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鼻的解剖和生理学

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鼻的解剖和生理学 Powered By Docstoc
					Rhinology


Nasal dissection
and physiology
dissection

鼻(Nose)
 External nose
 Nasal cavity
 Nasal sinuses
Dissection —external nose
Shape of external nose:
  pyramid
 Nasal root
 Nasal apex
 Nasal bridge
 Nasal dorsum
 Alae nasi
 Basis nasi—
 anterior nares,columella
  nasi,nasolabial fold
Dissection —external nose

                nose stretcher:
                bone—prefrontal bone
                 nasal bone
                                       Pyriform
                 ascending processes
                                       aperture
                of the maxillae
                  palatine process
                   cartilage—lateral nasal cartilage
                              greater alar cartilage
nose stretcher :
Dissection —external nose
The venous drainage of the
  external nose
 These veins mainly drain to
  internal carotid vein via
  angular vein and facial vein,
  but angular vein communicate
  to cavernous sinus via the the
  ophthalmic veins。
 facial vein ---- no valve。
  danger triangle of face
Dissection —nasal cavity

                      Nasal vestibule
                      nasal cavity
Dissection

             nasal cavity
               nostril、choanae
               internal、external、top、
              bottom
Nasal cavity
               top:
                 anterior: prefrontal bone
                           nasal bone
                 posterior: anterior wall of
                            sphenoid sinus
                 intermediate: cribriform plate
               bottom:
                 1.palatine process of maxilla
                  2.horizontal process of palate
                  bone
Dissection
medial wall of nasal cavity
 Nasal septum:cartilage of
  nasal septum, lamina plate
  of ethmoid bone and vomer。
 Nosebleed area:the
  branches of arteries
  aggregate in intramembrane
  of nasal septum ,easy to
  bleeding ,so named Little
  area.
Lateral wall of nasal cavity
 Three turbinates
  dispose like
  ladder(superior,
   middle,inferior
  turbinate)
 superior,middle,
  inferior meatus
Lateral wall of nasal cavity
Inferior turbinate and inferior
   meatus:

middle turbinate and middle
   meatus :
Lamella of middle
   turbinate(devide ethmoid
   sinus to anterior part and
   posterior part)
The gap between the nasal
   septum and free margin of
   turbinate ,named meatus of
   nose
Lateral nasal passage
Frontal sinus drain to anterior
   superior part of ethmoidal
   infundibulum via nasofrontal
   duct , second drainage is
   anterior part of ethmoid sinus,
   last open is maxillary sinus.
uncinate process,ethmoid bulla,
   semilunar hiatus ,ethmoidal
   infundibulum
Dissection
   Ostiomeatal
    complex,OMC:
    middle turbinate and
    middle meatus ,and
    other anatomical
    structure, anatomy
    basis of Functional
    Endoscopic Sinus
    Surgery, FESS .
Dissection
   artery:
   external carotid artery——
    Maxillary Artery——
    Inferior part of nasal cavity
   internal carotid artery——
    ophthalmic artery——anterior
    ethmoid artery/posterior
    ethmoid artery——superior
    part of nasal cavity
 Dissection—SINUSES

 Nasal sinuses
anterior sinuses          apertures
maxillary sinus        middle meatus
anterior ethmoid sinus middle meatus
frontal sinus          middle meatus

posterior sinuses           apertures
posterior ethmoid sinus   superiormeatus
Sphenoid sinus recessus   sphenoethmoidalis
DISSECTION

             maxillary sinus
             anterior wall—canine fossa
             posterior side wall—near internal
                       pterygoid muscle
             superior wall—orbital plate
             foot wall—alveolar process
                       (odontogenic
                       maxillary sinusitis)
             medial wall—hard to drain
                       because of high
                       aperture
   frontal sinus
   ethmoid sinus
   sphenoid sinus
   Nasal cavity and sinuses
    dissection and
    examination
Nose –skull homologic anatomy

 anterior cranial fossa: hanging wall of nasal
  cavity midpiece,posterior wall of frontal sinus,
  hanging wall of ethmoid sinus
 middle cranial fossa: hanging wall/ lateral wall
  of sphenoid sinus
  (pituitary gland、cavernous sinus、 internal
  carotid artery )
Nose –oral homologic anatomy
   posterior side wall of maxillary sinus :internal
    pterygoid muscle
   Footwall of maxillary sinus :second bicuspid and
    first molar、second molar
   Foot wall of nasal cavity:pars palatalis
Nasal physiology

   Nasal cavity physiology
   respiratory function—laminar flow AND turbulent flow
               —nasal airway resistance AND nasal cycle
   Protection function—cleaning and filtration,warming
    and moisturizing
   olfactory function
   resonant function
Nasal physiology

   Nasal sinuses physiology
    resonant function ,lighten weight and keep
    head balance

				
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posted:8/12/2012
language:Latin
pages:26