Unit 13: Adjectives and Adverbs • The different functions of adjectives and adverbs • Adjectives are used to modify nouns, pronouns, • There is a large tree in front of the church. • The students are nervous. • In the first sentence, the adjective large is used to modify the tree, and in the second sentence, the adjective nervous is used to modify the students. • Adverbs are used to modify verbs, adjectives and adverbs themselves. • The children are playing happily in the playground. • It has been extremely cold recently. • The taxi driver is driving very quickly on the freeway. • In the first sentence, • the adverb happily is used to modify the verb playing. • In the second example, • the adverb extremely is used to modify the adjective cold. • In the third sentence, the adverb very is used to modify the adverb quickly. Forming of Adverbs • a) Most adverbs are formed by simply adding ly to the adjectives. • Examples: warm→warmly correct→correctly , • b) When adjectives end in ic, the syllable al is usually added before the ly ending. Examples: dramatic dramatically • c) When adjectives ends in y preceded by a consonant, • the y is changed to i and ly is added. • Example: busy→busily happy→happily • d) Adjectives end in le preceded by a consonant, change the final e into ly. • Examples: favorable→favorably simple→simply A- Adjectives • The most common of the so-called a- adjectives are afraid, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep, awake, aware. These adjectives will primarily show up as predicate adjectives (i.e., they come after a linking verb). • The children were ashamed. • The professor remained aloof. • He was so tired that he soon fell asleep. Adverbs which do not use the ending ly adjective Adverb adjective adverb fast fast early early hard hard straight straight far far near near late late high high low low long long Adverbs are closely related, but have different meanings hard Study hard or you will be failed. hardly It hardly rains in winter in southern Taiwan. late His wife looked at him angrily because he came back late again. lately I haven’t seen you lately. How have you been? near The thief held his breath when the police walked near. nearly I have nearly finished reading the novel. high The audience threw their hats high in the air. highly I highly recommend this brand of shampoo. Unit 14: Linking Verb • A linking verb is a verb that links the subject of the sentence to information about that subject. • Linking verbs must be followed by a complement in order to make the sentence complete. Both of my parents are English teachers. Joe is smart; he always does well on tests. Linking Verbs are listed in the following chart: be become feel grow look remain smell seem sound appear taste stay Linking Verbs Or Action Verbs • When a verb is followed by a direct object, it is an action verb. • When it is followed by a predicate adjective or noun, it is a linking verb. • Linking: • Your answers did not appear to be • correct. • Action: • The superstar appeared on the show and • talked about his new movie. How can we tell when verbs are action verbs or linking verbs? • If we can substitute the “be” verb for the verb and the sentence is still logical, the verb is a linking verb. If the sentence makes no sense after being replaced by the “be” verb, it is an action verb. • The people’s mood turned angry. • In this sentence, “turned” can be replaced by “was”; therefore, “turned” is a linking verb. “The” adjective “angry” is used to modify the linking verb “turned”. • The students turned the pages quickly. • In this sentence, “turned” can not be replaced by “was”; therefore, “turned” is an action verb. The adverb “quickly” is used to modify the action verb “turned”. • Linking verbs: Verbs should be modified by adverbs. But the linking verbs have to be modified by predicate adjectives. • The soup smells strange but tastes good. • The music sounds great. Unit15: Adjective with -ing or ed form • A verb with an-ing form is called present participle. It conveys an active meaning and modifies things. A verb with an –ed form is called past participle. It conveys a passive meaning and modifies people. • Example: Math always confuses me. ( a verb). • I am always confused at math. ( a past participle) • Math is a confusing subject for me. (a present participle) Unit 16: Adjectives with Prepositions • be afraid of: • My mother-in-law is afraid of taking an airplane. • angry with: • Don’t be angry with me for not having finished homework. • annoyed with: • His mother was annoyed with him for being so rude to his teacher. • busy with: • Sue is busy with her project. • cruel to: • The old man is cruel to animals. • famous for: • Chinese are famous for their hardworking and diligent. • fond of: • John is fond of children. He enjoys teaching in an elementary school. • full of: • The living room is full of guests. • interested in: • Mr. Smith is interested in collecting stamps. • keen on: • He is keen on chess. He has learned to play the chess since he was four. • pleased with: • We are pleased with our new house. • proud of: • I am proud of being a member of the class. • be used to: • Anne is used to studying in the early morning. • sick of: • I am sick of doing the laundry every day. • accused of: • The shopkeeper accused him of stealing his money. • anxious about: • The police are anxious about her safety. • content with: • I am content with my life. • disappointed at: • We are disappointed at the results. • excited about: • She is excited about wining the first prize. • familiar with: • Joan is getting familiar with the new job. • jealous of: • The employees are jealous of his success. • qualified for: • You are certainly qualified for the position. • satisfied with: • Joe’s parents are satisfied with his performance. • tired of: • I am tired of doing the same job every day. • worried about: • We are worried about Father’s health. Unit 17: Comparative & Superlative • When we talk about two things, we can make a comparison between them. We can see if they are the same or different. We use comparative adjectives to describe the differences. When we compare more than two things, we often use the superlative forms. The forming of comparative and superlative: • Most comparative form of adjectives is formed with the ending er and superlative form is formed with the ending of est+ the • fast faster the faster • quick quicker the quickest • When an adjective ends in a silent e, -r is added for the comparative form and –st+ the is add for superlative form. • wide wider the widest • close closer the closest • When an adjective ends in y preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i before the ending -er is added to form the comparative and –est + the is added for the superlative form. • busy busier the busiest • happy happier the happiest • When an adjective ends in a single consonant except for w, x or y, following a single stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled before the ending er or est is added. For example: • fat fatter the fattest • thin thinner the thinnest Some adjectives have irregular comparative forms. Their comparative forms are as follows adjective Comparative superlative many more most much more most good better best well better best bad worse worst ill worse worst little less least late late, latter latest far farther, further farthest, furthest Unit 18: Gerunds • Gerunds are the –ing form of verbs used as a noun. Sometime they are used as subjects and sometimes used as objects. • Having good study habits is important for students. • My son practices playing piano every day. • In the first sentence, having good study habits is a gerund and used as a subject. As a subject, the gerund is always singular and has to be followed by the third- person-singular form of the verb. • In the second sentence, playing is used as the object of the verb practice. Words that have to be followed by gerunds: admit avoid can’t help celebrate delay deny discuss dislike enjoy explain feel like finish imagine keep mind miss postpone practice prohibit quit recommend regret report resist • The Prepositions are followed by the gerund: My father gave up smoking two years ago. • Ben is thinking of studying abroad after graduation. • My parents are used to going mountain climbing on Saturday. • We are looking forward to serving you again. go is followed by the gerund • go fishing • go camping • go snorkeling • go shopping • go canoeing • go hiking • We also use ing after the following words: • see, hear, watch, notice, observe, smell, listen to, find, feel, look at, • I saw John crossing the road. • I saw John cross the road. • I heard someone playing the piano in the classroom. • I heard someone play the piano in the classroom. • The police found a homeless lying on the sidewalk. • The police found a homeless lay on the sidewalk. Unit 19: Infinitive • An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to plus a verb and functioning as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The infinitive may function as a subject, direct object, subject complement, adjective, or adverb in a sentence. • Everyone wants to go to the party. (object) • His ambition is to fly an airplane. (subject complement) • We must study to learn. (adverb) • In the negative sentence, the negative word “not” precedes the infinitive. • My parents tell me not to swim in the rivers. • The teacher told us not to cheat on tests. Verbs that take infinitive objects without pronoun: afford decide learn plan agree expect mean prepare ask fail need pretend attempt hope offer refuse choose intend plan want Verbs that take infinitive objects with pronouns: advise force permit tell allow help persuade want ask hire promise warn choose invite remind expect encourage need require teach • Carol called her husband and reminded him to buy some eggs on his way home. Their teacher advised them to study harder. I invite you to come to my grandmother anniversary. Verbs can be followed either by an infinitive or a gerund with the same meaning love like hate continue begin hate can’t stand continue Verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund with different meaning forget: forget +ing: forget something that happened in the past I forgot mailing the letter. I mailed the letter but afterwards I didn’t remember. forget: forget + to: forget to do a duty or something I forgot to mail the letter. I planned to mail the letter but I didn’t • stop: • stop + ing: stopping doing something • The doctor asked Mr. Green to stop smoking. (Not to smoke anymore) • stop + to: stopping doing one thing to do another thing • Those workers must stop to take a rest. (Stop work in order to take a rest) • regret+ing: regret something that happened in the past • I regretted telling her the truth. She decided to break up with me. • regret+ed: to inform someone of a piece of bad news • I regret to tell you that your father died in that serious car accident. Unit 20: Causative Verbs • Causative verbs show that somebody/something is indirectly responsible for an action. • The subject doesn't perform the action itself, but causes someone/something else to do it instead. • Causative verbs include have, let, make, and get • Have: have + person + verb word * have + thing + participle • I had my toilet fixed this morning. • I had a plumber fix the toilet this morning. • Get: get + person + to + verb word get + thing + participle • Mrs. Green got the kids to mow the lawn. • Mrs. Green got the lawn mowed. • Make : make + person + verb word make + thing + verb word • I make this CD player work. • I can make your son work part time on weekends. • Let: let + person + verb word let + thing + verb word • You should let the students take a break. • Would you let me use your car? • Help: help + person + verb • Tom has to help his father grow the corn on the farm. Unit 22: Passive Voice • The passive voice is used when focusing on the person or thing affected by an action and is formed: Passive Subject + To Be + Past participle. The passive voice is especially used in scientific report, where the actor is not really important but the process or principle being described is of ultimate importance. The formation of passive voice Active Voice Passive Voice I write a letter every week. A letter is written every week. I am writing a letter now. A letter is being written. I wrote a letter yesterday. A letter was written yesterday. I will write a letter tomorrow. A letter will be written tomorrow. I have written a letter for two A letter has been written for two hours. hours. I should write a letter to A letter should be written to Charlotte. Charlotte. Unit 23: Indirect Speech • Direct speech states the exact words that a speaker used. When we write a direct speech, put quotation marks before and after the speech we are quoting. (A) The simple present becomes the simple past Direct Speech Indirect Speech “The bread is for you,” She said. She said the bread was for me. She told me that the bread was for me. “ I like your new haircut,” She She said she liked my new told me. haircut. She told me she liked my new haircut. “ I only buy shoes on sale,” She said she only bought shoes Nancy said. on sales. She said she only bought shoes on sales. “A storm is coming” May said. May said a storm was coming. (B) The simple past becomes the past perfect Direct Speech Indirect Speech “I found your key,” my husband My husband said he had found my said. key. “ I bought a new blouse,” She said. She said she had bought a new blouse “ I was late this morning” He said. He said he had been late this morning. (C) We do not change the tense when talking about a general truth (C) We do not change the tense when talking about a general truth Direct Speech Indirect Speech Ann: I swim every day. Ann says she swims every day. Mr. Smith: Water freezes at O°C. Mr. Smith told his students that water freezes at O°C. Modals change in indirect speech May said “ The wind will be May said the wind would strong.” be strong. They said “ You can stay They told us we could stay with us,” with them. “ You must leave,” he told He told us that we had to me. leave. Unit 24: Indirect Questions • Indirect questions are polite, longer forms of normal questions. Where is the post office? (Direct question) Could you tell me where the post office is, please? (Indirect question) What did you do last night? (Direct question) I would like to know what you did last night. (Indirect question) • Indirect questions are formed of two parts: a polite expression, and a question which has no subject/verb inversion like a normal question. For example: • Do you know what she does? • Here the polite expression is "Do you know...", and the question part is "...what she does • The Verb “do” is not used in indirect questions, and question marks are not used, either. • When does the next bus arrive? • Do you know when the next bus arrives? • What time does the bank open? • Could you tell me when the bank opens? • Where did you go shopping? • Tell me where you went shopping? • When reporting questions, it is especially important to pay attention to sentence order. When reporting yes/ no questions connect the reported question using “if”. • Do you like Japanese food? • I am wondering if you like Japanese food? • Did you go to the concert? • Please tell me if you went to the concert. • Some common polite expressions are listed as following: I wonder , I can't remember , Could you tell me Would you mind telling me, Would it be possible for you to, Is there any chance you could, I'd like to know if, I can't remember Unit 25: Conditional Sentence First conditional are used to talk about the future. “If” Clause Main Clause If it rains tomorrow, The game will be cancelled. If you ask me, I will help you. If I get a promotion, I will buy you a diamond ring. • The “if” part of first conditional is used to talk about things that may happen in the future, we should use present simple, and the tense in the main clause is the future tense. • “if” clause always comes first in a first conditional sentence. And we put a comma (,) when the “if” clause comes first. Comma isn’t needed when the “if” clause comes second. Second Conditional • In second conditional, the tense in the 'if' clause is the simple past, and would\wouldn’t +verb is used in the main clause : In these sentences, the time is now or any time, and the situation is unreal. They are not based on fact, and they refer to an unlikely or hypothetical condition and its probable result. “If” Clause Main Clause If it rained, you would get wet. If you got up you wouldn’t be late for class. early, If I were you, I would give up smoking. Third Conditional • Third conditional are used to talk about things that did or didn’t happen in the past. The tense in the 'if' clause is the past perfect, and would\ wouldn’t have + past participle is used in the main clause. “If” Clause Main Clause If the Titanic hadn’t hit an it wouldn’t have sunk. iceberg, If I had known your I would have visited you address, yesterday. If I had had enough I would have bought that money, villa.
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