Unit 13 Adjectives and Adverbs

					    Unit 13: Adjectives and Adverbs
•   The different functions of adjectives and adverbs
•   Adjectives are used to modify nouns, pronouns,
•   There is a large tree in front of the church.
•   The students are nervous.
•   In the first sentence, the adjective large is used
    to modify the tree, and in the second sentence,
    the adjective nervous is used to modify the
    students.
• Adverbs are used to modify verbs,
  adjectives and adverbs themselves.
• The children are playing happily in the
  playground.
• It has been extremely cold recently.
• The taxi driver is driving very quickly on
  the freeway.
• In the first sentence,
• the adverb happily is used to modify the
  verb playing.
• In the second example,
• the adverb extremely is used to modify the
  adjective cold.
• In the third sentence, the adverb very is
  used to modify the adverb quickly.
           Forming of Adverbs
• a) Most adverbs are formed by simply adding ly to the
  adjectives.
• Examples: warm→warmly correct→correctly ,
• b) When adjectives end in ic, the syllable al is usually
  added before the ly ending.
  Examples: dramatic dramatically
• c) When adjectives ends in y preceded by a consonant,
•    the y is changed to i and ly is added.
• Example: busy→busily happy→happily
• d) Adjectives end in le preceded by a consonant, change
  the final e into ly.
• Examples: favorable→favorably simple→simply
               A- Adjectives

• The most common of the so-called a- adjectives
  are afraid, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep,
  awake, aware. These adjectives will primarily
  show up as predicate adjectives (i.e., they come
  after a linking verb).
• The children were ashamed.
• The professor remained aloof.
• He was so tired that he soon fell asleep.
Adverbs which do not use the
         ending ly

  adjective   Adverb   adjective   adverb
  fast        fast     early       early
  hard        hard     straight    straight
  far         far      near        near
  late        late     high        high
  low         low      long        long
  Adverbs are closely related, but
     have different meanings
hard     Study hard or you will be failed.

hardly   It hardly rains in winter in southern Taiwan.

late     His wife looked at him angrily because he came back late again.

lately   I haven’t seen you lately. How have you been?

near     The thief held his breath when the police walked near.

nearly   I have nearly finished reading the novel.

high     The audience threw their hats high in the air.

highly   I highly recommend this brand of shampoo.
        Unit 14: Linking Verb

• A linking verb is a verb that links the
  subject of the sentence to information
  about that subject.
• Linking verbs must be followed by a
  complement in order to make the sentence
  complete.
  Both of my parents are English teachers.
  Joe is smart; he always does well on tests.
Linking Verbs are listed in the
       following chart:

    be     become   feel    grow



    look   remain   smell   seem



   sound   appear   taste   stay
 Linking Verbs Or Action Verbs
• When a verb is followed by a direct object, it is
  an action verb.
• When it is followed by a predicate adjective or
  noun, it is a linking verb.
• Linking:
•      Your answers did not appear to be
•      correct.
• Action:
•      The superstar appeared on the show and
•      talked about his new movie.
  How can we tell when verbs are
   action verbs or linking verbs?
• If we can substitute the “be” verb for the
   verb and the sentence is still logical, the
   verb is a linking verb.
 If the sentence makes no sense after being
   replaced by the “be” verb, it is an action
   verb.
• The people’s mood turned angry.
• In this sentence, “turned” can be replaced by
  “was”; therefore, “turned” is a linking verb. “The”
  adjective “angry” is used to modify the linking
  verb “turned”.
• The students turned the pages quickly.
• In this sentence, “turned” can not be replaced by
  “was”; therefore, “turned” is an action verb. The
  adverb “quickly” is used to modify the action
  verb “turned”.
• Linking verbs: Verbs should be modified
  by adverbs. But the linking verbs have to
  be modified by predicate adjectives.
• The soup smells strange but tastes good.
• The music sounds great.
 Unit15: Adjective with -ing or ed
              form
• A verb with an-ing form is called present
  participle. It conveys an active meaning and
  modifies things. A verb with an –ed form is
  called past participle. It conveys a passive
  meaning and modifies people.
• Example: Math always confuses me. ( a verb).
• I am always confused at math. ( a past participle)
• Math is a confusing subject for me. (a present
  participle)
        Unit 16: Adjectives with Prepositions

•   be afraid of:
•   My mother-in-law is afraid of taking an airplane.
•   angry with:
•   Don’t be angry with me for not having finished homework.
•   annoyed with:
•   His mother was annoyed with him for being so rude to his teacher.
•   busy with:
•   Sue is busy with her project.
•   cruel to:
•   The old man is cruel to animals.
•   famous for:
•   Chinese are famous for their hardworking and diligent.
•   fond of:
•   John is fond of children. He enjoys teaching in an elementary school.
•   full of:
•   The living room is full of guests.
•   interested in:
•   Mr. Smith is interested in collecting stamps.
•   keen on:
•   He is keen on chess. He has learned to play the chess since he was
    four.
•   pleased with:
•   We are pleased with our new house.
•   proud of:
•   I am proud of being a member of the class.
•   be used to:
•   Anne is used to studying in the early morning.
•   sick of:
•   I am sick of doing the laundry every day.
•   accused of:
•   The shopkeeper accused him of stealing his money.
•   anxious about:
•   The police are anxious about her safety.
•   content with:
•   I am content with my life.
•   disappointed at:
•   We are disappointed at the results.
•   excited about:
•   She is excited about wining the first prize.
•   familiar with:
•   Joan is getting familiar with the new job.
•   jealous of:
•   The employees are jealous of his success.
•   qualified for:
•   You are certainly qualified for the position.
•   satisfied with:
•   Joe’s parents are satisfied with his performance.
•   tired of:
•   I am tired of doing the same job every day.
•   worried about:
•   We are worried about Father’s health.
       Unit 17: Comparative &
             Superlative
• When we talk about two things, we can make a
  comparison between them. We can see if they
  are the same or different. We use comparative
  adjectives to describe the differences. When we
  compare more than two things, we often use the
  superlative forms.
The forming of comparative and superlative:

• Most comparative form of adjectives is
  formed with the ending er and superlative
  form is formed with the ending of est+ the
• fast faster    the faster
• quick quicker the quickest
• When an adjective ends in a silent e, -r is
  added for the comparative form and –st+
  the is add for superlative form.
• wide wider the widest
• close closer the closest
• When an adjective ends in y preceded by
  a consonant, the y is changed to i before
  the ending -er is added to form the
  comparative and –est + the is added for
  the superlative form.
• busy busier the busiest
• happy happier the happiest
• When an adjective ends in a single
  consonant except for w, x or y, following a
  single stressed vowel, the final consonant
  is doubled before the ending er or est is
  added. For example:
• fat fatter the fattest
• thin thinner the thinnest
Some adjectives have irregular comparative forms.
    Their comparative forms are as follows

adjective       Comparative         superlative

many            more                most

much            more                most

good            better              best

well            better              best

bad             worse               worst

ill             worse               worst

  little         less               least

  late           late, latter       latest

  far            farther, further   farthest, furthest
              Unit 18: Gerunds

• Gerunds are the –ing form of verbs used as a noun.
  Sometime they are used as subjects and sometimes
  used as objects.
• Having good study habits is important for students.
• My son practices playing piano every day.
• In the first sentence, having good study habits is a
  gerund and used as a subject. As a subject, the gerund
  is always singular and has to be followed by the third-
  person-singular form of the verb.
• In the second sentence, playing is used as the object of
  the verb practice.
Words that have to be followed by gerunds:

admit       avoid      can’t help   celebrate


delay       deny       discuss      dislike


enjoy       explain    feel like    finish


imagine     keep       mind         miss


postpone    practice   prohibit     quit


recommend   regret     report       resist
• The Prepositions are followed by the
  gerund:
  My father gave up smoking two years ago.
• Ben is thinking of studying abroad after
  graduation.
• My parents are used to going mountain
  climbing on Saturday.
• We are looking forward to serving you
  again.
     go is followed by the gerund
•   go fishing
•   go camping
•   go snorkeling
•   go shopping
•   go canoeing
•   go hiking
• We also use ing after the following words:
• see, hear, watch, notice, observe, smell, listen to,
  find, feel, look at,
• I saw John crossing the road.
• I saw John cross the road.
• I heard someone playing the piano in the
  classroom.
• I heard someone play the piano in the classroom.
• The police found a homeless lying on the
  sidewalk.
• The police found a homeless lay on the sidewalk.
             Unit 19: Infinitive
• An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to
  plus a verb and functioning as a noun, adjective,
  or adverb. The infinitive may function as a
  subject, direct object, subject complement,
  adjective, or adverb in a sentence.
• Everyone wants to go to the party. (object)
• His ambition is to fly an airplane. (subject
  complement)
• We must study to learn. (adverb)
• In the negative sentence, the negative
  word “not” precedes the infinitive.

• My parents tell me not to swim in the rivers.
• The teacher told us not to cheat on tests.
Verbs that take infinitive objects
       without pronoun:
 afford   decide    learn     plan


 agree    expect   mean      prepare


  ask      fail    need      pretend


attempt   hope      offer    refuse


choose    intend    plan      want
 Verbs that take infinitive objects with
              pronouns:


 advise     force     permit     tell


  allow     help     persuade    want

   ask      hire     promise     warn

 choose     invite    remind    expect

encourage   need      require   teach
• Carol called her husband and reminded
  him to buy some eggs on his way home.
  Their teacher advised them to study
  harder.
  I invite you to come to my grandmother
  anniversary.
Verbs can be followed either by an infinitive or
      a gerund with the same meaning




    love     like       hate        continue


   begin     hate    can’t stand    continue
Verbs can be followed by either an infinitive
    or a gerund with different meaning
          forget:
          forget +ing: forget something that happened
          in the past
          I forgot mailing the letter.
          I mailed the letter but afterwards I didn’t
          remember.
          forget:
          forget + to: forget to do a duty or something
          I forgot to mail the letter.
          I planned to mail the letter but I didn’t
• stop:
• stop + ing: stopping doing something
• The doctor asked Mr. Green to stop smoking. (Not to
  smoke anymore)
• stop + to: stopping doing one thing to do another thing
• Those workers must stop to take a rest. (Stop work in
  order to take a rest)
• regret+ing: regret something that happened in the past
• I regretted telling her the truth. She decided to break up
  with me.
• regret+ed: to inform someone of a piece of bad news
• I regret to tell you that your father died in that serious car
  accident.
      Unit 20: Causative Verbs

• Causative verbs show that somebody/something
  is indirectly responsible for an action.
• The subject doesn't perform the action itself, but
  causes someone/something else to do it instead.
• Causative verbs include have, let, make, and get
• Have: have + person + verb word
  * have + thing + participle
• I had my toilet fixed this morning.
• I had a plumber fix the toilet this morning.
• Get: get + person + to + verb word
    get + thing + participle
• Mrs. Green got the kids to mow the lawn.
• Mrs. Green got the lawn mowed.
• Make : make + person + verb word
     make + thing + verb word
• I make this CD player work.
• I can make your son work part time on
  weekends.
• Let: let + person + verb word
     let + thing + verb word
• You should let the students take a break.
• Would you let me use your car?
• Help: help + person + verb
• Tom has to help his father grow the corn on
  the farm.
       Unit 22: Passive Voice

• The passive voice is used when focusing
  on the person or thing affected by an
  action and is formed: Passive Subject +
  To Be + Past participle. The passive voice
  is especially used in scientific report,
  where the actor is not really important but
  the process or principle being described is
  of ultimate importance.
  The formation of passive voice
Active Voice                      Passive Voice

I write a letter every week.      A letter is written every week.

I am writing a letter now.        A letter is being written.

I wrote a letter yesterday.       A letter was written yesterday.

I will write a letter tomorrow.   A letter will be written tomorrow.

I have written a letter for two
                                  A letter has been written for two hours.
    hours.
I should write a letter to
                                  A letter should be written to Charlotte.
    Charlotte.
      Unit 23: Indirect Speech

• Direct speech states the exact words that
  a speaker used. When we write a direct
  speech, put quotation marks before and
  after the speech we are quoting.
 (A) The simple present becomes
          the simple past
Direct Speech                       Indirect Speech
“The bread is for you,” She said.   She said the bread was for me.
                                    She told me that the bread was
                                     for me.

“ I like your new haircut,” She     She said she liked my new
     told me.                       haircut.
                                    She told me she liked my new
                                    haircut.
“ I only buy shoes on sale,”        She said she only bought shoes
    Nancy said.                     on sales.
                                    She said she only bought shoes
                                     on sales.

“A storm is coming” May said.       May said a storm was coming.
       (B) The simple past becomes the past perfect

Direct Speech                         Indirect Speech



“I found your key,” my husband        My husband said he had found my
said.                                 key.


“ I bought a new blouse,” She said.   She said she had bought a new
                                       blouse


“ I was late this morning” He said.   He said he had been late this
                                      morning.
(C) We do not change the tense
 when talking about a general
            truth
   (C) We do not change the tense when
        talking about a general truth
Direct Speech                     Indirect Speech


Ann: I swim every day.            Ann says she swims every day.


Mr. Smith: Water freezes at O°C. Mr. Smith told his students that
                                   water freezes at O°C.
   Modals change in indirect speech
May said “ The wind will be May said the wind would
 strong.”                   be strong.

They said “ You can stay     They told us we could stay
  with us,”                   with them.
“ You must leave,” he told   He told us that we had to
   me.                         leave.
       Unit 24: Indirect Questions

• Indirect questions are polite, longer forms of
  normal questions.
  Where is the post office? (Direct question)
  Could you tell me where the post office is,
  please? (Indirect question)
  What did you do last night? (Direct question)
  I would like to know what you did last night.
  (Indirect question)
• Indirect questions are formed of two parts:
  a polite expression, and a question which
  has no subject/verb inversion like a normal
  question. For example:
• Do you know what she does?
• Here the polite expression is "Do you
  know...", and the question part is "...what
  she does
• The Verb “do” is not used in indirect questions,
  and question marks are not used, either.
• When does the next bus arrive?
• Do you know when the next bus arrives?
• What time does the bank open?
• Could you tell me when the bank opens?
• Where did you go shopping?
• Tell me where you went shopping?
• When reporting questions, it is especially important to
  pay attention to sentence order. When reporting yes/ no
  questions connect the reported question using “if”.
• Do you like Japanese food?
• I am wondering if you like Japanese food?
• Did you go to the concert?
• Please tell me if you went to the concert.
• Some common polite expressions are listed as following:
  I wonder , I can't remember , Could you tell me Would
  you mind telling me, Would it be possible for you to, Is
  there any chance you could,
  I'd like to know if, I can't remember
Unit 25: Conditional Sentence
First conditional are used to talk about the future.


“If” Clause                            Main Clause


If it rains tomorrow,                  The game will be cancelled.


If you ask me,                         I will help you.


If I get a promotion,                  I will buy you a diamond ring.
• The “if” part of first conditional is used to talk
  about things that may happen in the future, we
  should use present simple, and the tense in the
  main clause is the future tense.
• “if” clause always comes first in a first conditional
  sentence. And we put a comma (,) when the “if”
  clause comes first. Comma isn’t needed when
  the “if” clause comes second.
         Second Conditional

• In second conditional, the tense in the 'if'
   clause is the simple past, and
   would\wouldn’t +verb is used in the main
   clause :
 In these sentences, the time is now or any
   time, and the situation is unreal. They are
   not based on fact, and they refer to an
   unlikely or hypothetical condition and its
   probable result.
“If” Clause      Main Clause



If it rained,    you would get wet.
If you got up    you wouldn’t be late for class.
early,
If I were you,   I would give up smoking.
            Third Conditional

• Third conditional are used to talk about
  things that did or didn’t happen in the past.
  The tense in the 'if' clause is the past
  perfect, and would\ wouldn’t have + past
  participle is used in the main clause.
“If” Clause                    Main Clause

If the Titanic hadn’t hit an   it wouldn’t have sunk.
    iceberg,

If I had known your            I would have visited you
    address,                      yesterday.
If I had had enough            I would have bought that
    money,                     villa.

				
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