09_Lithography.ppt - ITRS

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					Highlights of 2004 updates and plans
for 2005 updates to the Lithography
         chapter of the ITRS

    Lithography International Technical
             Working Group
                April, 2005


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               DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION   12-13 April 2005 – ITRS Public Conference
Lithography ITWG Chair persons and Co-chair persons
                 for 2004 and 2005



Region        Chairmen                                         Co-Chairmen
Taiwan        Burn J. Lin                                       G. C. Hung
 Japan    Masaomi Kameyama                                     Isamu Hanyu
 Korea       Han-Ku Cho
Europe      Mauro Vasconi                            Jan-Willem Gemmink
  USA        Scott Hector                              Maureen Hanratty




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                   DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION   12-13 April 2005 – ITRS Public Conference
    Summary of 2004 Lithography
        Chapter Updates
• Defined more specific criteria for
  evaluating near-term potential solutions
• Stronger emphasis on difficult
  challenges related to immersion
  lithography
• Continued emphasis on challenges for
  implementing cost-effective post-optical
  lithography solutions

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               DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION   12-13 April 2005 – ITRS Public Conference
Changes to Lithography Table Values in 2004

• CD control (total CD control)
   – US and Japan TWG studies concluded that <4nm 3s CD
     control has no known solutions
   – CD control will remain red for the present and future nodes
   – Printed gate length in resist values will be re-evaluated in 2005
• Changes to coloring, footnotes, etc.
   – Definition of overlay in overall lithography requirements Tables
     77a and 77b
   – Mask table values updated
   – Resist table values updated




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                         DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION   12-13 April 2005 – ITRS Public Conference
   More specific criteria for potential
               solutions
• All infrastructure (masks, tools, resist,…) needs to be
  in place to meet the ramp for the specified node
• Technology must be planned to be used by IC
  makers in at least two geographical regions
   – For N+3 and later nodes with black coloring, the requirement
     to have more than one region support is not applicable
• Technology should be targeting leading edge critical
  layer needs
• Consideration (not a requirement): 100 tools
  worldwide over the life of that tool generation



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                       DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION   12-13 April 2005 – ITRS Public Conference
Lithography Potential       2004 2007 2010 2013 2016 2019
                      Lithography hp45 hp32 hp22 hp16
            2004Update hp90 hp65exposure tool potential
Solutions in 2004 Node
           Technology

       Technology Options at Technology Nodes
                                                                                    solutions
                                                90 193 nm
                                                                                               DRAM Half-pitch
                                                   193nm + LFD                                  (dense lines)
                                                65 193nm immersion                                                              RET = Resolution
               (DRAM Half-Pitch, nm)



                                                   PEL                                                                          enhancement
                                                    193nm immersion + LFD                                                       technology
                                                45 EUV                                                                          LFD = Lithography
                                                    ML2, 157nm immersion, PEL                                                   friendly design rules
                                                    EUV                                                                         ML2 = Maskless
                                                    193nm immersion + LFD
                                                32 157nm immersion + LFD, ML2                                                   lithography
                                                    Imprint
                                                   EUV
                                                   Innovative 157nm or 193 nm immersion
                                                22 ML2
                                                   Imprint, innovative technology                                                                            Unofficial version
                                                   Innovative technology                                                                                     of Figure 34; Not
                                                16
                                                     ML2, EUV + RET, imprint                                                                                 for publication

                                                Research            Development                 Qualification/                   Continuous
                                                Required            Underway                    Pre-Production                   Improvement
 Notes: EPL is a potential solution at the 65, 45 and 32-nm nodes for one geographical region, and PEL is
 a potential solution at the 32-nm node for one geographical region. RET will be used with all optical
 lithography solutions, including with immersion; therefore, it is not explicitly noted.

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                                                                               DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION   12-13 April 2005 – ITRS Public Conference
                   History of ITRS Litho Potential Solutions

              KrF+PSM
                      2001 Edition                      2003 Edition                               2004 Update
  140
                                                                                                                                   130@2001
  120               ArF+PSM
  100
   90                                                                                                                                   90@2004




                                                       ArF+RET+LFD+Immersion




                                                                                                      ArF +LFD+Immersion
                          F2+PSM

   80




                                                                                                         F
   70




                                                                                                          2+ LFD+Immersion Innovative
      65@2007




                                                             F2+RET+LFD+Immersion
                                IPL
                                PXL
                                PEL

   60




                                                               PEL




                                                                                                      PEL
    50
         45@2010
                                  EUV
                                  ML2
                                  EPL




                                                                                                  EPL
                                                                    EPL
    40




                                                                                                                       EUV
                                                                       EUV




                                                                                                                                  ML2
                                                                       ML2




                                                                                                                       PEL
         32@2013
    30


                                                                           Imprint




                                                                                                                                     Imprint
                                                                                                                           Immersion
                                                                                +RET




                                                                                                                                 +RET
         22@2016
                                          Innovation




                                                                                   Innovation




                                                                                                                                           Innovation
    20
Source: Kameyama, Nikon

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                                      DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION       12-13 April 2005 – ITRS Public Conference
      Difficult Challenges - Short Term (1)

 Five difficult                          Summary of issues
challenges  50
nm before 2009.
Optical masks with    Registration, CD control, defect control for
 features for           optical masks
 resolution           Development of defect free multi-layer EUV
 enhancement and        substrates or EPL membrane masks
 post-optical mask    Equipment infrastructure (writers, inspection,
 fabrication            repair)
                      Data volume

Cost control and      Achieving constant/improved ratio of exposure
 return-on-             related tool cost to throughput over time
 investment (ROI)     Cost-effective resolution enhanced optical masks
                        and post-optical masks.
                      Sufficient lifetime for exposure tool technologies

                      Resources for developing multiple technologies
                        at the same time.
                      ROI for small volume products




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                           DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION   12-13 April 2005 – ITRS Public Conference
    Difficult Challenges - Short Term (2)
 Five difficult                           Summary of issues
challenges  50
nm before 2009.
Process control      Processes to control gate CDs to less than 4 nm
                       3s
                     New and improved alignment and overlay
                       control methods independent of technology
                       option to  19 nm overlay
                     Accuracy of OPC, especially in presence of
                       polarization effects
                     Control of flare in exposure tool

                     Lithography friendly design and design for
                       manufacturing
Resists for 193nm    Outgassing and leaching during immersion,
 and 193nm             LER, SEM induced CD changes, defects  30
 immersion             nm.
 lithography         Resists with high index

Defect control       Control of defects caused in immersion
                       environment

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                         DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION   12-13 April 2005 – ITRS Public Conference
       Difficult Challenges - Long Term (1)
   Five difficult                               Summary of issues
challenges 45 nm
  beyond 2010.
Mask fabrication and       Defect-free  NGL masks, especially for 1X masks for
 process control              imprint and EUVL mask blanks free of printable
                              defects.
                           Timeliness and capability of equipment infrastructure
                              (writers, inspection, repair), especially for 1X masks.
                           Mask process control methods and yield
                              enhancement.
                           Pellicles for 157nm immersion and protection of EUV
                              masks from defects without pellicles
Metrology and defect       Resolution and precision for critical dimension
 inspection                   measurement down to 7 nm, including line width
                              roughness metrology for 2.2nm 3sigma.
                           Metrology for overlay down to 7.2 nm
                           Defect inspection for patterned wafers for defects <
                              30 nm.
Cost control and return    Achieving constant/improved ratio of exposure related
 on investment (ROI)          tool cost to throughput.
                           Development of cost-effective optical and NGL masks.
                           Achieving ROI for industry with sufficient lifetimes for
                              the technologies and for small volume products.

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                            DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION   12-13 April 2005 – ITRS Public Conference
       Difficult Challenges - Long Term (2)
   Five difficult                               Summary of issues
challenges 45 nm
  beyond 2010.
Gate CD control               Development   of processes to control gate CD <
 improvements; process           4 nm (3 sigma) with appropriate line width
 control; resist materials       roughness.
                              Development of new and improved alignment and
                                 overlay control methods independent of
                                 technology option to < 7.2 nm overlay, especially
                                 for nanoimprint.
                              Process control and design for low k1 optical
                                 lithography
                              Resists including high index, high index fluids
                                 and high index optical materials to extend optical
                                 immersion to its limits
                              Limits of chemically amplified resist sensitivity for
                                 <50-nm linewidths due to acid diffusion length
Tools for mass                Optical and NGL exposure tools capable of
 production                      meeting requirements of the ITRS
                              High output, cost-effective EUV light sources
                              CaF2 cost, yield and quantity for 157nm immersion




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                              DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION   12-13 April 2005 – ITRS Public Conference
    Highlights of Plans for 2005 Lithography Update
• Developed plan to determine effect of CD variability on device
  performance with Design, PIDS and FEP and to consider increasing
  CD tolerance to >10%
• Agreed with FEP TWG on larger printed CD in resist
     – 1.6667physical gate length and 75%/25% variance allocation for
       lithography and etch, respectively
• Propose to increase bias between size in resist and after etch for
  contacts
• Propose definition of LWR and LER with Metrology TWG
     – Definition accounts for metrology, transistor and interconnect
       performance
•   Propose to tighten overlay tolerances
•   Propose to add lithographic tool field width and length into Table 77
•   Update of potential solutions
•   Update of colors and values in mask and resist tables
                                                                        Proposal only; Not for publication

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                              DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION   12-13 April 2005 – ITRS Public Conference
 Probable 2005 updates to the chapter test


• Table showing progression of low k1 methods
• DFM section to complement Design content
• Automatic Process Control (APC) detail in
  chapter
• Cost of ownership factors and throughput
  factors described in text
Proposal only; Not for publication




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                                     DRAFT – Work In Progress - NOT FOR PUBLICATION   12-13 April 2005 – ITRS Public Conference

				
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