International Alert and the Global Compact’s Sustaining
Business and Peace that helps small and medium sized enterprises understand how CSR strategies
and activities can contribute to peace and development. UN Alliance of Civilizations and Global
Compact’s Doing Business in a Multicultural World: Challenges and opportunities explores how
companies can facilitate intercultural understanding in ways that benefit both business and society.

Iv. Empowerment of Women as a Method of Dealing with Social and Economic Exclusion

Australia emphasizes that, even though gender equality is achieved in most industrialized nations,
many developing countries are still struggling to ensure both genders equally. Australia is sad to
report that many women all over the world are oppressed by men and subject to domestic violence
without access to education, jobs, and political positions. 3/5 of the poorest billion people in the
world are female, 70 percent of all children not enrolled in primary education are girls, and only 16
percent of all parliamentarians are women. On top of that, women have lower salaries than men for
doing the same job in almost every country, and they are frequenter enrolled in low-paying jobs.
According to the United Nations Millennium Campaign, women work 2/3 of the world‘s working
hours only earning 10 percent of the world‘s income. Australia Economically empowered women
face fewer difficulties in playing active roles in politics. The economic empowerment of women
influences the number of children per couple, the quality of their children’s education, their health,
and the environment positively. Women‘s well being defined as education and health status directly
influences the well-being of the whole family.

Australia endorses the endeavors of UN Women and the United Nations Entity for gender Equality
and the Empowerment of Women who work towards achieving gender equality and thereby increas-
ing women’s empowerment. Australia is fully aware of the 1946 Commission on the Status of
Women founded as a sub commission of the Economic and Social Council to deal with the empow-
erment of women. The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights adapted by the General As-
sembly including several rights for women, such as but not limited to their equality to men. The
1979 Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
adapted by the General Assembly. The 1995 Beijing Action Platform established aimed at achieving
gender equality by gender mainstreaming. 2000-2015 The Millennium Development Goals adapted
in order to end poverty with goals III and V referring directly to women by calling for gender equal-
ity and an improvement of maternal health. 2000-2010 UN Security Council Resolutions on Women,
Peace and Security. 2011 Women‘s World Convention.

Australia strongly urges all fellow member states to improve global cooperation for international
and regional frameworks, strengthen national gender machineries, develop research and collection
of gender responsive statistical data, expedite review and amendments of discriminatory laws, scale
up measures that economically empower women, fortify documentation and dissemination of in-
formation on promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment, and better education, health,
political participation, decision-making, self-help, and ownership of land for women. A special con-
sideration should be given to the Millennium Development Goals III and V that were adapted by the
United Nations in 2000 that mainly focuses on the elimination of gender disparity in primary and
secondary education, which is to be achieved through gender mainstreaming.




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