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					CLAUSE AS EXCHANGE


 The interpersonal function
          Lecture 6




                       2012/8/12   1
Interpersonal (enacts human
relationships) – Mood
 In the act of speaking, the speaker adopts
  for himself a particular speech role, and in
  so doing assigns to the listener a
  complementary role which he wishes him to
  adopt in his turn (Halliday p 68).




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   Language as interaction

          陈述内容要点
             goods & services information
giving       offer            Statement
demanding    command          question

             proposal         proposition




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Language as interaction

 Offer: Would you like a cup of tea? (no
 'standard' realization)
 Command: Make me some tea!
 (typically realized by imperative)
 Statement: I had to make the tea myself.
 (typically realized by declarative)
 Question: Do you take sugar with your
 tea? What kind of tea do you prefer?
 (typically realized by interrogative)

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        Language as interaction

           expected         discretionary way of
           response         response      responding
           (supporting)     (confronting)
Offer      acceptance       rejection     verbal/non-
                                          verbal
Command undertaking         refusal     non-
                                        verbal/verbal
Statement acknowledgement contradiction verbal (non-
                                        verbal)
Question   answer           disclaimer           verbal

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Language as interaction

  Response to offer: Yes please / No thanks.
  Response to command: Hearer does
   something, or refuses to do something
  Response to statement: Hearer
   acknowledges the proposition or contradicts it
   (e.g. yes; mm; right / No, you didn't; That's not
   true.).
  Response to question: Yes; No; I prefer
   herbal tea. / Why are you asking me that?
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Language as interaction

 Mood
   declarative: Subject^Finite
   interrogative: Finite^Subject
   imperative: lacks mood element




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              Mood-Residue

I             am       writing       This handout         On my PC


    subject   finite    predicator    complement           adjunct



mood                      residue




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  Mood: Subject + Finite

 Mood: 'carries the burden of the clause as an
  interactive event'
 - the nub of the proposition (Halliday p 77)




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 Mood: Subject + Finite

 Subject:
 The element about which something is
  predicated; the entity that the Speaker wants
  to make responsible for the validity of the
  proposition being advanced in the clause.
  (Thompson)
 the entity in respect of which the assertion is
  claimed to have validity (Halliday)

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Mood: Subject + Finite

 The functions of the Finite are to show:
 tense (for what time in relation to that of
  speaking is the proposition valid?)
 polarity (does the proposition have positive or
  negative validity?)
 modality (to what extent is the proposition
  valid?)


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Mood: Subject + Finite

  Other things to note:
  the finite is a verbal operator
  the finite and the Predicator may be realized
   together (simple past or simple present tense)
  a clausal Subject may be extraposed so that
   we get a split Subject
  the Complement corresponds to
   complement/predicative/object in many other
   grammars


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Mood: Subject + Finite

  existential there is analysed as subject,
   followed by
   Finite^Predicator^Complement
  a clause may contain two complements
  'Adjunct' corresponds to 'Adverbial' in many
   other grammars (and thus covers adjuncts,
   disjuncts and conjuncts)


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Mood: Subject + Finite

 Mood tags:
 refer back to the mood element
 may be useful in identifying the Subject and
  the Finite




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Mood: Subject + Finite

  Provide an analysis of these sentences.
 1. Naturally Matilda was put in the bottom
    class.
 2. Their teacher was called Miss Honey.
 3. She could not have been more than
    twenty-three or twenty-four.
 4. Miss Jennifer Honey never raised her voice.
 5. She seldom smiled.
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Mood: Subject + Finite

1. She seemed to understand totally the
   bewilderment and fear of the children.
2. It intrigued her that a five-year old child was
   reading long novels by Dickens.
3. Miss Trunchbull always marched like a storm-
   trooper.
4. There was an aura of menace about her.
5. Thank goodness, we don't meet many people
   like her in this world.
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Mood: Subject + Finite

 Elements outside the Mood + Residue
  structure
 vocatives (interpersonal)
 expletives (interpersonal)
 conjunctive adjuncts (textual)
 conjunctions (textual)



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Mood structures in
interrogatives
 yes/no interrogatives are marked by the
  order Finite^Subject and ask the listener to
  specify the polarity of the message
 wh-interrogatives ask the listener to fill in a
  missing part of the message, marked by a wh-
  element.
 the wh-element always combines with
  another function (participant or circumstance)
  and is normally placed in thematic position
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 Mood structures in
interrogatives
 when he wh-element combines with the
  function of Subject, we have the order
  Subject^Finite, and the wh-element is part of
  the Mood.
 when the wh-element combines with a
  complement or adjunct, we have the order
  Finite^Subject, and the wh-element is part of
  the Residue.

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Mood structure in imperatives

 unmarked imperatives have no Mood element
  (e.g. Listen to me)
 imperative with Finite: Do listen! Don't listen to
  them.
 imperative with Subject: You listen to me!




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Mood structure in imperatives

 imperative with Subject and Finite: Don't you
  argue with me!
 let's as a kind of Subject: Let's talk about it.
  Don't let's argue about it!
 imperatives with Mood tags: Listen to me, will
  you. Let's go for a walk, shall we? Don't listen to
  them, will you? (Compare: Sit down, won't you)


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Modal adjuncts

 Modal and conjunctive adjuncts ‘construct a
  context for the clause’ (Halliday p. 84)
 Modal adjuncts correspond roughly to 'disjunct'
  in grammar, with the addition of adjuncts
  marking frequency/usuality, e.g. often, usually,
  occasionally)




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Mood adjuncts

 Mood adjuncts express
 temporal relationships (e.g. yet, already, still)
 polarity (e.g. yes, no, not)
 modality
 probability (e.g. definitely, maybe)
 usuality (e.g. never, always, sometimes)
 inclination / obligation (e.g. gladly, reluctantly)

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Comment adjuncts

 Comment adjuncts express
 the speaker’s attitude to the proposition as a
  whole, viz. opinion, admission, persuasion,
  entreaty, presumption, desirability,
  reservation, validation, evaluation, prediction.
  (See Halliday p 49)
 Examples: frankly, unfortunately, actually, to
  be honest

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 Analysis

 Fortunately, although only a few years ago they held the
  student at arm’s length, today the business houses
  welcome the opportunity to aid the student, not only from
  an increased sense of community responsibility but also
  from the realization that the student of today is the
  interior designer of tomorrow – that the student already is
  "in the trade". Even the "history of furniture" can hardly be
  taught exclusively from photographs and lantern slides.
  Here, too, the reality of actual furniture must be
  experienced.


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Analysis

 The professional organizations such as American Institute
  of Interior Designers, National Society of Interior Designers,
  Home Fashions League and various trade associations, can
  and do aid greatly in this work. Certainly every educator
  involved in interior design should be a member and active
  in the work of one of these organizations. Not only should
  every educator above the rank of instructor be expected to
  be a member of one of the professional organizations, but
  his first qualification for membership as an educator should
  be so sharply scrutinized that membership would be
  equivalent to certification to teach the subject.


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Analysis

 Participation for the educator in this case,
  however, would have to be raised to full and
  complete membership. The largest of these
  organizations at present denies to the full
  time educator any vote on the conduct and
  standards of the group and, indeed, refuses
  him even the right to attach the customary
  initials after his name in the college catalog.

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End of Lecture 6


   Thank you for your attention




                        2012/8/12   28

				
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