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					Abnormal Psychology

Ch. 13: Personality Disorders
        Personality Disorders
• Def.: overly rigid patterns of:
  – Behavior
  – Ways of relating to others
  – Leads to distress and/or functional impairment
  – Onset: usually during adolescence or early
    adulthood
  – Chronic; stable over time
          Cluster A Disorders
• Includes:
  – Paranoid personality disorder
  – Schizoid personality disorder
  – Schizotypal personality disorder
• Characterized by odd/eccentric behaviors:
  – Problems relating to others
  – Little/no interest in developing relationships
    with others
  Paranoid Personality Disorder
• Characterized by a pattern of distrust and
  suspiciousness toward other’s and their
  motives (predominantly a male affliction)
  Paranoid Personality Disorder
• People with this disorder:
  – Are reluctant to confide in or become close to
    others
     • Why?
  – Read demeaning/threatening meanings into
    benign remarks, events, gestures, etc.
  – Often misinterpret compliments
  – View offers of help as criticism
  Paranoid Personality Disorder
• People with this disorder (cont.)
  – Bear grudges
  – May be pathologically jealous
  – Are able to maintain few relationships
• These people aren’t likely to seek
  professional help
  Schizoid Personality Disorder
• Essential features:
  – Detachment from social relationships
  – Flattened affect (not as severe as in
    schizophrenia)
  Schizoid Personality Disorder
• Individuals with schizoid personality:
  – Appear to lack a desire for intimacy
     • Seem indifferent to developing close relationships
  – Appear to be socially isolated (loners)
     • Generally choose activities/hobbies that they can
       partake in alone
Schizoid Personality Disorder
– Generally have no close friends/confidants
– May have little interest in having sexual
  relations
– Are indifferent to what others think of them and
  to the criticism/approval of others
– Are emotionally “bland”
Schizoid Personality Disorder
– Have difficulty expressing anger, even when
  provoked
   • React passively to adverse circumstances
– Usually respond inappropriately to important
  life events
– Occupationally, generally work better when
  their job is one where they are socially isolated
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
• May be a very mild form of schizophrenia
• Pattern of social and interpersonal deficits
  marked by
  – Acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity
    for, close relationships
  – Cognitive/perceptual distortions-presence/dead
  – Eccentricities of behavior (mannerisms,
    suspicious, etc.)
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
• Individuals with schizotypal personality
  disorder:
  – May have “ideas of reference”
  – May believe they have special powers to sense
    events before they happen; read people’s
    minds
  – May believe they can magically control others
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
 – Are often suspicious; display paranoid ideation
   (e.g.: others are undermining them at work)
 – Usually don’t display a full range of emotions
   (makes having social/intimate relationships
   difficult)
 – Usually feel they “are different/don’t fit in”
           Cluster B Disorders
• Includes:
  –   Antisocial personality disorder
  –   Borderline personality disorder
  –   Histrionic personality disorder
  –   Narcissistic personality disorder
• Characterized by excessive, unpredictable
  or self-centered behavioral patterns
• Difficulty forming/maintaining relationships
 Antisocial Personality Disorder
             (APD)
• Pattern of disregard for, and violation of,
  the rights of others
  – Central features: deceit and manipulation
• Perhaps the most serious mental disorder
• In the past, people with this disorder were
  referred to as psychopaths or sociopaths
 Antisocial Personality Disorder
             (APD)
• For a diagnosis to be given, a person must:
  – Be at least 18-years-old
  – Displayed symptoms of conduct disorder prior
    to age 15. Symptoms of CD include:
     •   Aggression to people and animals
     •   Destruction of property
     •   Deceitfulness or theft
     •   Serious violation of rules
 Antisocial Personality Disorder
             (APD)
• Individuals with APD:
  – May repeatedly perform deviant acts that may
    result in arrest:
     •   Destroying property
     •   Harassing others
     •   Stealing
     •   Pursue illegal occupations
Antisocial Personality Disorder
            (APD)
– Disregard others wishes, rights or feelings
– Frequently deceitful or manipulative in order to
  gain personal profit or pleasure
– They may repeatedly:
   •   Lie
   •   Use an alias
   •   Con others
   •   Malinger
 Antisocial Personality Disorder
             (APD)
• They are egocentric
  – Think only of themselves
  – Are insensitive to others, even family members
• Lack a conscience: seemingly do not have
  the ability to feel
  – Guilt
  – Anxiety
  – Remorse
 Antisocial Personality Disorder
             (APD)
• They are impulsive and can be ruthless and
  aggressive:
  – Do not consider consequences of actions
• Demonstrate superficial charm:
  – Can read people’s weaknesses and needs;
    manipulate the person to get what they want
 Antisocial Personality Disorder
             (APD)
• They tend to be irritable and aggressive
  – May repeatedly get into fights/commit acts of
    physical assault (e.g.: spousal/child beating)
• Tend to be consistently and extremely
  irresponsible
• They tend to rationalize their behavior:
  – They deserved what I did to them, they are
    stupid, that’s how life is sometimes, etc.
 Borderline Personality Disorder
             (BPD)
• Pattern of unstable
  – Relationships
  – Emotions
  – Self-image
• Act impulsively
• Diagnosed primarily in females (75% of
  cases)
 Borderline Personality Disorder
             (BPD)
• Individuals with BPD:
• Fear abandonment (real or imagined)
  – Abandonment = they are bad
  – Separation/rejection can lead to changes in self-
    image, behavior, cognition and affect
     • Stems from an intolerance of being alone and a need
       to be with others
  – Efforts to avoid abandonment include self-
    mutilation and threats of suicide
 Borderline Personality Disorder
             (BPD)
• Pattern of unstable/intense relationships:
  – May fall in love during first or second date
  – Expect to spend almost all their time together
  – Mood shifts from ideation to devaluing if
     • They believe the other person doesn’t care about
       them
     • They believe the other person is neglecting the
       relationship
 Borderline Personality Disorder
             (BPD)
• Often display an unstable self-image (sense
  of being bad/evil)
• Are often impulsive and may have sudden
  changes in
  –   Opinions
  –   Sexual identity
  –   Values
  –   Friends
 Borderline Personality Disorder
             (BPD)
• They may be needy or act on own to avenge
  past injustices (perceived or real)
• Display suicidal/self-mutilating behaviors
  – Suicide occurs in 8-10% of BPD population
  – Suicide attempts and self-mutilating behaviors
    (e.g.: cutting or burning oneself) are common
 Borderline Personality Disorder
             (BPD)
• Often demonstrate inappropriate, intense
  anger/difficulty controlling their anger.
  – Anger is elicited when another is seen as
    uncaring, neglectful, withholding or leaving
     • Extreme sarcasm
     • Long-lasting bitterness
     • Verbal outbursts
 Borderline Personality Disorder
             (BPD)
• BPD individuals tend to have childhood
  histories of
  – Physical and sexual abuse
  – Neglect
  – Early parental loss or separation
 Histrionic Personality Disorder
             (HPD)
• Essential features: excessive emotions and
  attention-seeking behavior
• Feel uncomfortable or unappreciated if they
  aren’t the center of attention:
  – If not the center of attention, will do something
    to draw attention to themselves
 Histrionic Personality Disorder
             (HPD)
• Their appearance/behavior is often sexually
  provocative/seductive and occurs in a
  variety of contexts:
  – Social
  – Professional
  – Occupational
 Histrionic Personality Disorder
             (HPD)
• Tend to have strong opinions
  – But no facts or details to support their opinions
• They tend to be overly dramatic and display
  exaggerated emotions (appear to be faking)
  – Anger easily
  – Cry easily
  – Hug/kiss people they barely know
 Histrionic Personality Disorder
• Individuals with HPD are highly suggestible
  – Opinions easily influenced by people or fads
  – Adopt beliefs quickly
  – Tend to believe relationships are more intimate
    than they really are
 Histrionic Personality Disorder
• Interpersonal relationship issues:
  – Unconsciously attempt to control a relationship
    via seduction/manipulation while also being
    very dependent/needy
  – Same-sex friendships often suffer
  – May alienate friends because of constant
    attention-seeking behaviors
  – Intimate relationships suffer – need excitement
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
              (NPD)
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VIoGt
  x6k80k
• Pattern of behavior characterized by
  – Inflated (grandiose) sense of self
  – Need for admiration
  – Lack of empathy
• 50-75% are male
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
              (NPD)
• Inflated sense of self:
  – Believe themselves to be very important
  – Overestimate their abilities
  – Inflate their accomplishments; underestimate
    the contribution of others
  – Assume others see them as being important
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
              (NPD)
• Believe they are superior, special or unique
  and expect others to treat them as such
  – Believe they should only associate with people
    of similar attributes
     • As a result of the above, they may attribute special
       characteristics to their associates
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
              (NPD)
• Form friendships/relationships if it serves
  their purpose or enhances their self-esteem
• They require excessive admiration; self-
  esteem is generally quite fragile
  – Expect to be catered to
     • May become puzzled or furious if not given “proper
       attention” and feel others should defer to them
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
              (NPD)
• Generally lack empathy
  – Often show contempt or are impatient when
    others talk about their own problems/concerns
• Have difficulty with interpersonal
  relationships because of
  – Entitlement issues (e.g.: sex is for their
    pleasure)
  – Constant need for admiration
         Cluster C Disorders
• Characterized by anxious and or fearful
  behaviors
• Includes:
  – Avoidant personality disorder
  – Dependent personality disorder
  – Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
  Avoidant Personality Disorder
             (APD)
• Characteristics:
  – Social inhibition
  – Feelings of inadequacy
  – Extremely oversensitive to criticism of any kind
• Equally frequent in males and females
  Avoidant Personality Disorder
             (APD)
• Typically avoid situations that involve
  interpersonal contact because of fears of
  – Criticism
  – Disapproval of others
  – Rejections
• Until otherwise proven, people are
  considered to be critical and disapproving
  Avoidant Personality Disorder
             (APD)
• They:
  – Act with restraint
  – Have difficulty talking about themselves
  – Withhold intimate feelings for fear of being
    exposed, ridiculed or shamed
  – Won’t make friends unless they are sure they’ll
    be accepted
• Tend to by quiet, shy, inhibited & invisible
  Avoidant Personality Disorder
             (APD)
• They tend to view themselves as being
  – Socially inept
  – Personally unappealing
  – Inferior to others
• May feel that no matter what they do, it will
  be wrong
  – Fear new situations because they feel
    inadequate and have low self-esteem
 Dependent Personality Disorder
            (DPD)
• Characteristics: an excessive need to be
  cared for  submissive, clingy behavior
  and fear of separation
• Most frequently reported personality
  disorder
  – More frequent in females
 Dependent Personality Disorder
            (DPD)
• Individuals with DPD may:
  – Have great difficulty making decisions, at any
    level
  – Allow others to make choices for important
    areas of their life
 Dependent Personality Disorder
            (DPD)
• Because they are afraid of losing the
  support of others, these individuals
  –   Rarely disagree with others
  –   Agree with things they believe to be wrong
  –   Do not demonstrate appropriate anger
  –   Submit to others wants, even if unreasonable
  –   May tolerate verbal, physical or sexual abuse
 Dependent Personality Disorder
            (DPD)
• When a close relationship ends (support is
  gone), these individuals
  – Quickly find another to whom they attach
    themselves
• Bottom line:
  – Are pessimistic, full of self-doubt, belittle their
    abilities and tend to view themselves as being
    “stupid”
      Obsessive-Compulsive
   Personality Disorder (OCPD)
• Characterized by a preoccupation with
  – Orderliness
  – Perfectionism
  – Mental and interpersonal control
• Sacrifice openness, flexibility and
  efficiency
• Diagnosed twice as often in males
     Obsessive-Compulsive
  Personality Disorder (OCPD)
• Individuals with OCPD attempt to maintain
  control through strict attention to:
  –   Rules
  –   Trivial details
  –   Procedures
  –   Lists
  –   Schedules
      Obsessive-Compulsive
   Personality Disorder (OCPD)
• Highly devoted to work and productivity
• Reluctant to work with others or to delegate
  – If they do delegate, they give detailed
    instruction on what to do
  – Are surprised/irritated if someone
     • Offers alternatives
     • Doesn’t follow instructions exactly
     Obsessive-Compulsive
  Personality Disorder (OCPD)
Put an emphasis on perfection
  – E.g.: Bed sheets have to be folded just right
• Have a tendency to be inflexible in regard
  to morality, ethics and values
  – May attempt to force others to follow their rigid
    moral principles
  – Insist on literal compliance
     • No consideration of extenuating circumstances
      Theoretical Perspectives
• Psychodynamic theory: behaviors are result
  of
  – Problems in “self” development during
    childhood
     • Lack of praise/attention  narcissistic personality
  – If, during the oedipal complex, the superego
    doesn’t form  antisocial behavior
  – Failure in childhood to understand self and
    others have good and bad within BPD
      Theoretical Perspectives
• Learning:
  – Characteristics are learned via observation
  – Overly harsh parenting  obsession to do
    things “right”  OCPD
• Family perspective
     • “Do what I say” style  dependent personality
     • Abuse, neglect, lack of nurturing  BPD & APD
      Theoretical Perspectives
• Biological: genetic contribution
     • Esp. for APD, Schizotypal and BPD
  – People with APD
     • Seem to have less physical response to anxiety
     • May have a higher need for stimulation in order to
       function well
  – People with APD and BPD
     • Dysfunction in brain regions controlling impulsive
       aggressive behavior and emotional control

				
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posted:8/12/2012
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