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EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE AND EDUCATION IN CHINA Yunfan jiang Bing liu Teresa Khinthannwe Hua Chen AGENDA Welcome Animoto Overview of China → By Khin History → By Kathy Underlying Philosophy → By Ellie Type of Childcare System → By Fiona Availability and Accessibility → By Ellie Training of ECE → By Teresa Difference → By Khin WELCOME TO CHINA OVERVIEW OF CHINA People's Republic of China (PRC) With nearly 4000 years of history Area: 9,596,960 square kilometres Population: 1.3 billion Capital City: Beijing People: Composed of 56 ethnic groups, China is a united multi-national country. ---- The Han nationality - 92 %, ---- 55 nationalities - 8%. OVERVIEW OF CHINA CON’T… Main Language: Mandarin (Beijing dialect) Religion: Officially atheist; Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism. Also Islamic and Christian communities Major Industries: Iron, steel, coal, machinery, textiles Currency: Renminbi (RMB) HISTORY OF CHILDCARE SYSTEM 1898~1911 1911~1949 The first public Revolution and World kindergartens were War Ⅰ (1911) created in 1903 War between China and Japan(1937-1945) Civil war(1924-1949) HISTORY OF CHILDCARE SYSTEM CON’T… 1949 ~ 1977 1978 ~ NOW When PRC was founded in China reopen the door to 1949, childcare restarted the world 1969~1977 A national conference -The Cultural Revolution which focused on ECE is - Schools were closed the turning point - Early childhood education Western philosophies also came under serious started to make the attack strongest influence UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY Internal Tao Xingzhi (1891-1946) Key features Build good habits and attitudes UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY CON’T… Feng Dequan (1935---) Key features - Edutainment - Environment influence - Love children UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY CON’T… EXTERNAL At beginning based on High Scope, Reggio Emilia, Japanese training and Montessori are being institutions widely applied into American and European kindergartens nowadays models of preschool education USSR theories and practices in ECE started to be systematically applied all over China(1949) TYPE OF CHILDCARE SYSTEM Public ECE program Government agencies provide funding support. ECE programs are non-profit. Forms: nursery, kindergarten, children welfare institute. Licensed and regulated. Take part in quality assessment programs. Learning environments are in good condition. Requirements on qualification of teacher Implement teacher tenure. Good wages and benefits. Low turn-over ratio. Capacity is very limited. Only enroll the children who parents are staff of operator. TYPE OF CHILDCARE SYSTEM CON’T… Private ECE program No funding support from Government. Form: nursery, kindergarten, parent-child learning center, weekend classes, home-based tutoring station, etc. PRIVATE ECE PROGRAM CON’T… Licensed Fee-for-service. High fee, usually not affordable. Learning environments are in good condition. Individual ECE programs have their own recruitment criteria. Wages and benefits are usually not bad. Turn- over ratio is higher than in public ones. Capacity is larger than public ones. PRIVATE ECE PROGRAM CON’T… Unlicensed Not regulated and lack of supervision. Many problems involving health, safety and curriculum. No training. There are a lot of unlicensed programs in China. AVAILABILITY Increasing but small 11,639,000 units (2003) 24,750,000 units (2008) enrollment rate for 3 - 6years less 50% BEI JING 4793 daycares in 1990 1266 daycares in 2009 New DNA- 41,575,000 in 2007- 2009 Only 24.8 million available ACCESSIBILITY Unequal Geographically accessible Fee - for - service Government funding Only 1% of whole education funding Private pay still major Cultural and social Lack of resources available to support children with special needs TRAINING OF ECE The first course to train nursery teachers was offered at a women's middle school in the city of Suzhou in southern China in 1889. IN 1952 The Teachers’ School Regulations was issued Both preservice and in- service training TRAINING OF ECE CON’T… 1995 require 1978 start certificate and college and diploma university course Training 2000 require degree TRAINING OF ECE CON’T… WHAT ECE LEARN? Policy and regulations Language arts, Mathematics, Early Childhood Education TYPE OF TRAINING • Teacher training school, fulltime and part- time • College, fulltime 2 years course • University, fulltime 4 years course DIFFERENCE CANADA CHINA GDP : 0.3% GDP : 0.03%-0.05% Family Fee : $200-$800 Family Fee : $60-$400 Ratio : 8 children per Ratio : 8 – 12 children per ECE( 3-6 years) ECE (3-6 years) Salary : $12.27 per hour Salary : $ 1.5 per hour Quality – high Quality – low REFERENCE Childcare resource and research unit http://www.childcarecanada.org/pubs/pdf/BNcan_spending05_06.pdf Jobyun.com http://www.jobyun.com/gongzi_%D3%D7%B6%F9%D4%B0%C0%CF%C A%A6 NEW HORIZONZ FOR LEARNING http://www.newhorizons.org/trans/international/okeeffe.htm PRECIOUS CHILDREN http://www.pbs.org/kcts/preciouschildren/earlyed/read_vaughan.html HENCHUWANG http://www.hengchu.cn/edu/kindergarten/News_24925_1.shtml THANK YOU ANY QUESTION?
"Early Childhood Care in China"