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					                                 GIZ Activities in Cocoa in Western Africa
                                                    and
                                        Problems and Challenges
                                 with the Use of Pesticides in Agriculture

                       Andrea Wilhelmi-Somé                Wolfgang A. Schimpf
                       Rural Economic Development          Convention Project Chemical Safety;
                       Program, Côte d‘Ivoire              Germany
                       e-mail: andrea.wilhelmi-some@giz.de Email: wolfgang.schimpf@giz.de

              Deutsche Gesellschaft für International Zusammenarbeit (GIZ); Germany



                                            REGIONAL WORKSHOP on
                             SPC Capacity Building in Africa to Mitigate the Harmful
                    Effects of Pesticide Residues IN COCOA and to Maintain Market Access
                                      7 – 10 June 2011; Yaounde, Cameroon
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                         Seite 1
                                                       GIZ worldwide
                       As a 100% federally owned, public-benefit enterprise, GIZ
                       supports the German Government in achieving its
                       development policy goals.
                       GIZ operates in more than 130 countries
                        world-wide.
                   GIZ employs approximately 17,000 staff
                         members world-wide, more than 60% of
                         whom are local personnel.
                   In addition there are:
                        - 1,135 technical advisors
                        -      750 integrated and 324 returning experts
                        -      700 local experts in partner organisations
                        -      850 weltwärts volunteers
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                               Seite 2
                                                       Content

                      1. General situation of the Cocoa production in Ivory Coast
                         and West Africa

                      2. GIZ activities in the Cocoa Sector in the region

                      3. Pro and cons of the use of pesticides – some
                         background information

                      4. GIZ approach of a holistic system for the safe use of
                         pesticides in agriculture

                      5. Conclusion



Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                             Seite 3
                                       Côte d’Ivoire = Number 1 of the global market


                                … 40% of the world Cocoa production is in
                                  Côte d´Ivoire



                                                      Côte d‘Ivoire
                                                      1.382.000 T

   2
               1000 Tonnen




                                                                                          Ghana
                                                                                       729.000 T


                                                                                               Jahr
                             Quelle: F. Ruf; J.-L.Agkpo. 2008 Etude sur le revenu et les              Quelle: Suedwind Institut für Ökonomie und Ökumene.
                             investissements des producteurs de café et de cacao en Côte d’Ivoire             2009. Die dunklen Seiten der Schokolade



Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                                                                             Seite 4
                                 Côte d‘Ivoire: regional concentration

                        7 Regionen / 15 Départements liefern
                     7 regions, 15 departments deliver:
                        • of 80 national cocoa production
                     • 80%ca. the % der nationalen Produktion
                     • 25%ca. worldder Weltproduktion
                        • of 25% production

                                           Andere
                                          Regionen                   H.
                                                                  Sassandra
                                                                    Daloa,
                              Marahoué                            Vavoa, Issia
                                 Sinfra
                                Bouaflé




                                                                                                 Sassandra
                             Moyen-
                             Comoé




                                                                                                                       Moyen-
                                                                                                                       Comoé
                           Abengourou




                                                                                                 Haut-
                                Sud                                  B.            Moyen
                              Bandama                             Sassandra
                              Divo, Lakota                                         Cavally
                                                                   Soubré, San
                                                                     Pedro,                                    Sud
                                                                    Sassandra
                                      Fromager         Moyen                                                 Bandama
                                          Gagnoa,      Cavally                                Bas
                                           Oumé
                                                        Guiglo,                               Sassandra
                                                       Duékoué




                Grafiken     Matthess, A. 2011
                Daten        Direction des opérations techniques BCC Produktionsdurchschnitte 1990-99 à 2002-2003
                Karten       http://www.maplibrary.org/stacks/Africa/index.php
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                                                            Seite 5
                                Cocoa production in Côte d´Ivoire


                       …          in 600.000 small scale farms with
                                  2 to 5 ha area under cultivation

                       …          in a share-cropping system – to mobilize rare
                                  man power
   2
                       …          the Cocoa trees are relatively old

                       …          with limited resources for inputs like fertilizers

                       …          with low productivity between 500 to 700 kg
                                  per ha


Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                              Seite 6
                                 GIZ activities on Cocoa in the Region


                      Regional
                      • Cocoa Livelihoods Program - Sustainable Cocoa
                        Business

                      Bilateral
                      • Rural economic development and protection of the Tai
                         National Park

                      Public Private partnerships (PPP)
                      • PPDC with Kraft and Armajaro
                      • CEMOI
                      • Touton
                      • Certification Capacity Enhancement Project in Ghana and
                        Côte d‘Ivoire


Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                           Seite 7
                                Regional Project - Cocoa Livelihoods Programm

      Côte d’Ivoire




                                                                 Project activities
                                                                 in 4 countries


      Ghana                                            Nigeria    Kamerun




Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                              Seite 8
                                Regional Project - Cocoa Livelihoods Programm

                   Components of the program and contribution from GIZ
                      1. Improved marketing            Professionalizing farmer organizations,
                         efficiency                    improving quality and value of cocoa,
                                                       expanding group marketing of cocoa

   1                                               Training in production practices and
                      2. Improved cocoa
                         production efficiency and quality management, support
                         quality at farm level     improvement + expansion of input
   2                                                   supply systems, support research +
                                                       piloting of innovations in production
                                                       technology
                      3. Improved                      Market opportunity assessments and
                         competitiveness of            dissemination of results
                         diversified cocoa farms       Basic business skills training for 170.000
                                                       farmers
                                                       Develop private-driven
                                                       business service centers
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                           Seite 9
                                Regional Project - Cocoa Livelihoods Programm

                           Objective of program

                                  A third of the cocoa households in West Africa double
                                  their income from cocoa and non-cocoa (diversified)
                                  sources within 10 years.

                           Financing and Implementation




Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                      Seite 10
                                       Rural Economic Development and Protection
                                       of the Tai National Park (Côte d'Ivoire)
         The Taï National Park
         is one of the last
         remaining portions of
         the vast primary forest
         that once stretched
         across present-day
         Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire,
         Liberia and Sierra
         Leone.
         Covering 5.360 km2,
         the Taï Park is the
         largest protected area
         of humid tropical                                           Biosphere Reserve since 1978
         forest in West Africa                                       World Heritage Site since 1982
         with a high level of
         endemism.
                                                       PARC
                                                       NATIONAL DE
                                                       TAÏ

Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                          Seite 11
                                       Rural Economic Development and Protection
                                       of the Tai National Park (Bilateral Project))
                                                                            GIZ support to
  CHC                                                                       75 micro projects for
  Rubber processing plant
                                                                            rural population:
                                                                            Poultry farming
                                                                            Pig breeding
                                                                            Fish farming
                                                                            Grass cutter breeding
                                                                            Rice production
                                                                            Horticulture
    GIZ support to                                                          Cassava Production
    78 Rubber and Palmoil
                                                                           SAPH
    Family Nurseries
                                                                           Rubber Processing Plant
                                                                          GIZ support to Cocoa
  PALMCI
                                                                          farmer cooperatives
  Palm oil processing plant
                                                                           Cocoa Plantations
                                                                           Around the Taï National Park
                                                                           and in the park zone
SOGB
Rubber processing plant                                                    Several cocoa
                                                                           processing plants and
                                                                           World biggest cocoa port
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                                Seite 12
                                       Rural Economic Development and Protection
                                       of the Tai National Park


                      Collaboration with Private Sector and
                      buffer zone population on Value Chain
                      Development around the
                      Taï National Park


                   • Rubber and Palm oil Family Nurseries
                   • Training and support to small scale cocoa
                     Farmers
                   • Improvement of cooperatives and farmer
                     Organizations
                   • Support to certification process for farmer
                     Organizations (RA, UTZ …)
                   • Farmer Business Schools (FBC training)


Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                               Seite 13
                                       Rural Economic Development and Protection
                                       of the Tai National Park


            Cocoa plantation in the buffer zone of the Taï National Park




          Cocoa Productivity depends on stable soil fertility, on uniformly high rainfall,
          temperature and shadow levels, all conditions delivered for free by
          the Taï National Park.
          Without the Taï National Park, climatic conditions would change and cocoa
          productivity would decline as it already did in Togo and Ghana.
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                         Seite 14
                                      PPCD – Project in Côte d‘Ivoire

                   PPDC Promotion of Sustainable Cocoa Production
                    Public Private Partnership with Krafts Food and Amajaro
                     Trading Ltd.

                   6000 farmers were trained
                    to improve the quality of cocoa through sustainable production
                      practices according to international quality standards as
                      Rainforest Alliance
                    to improve their organizational capacities
                    to get access to the international market
                    To improve hygiene and health facilities for farmers and their
                      families




Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                  Seite 15
                                   CEMOI – Public Private Partnership Project
CEMOI Trading                                          Problem
Total volume: 380 T €                                    during the last decade, yields and quality of the
Public share: 185 T €                                    Ivorian cocoa are in constant decline
                                                   Project
                                                        Increase productivity and plant quality
                                                        Enhance farmers revenues
                                                        Build up a sustainable and equal business relation
                                                         between farmer cooperatives and CEMOI Trading

                                                       Results
                                                        Enhance cooperatives organisation and management
                                                         skills
                                                        Cooperatives are certified: Rainforest Alliance
BILD
Rechte Maustaste: Größe und                             Farmers adopt good post harvest practices
Position                                                 (introduction of fresh cocoa treatment centres)
Größe 4,8 x 7,9,
Position H: 0, V: 13,64                                • Yield improvement by grafting of unproductive trees
                                                         (about 30%) in the traditional cocoa orchards
Allgemein: Rechte Maust.: Raster
und Führungslinien: Raster: 0,1 c
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                                           Seite 16
                                          TOUTON – Project in Côte d‘Ivoire

  Côte d‘Ivoire                                        Problem
                                                         Poor quality and productivity of Ivorian cocoa
  Capacity
  Development of
                                                   Project
  cocoa cooperatives
  for sustainable cocoa                                 Increasing income for Touton contracted cocoa farmers
  production                                            Improvement of production and post harvest practices
                                                        Support to Rainforest Alliance certification
  TOUTON

  06/2010 – 06/2012                                Results and Impacts
  Total Volume: 135 T €                                 Improvement of organizational and management
  GIZ-Anteil: 50% PPP                                    capacity in cocoa cooperatives
                                                        Certification Rainforest Alliance
BILD
                                                        Build-up of a internal control system to maintain the
Rechte Maustaste: Größe und                              quality standards
Position
Größe 4,8 x 7,9,                                        Cooperatives use improved production and post harvest
Position H: 0, V: 13,64                                  practices according to the quality standards
Allgemein: Rechte Maust.: Raster
und Führungslinien: Raster: 0,1 c
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                                       Seite 17
                                Certification Capacity Enhancement Project


                       These are the partners


                       Developed a joint training curriculum on certification of cocoa.
                       It comprises the common contents of the three quality
                       standards.

                       These partners


                       Together with national training institutions will test the training
                       curriculum in Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria before making it
                       available to all stakeholders in the cocoa sector.

                       The training will enable cocoa producers to comply with the
                       major voluntary standards for social and environmental
                       sustainability and prepare them for certification.
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                         Seite 18
                       Advantages & problems with the use of pesticides

                                                       and

                         the GIZ approach of a holistic system for the safe
                                  use of pesticides in agriculture




Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                      Seite 19
                                        Issues with the use of pesticides (1)

                                    The use of pesticides is important to secure
                                    the production of crops world wide.

                                     Pesticides are used to help protect people's crops
                                      from pests such as weeds, fungus, and bacteria.

                                     Farmers using pesticides to help produce food by
                                      protecting their crops.
         Information: FAO and ILO




                                     Pesticides also help people by
                                      killing pests that carry diseases.


Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                       Seite 20
                                         Issues with the use of pesticides (2)
                                     During the use of pesticides the following issues
                                     has to be considered,

                                     Pesticides are important for sustaining crop
                                      production and food security
                                     The use is difficult and can have negative effects to
                                      the environment and the health of the
                                      users (farmers) and consumers (residues)
                                     The use of pesticides is cost intensive
         Information: FAO and ILO




                                      (especially for small farmers)
                                     The proper use of pesticides is a
                                      challenge ,especially for small farmers

Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                          Seite 21
                               Issues with the use of pesticides (3)
                   Every year some 500 million tonnes of chemicals
                    are produced, used and processed world-wide
                   20 % of the chemicals produced world-wide (ILO)
                    are used in developing countries, but
                   70 % of all accidents involving toxic chemicals
                    occur in developing countries,
                   50 % of all workplace accidents
                    occur in agriculture - it is one
                    of the most dangerous
                    occupations.
                                Pesticides must be used more
                                safely and responsibly !

Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                   Seite 22
                                         Issues with the use of pesticides (4)
                                     The major risk is the exposure to pesticides and
                                      other agrochemicals.

                                     1.3 billion workers are active in agricultural
                                      production world-wide.

                                     The WHO estimates that 3 million people are
                                      poisoned by pesticides every year, most of them
                                      in developing countries.
         Information: FAO and ILO




                                     Every year some 20 000 of these
                                      poisoning victims die.


Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                     Seite 23
                   GIZ approach for a holistic and sound pesticide
                   management system
                                                       Principles of
                                                       pesticide use


                              Disposal of                                Procurement
                             obs. pesticides                             of pesticides


                                                       Safe use of
                                                        pesticides

                           Container                                        Training &
                          Management                                      safety aspects




                                                       Integrated pest
                                                         management
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                     Seite 24
                    GIZ basic principles for safe use of pesticides
                    is based on

                              Good Agricultural Praxis (GAP)

                              The Code of Conduct of the FAO

                              Safe application techniques

                              Calibration of spraying equipment

                              Safety aspects / work safety

                              Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach
                               of the FAO
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                       Seite 25
                   GIZ approach….
                                                       Principles of
                                                       pesticide use


                              Disposal of                                Procurement
                             obs. pesticides                             of pesticides


                                                       Safe use of
                                                        pesticides

                           Container                                        Training &
                          Management                                      safety aspects




                                                       Integrated pest
                                                         management
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                     Seite 26
       GIZ Procurement system for Pesticides and Biocides (1)
                    A specific purchasing procedure has been established
                    within GIZ projects,

                     to secure that only pesticides and biocides are purchased
                      which are registered according to the EU regulations.

                     This procedure is to be used regardless of whether the
                      product is being purchased locally or through the head office.

                     The purchase of pesticides classified as highly or extremely
                      hazardous (WHO class Ia and Ib pesticides) is prohibited.

                     The purchase of pesticides containing
                      active ingredients included in any of the
                      annexes A, B or C of the Stockholm
                      Convention (POPs) and is prohibited.

Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                              Seite 27
                       GIZ Procurement Pesticides and Biocides (2)

                    Registration - in countries in which there is an official
                     registration requirement, only substances that have actually
                     been registered may be procured

                    Labelling - should be done in the local language as
                     stipulated in the Code of Conduct (FAO).

                    Information - the relevant material
                     safety data sheets (MSDS) and
                     a contact address in case of emergency
                     must be provided on each label

                         Quality of the pesticides must be
                          assured and documented
                          (Certificate of analyses)

Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                          Seite 28
                    GIZ approach….
                                                       Principles of
                                                       pesticide use


                                Disposal of                              Procurement
                               obs. pesticides                           of pesticides



                                                        Safe use of
                                                         pesticides

                           Container                                         Training &
                          Management                                       safety aspects



                                                       Integrated pest
                                                         management


Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                     Seite 29
                               Training in Classification & Safety aspects (1)
                        GIZ agricultural projects
                        contain training in
                                                                   Toxicological classification
                   Good Agricultural Praxis (GAP)                    System of pesticides
                        and the Code of Conduct (FAO)
                   Safe application techniques
                   Calibration of spraying equipment
                   Safety aspects / work safety

                  for

                   farmers and farmer associations
                   pesticide dealers
                    (as multiplication factor for farmers)

                  Projects can be carried out as public private partnership projects with
                  the industry or national/international agencies.
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                        Seite 30
                        GIZ basic principles for safe use of pesticides (2)

                    Training - agricultural employers / farmers must assure
                     that untrained workers receive basic pesticide training and
                     safety information prior to the use of pesticides

                    Safety Training how to used safety equipment /secure that
                     the staff is proper equipped with the basic personal
                     protective equipment (PPE),
                     like;
                        gloves,
                        overalls, aprons,
                        goggles
                        boots, face shields or
                        (dust) face masks

                        Information of the farmers/users about
                         the pesticides and the related risks (MSDS)
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                               Seite 31
                                GIZ principles for safe use of pesticides (3)

                      To ensure that the users/farmers are following the specific
                       application requirements and conditions of pesticides, like
                       • timing,
                       • weather conditions,
                       • site harvest interval etc.

                    To follow the basic hygiene rules
                      (no eating and drinking during work,
                      washing the hand and changing the clothes
                      after working with pesticides)

                    To avoid contamination of staff and others
                     in the vicinity of application.

                    Avoid contamination of water ways.

                    Protect nearby sensitive plants if necessary.
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                             Seite 32
                    GIZ approach….
                                                       Principles of
                                                       pesticide use


                                Disposal of                              Procurement
                               obs. pesticides                           of pesticides



                                                        Safe use of
                                                         pesticides

                           Container                                         Training &
                          Management                                       safety aspects



                                                       Integrated pest
                                                         management


Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                     Seite 33
                                   Integrated pest management (IPM)
                    is the preference method of the GIZ

                     to reduce or minimize as much as possible the use and
                      application of synthetic pesticides,

                     to protect the environment,

                     to reduce the health risks for the farmers and

                     and secure the quality of agricultural products.
                      (pesticide residues)

                    IPM is an environmental and effective
                    sensitive approach to pest management
                    that relies on a combination of
                    common-sense practices.

Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                          Seite 34
                                 Integrated pest management (IPM) (2)
                     IPM is the prevention measure of the FAO,

                      The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution
                       and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture
                       Organization (FAO; Rome) demands prevention in
                       agriculture,

                      The preferred prevention tool is the Integrated Pest
                       Management (IPM) approach.

                      IPM can help to prevent stockpiles of
                       pesticides as it can reduce the overuse
                       of and dependency on pesticides as
                       well as can improve / secure the quality
                       of the crop.

Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                           Seite 35
                    GIZ approach….
                                                       Principles of
                                                       pesticide use


                                Disposal of                              Procurement
                               obs. pesticides                           of pesticides



                                                        Safe use of
                                                         pesticides

                           Container                                         Training &
                          Management                                       safety aspects



                                                       Integrated pest
                                                         management


Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                     Seite 36
                                       Container Management System (1)
                    Farmers have often problems with the disposal of
                    empty pesticide containers.
                    Especially in the rural areas are lack of collection
                    and disposal facilities - and also the awareness
                    that the empty containers with pesticide residues
                    constitute acute potential hazards for the people
                    and the environment.

                    Farmers are facing the following problems;
                     lack of collection schemes,
                     lack of disposal facilities for the elimination
                      of the empty pesticide containers and
                     the remains from the pesticide formulations.

                    They remains of the pesticides in the
                    containers endanger the

                     soil, water and atmosphere
                     the health of the public, especially of children.
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                       Seite 37
           Container Management System (2) – Collection Chain
                                           Step 1        Step 2         Step 3       Step 4
                        Farmer                         Collecting     Intermediate
                                                       Point          Storage
                                                                      &
                                                                      Compacting
                       Farmer                                         Station

                                                                                     Disposal
                        Farmer                         Intermediate
                                                       Storage
                                         Collecting                   Pre-           Re-use
                                                       &
                                         Point         Compacting     Treatment
                       Farmer
                                                       Station
                                                                                     Recycling
                        Farmer                                        Intermediate
                                                                      Storage
                                                                      &
                                                       Collecting     Compacting
                        Farmer                         Point          Station


                        Return of the empty containers to Collecting Points
Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                       Seite 38
                                  Container Management System (3)
                                                                           Liquids:
                          Aluminum                                         wash water
                                                       Plastics
                          glass                                            solvents containing
                                                                           (liquid) pesticides
                                                                                          Main Burner
                         Raw - Mill            Calcinator    Rotary Kiln                  (coal dust)

                           ~ 200 °C                    ~ 900 °C
                                                                             > 1,600 °C
                                                                                 Dust:
                          Material Flow Container Material                       powdery
                                                                                 pesticides




Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                                Seite 39
                    GIZ approach….
                                                       Principles of
                                                       pesticide use


                                Disposal of                              Procurement
                               obs. pesticides                           of pesticides



                                                        Safe use of
                                                         pesticides

                           Container                                         Training &
                          Management                                       safety aspects



                                                       Integrated pest
                                                         management


Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                     Seite 40
                                  Disposal of obsolete pesticides (1)
                   Obsolete pesticide stockpiles are often
                    poorly stored and the containers are corroded and leaking,
                    in uncontrolled storage facilities, chemicals from different
                     products may react together to create toxic gases or
                     uncontrolled reactions

                   These pesticides are endanger
                    the human health's, to those persons living near to
                     these stores
                    and contaminating the soil, polluting agricultural lands and
                     the ground water. ….




Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                            Seite 41
                                             Disposal of obsolete pesticides (2)
                     Among these pesticides that have been used in the past
                     are,

                      the organochlorinated (OC) pesticides which belonging
                       to the group of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
                       of the Stockholm Convention;

                      They pose the highest health and environmental risks
                       due to their toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation
                       potentials.




Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                               Seite 42
                                      Disposal of obsolete pesticides (3)
                    The final treatment of waste consists of trans-formation
                    processes to modify the (hazardous) characteristics of the
                    original waste. The treatment methods can be subsumed
                    under the following categories,

                     Physicochemical treatment                     Kiln of a cement plant

                     Biological transformation
                     Thermal treatment

          An practical and internationally recognised
          method for the disposal of hazardous waste -
          including obsolete pesticides – is the
          incineration in cement kilns (co-processing
          of waste).

Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                 Seite 43
                               Disposal of obsolete pesticides (4)
                                   Example: DDT Disposal Tanzania – 100 tons DDT – stored in an unsecured deport in a
                                   village  Risk for the public and environment
                      Project Implementation




                                                         Fieldwork               Transport               Elimination


                        Problem Identification
                         Inventory
                                                                            Capacity Building /Training in
                                                                             Inventarization / Safeguarding/ Disposal
                         Financing                                          Prevention
                                                                             Pesticide Management
                         Project Planning

                         Notification                                                    Lesson learned


Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                                                     Seite 44
                                                       Conclusion 1
                       1. The GIZ is cooperating with different partners organisations
                          depending on the need and situation (PPP projects,
                          cooperation with national/international partners)

                       2.      The GIZ Safe Use of Pesticides approach” can be used as a
                               modular system which depends on the different needs.

                       3. The “GIZ Safe Use of Pesticide” activities are generally
                          focused on the international chemical conventions as well as
                          the “FAO International Code of Conduct on the Distribution
                          and Use of Pesticides”

                       4      The GIZ “Safe Use of Pesticides” activities are helping to
                              protect the health of the public, the environment and the
                              agricultural production and are improving the social and
                              ecological conditions of the farmers.



Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                       Seite 45
                                                       Conclusion 2

                    5. The GIZ has many experience and ongoing projects on cocoa in
                       Côte d’Ivoire and West Africa in general;

                    6. Mostly experience on voluntary quality standards but few activities
                       on safety standards as mandatory public standards;

                    7. GIZ is in discussion with private partners and the new
                       government in Côte d’Ivoire on support of a new cocoa sector
                       strategy;

                          Opportunity to integrate “safe use of pesticides”, safety standards
                          and SPS measures as a additional module in ongoing and planned
                          cocoa projects and in a national cocoa strategy in Côte d’Ivoire




Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                                      Seite 46
                                                       Thank you very much

                                                         Merci beaucoup




Abteilung „Agrarwirtschaft, Fischerei und Ernährung“                         Seite 47

				
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