Unit 13: Adjectives and Adverbs
• The different functions of adjectives and adverbs
• Adjectives are used to modify nouns, pronouns,
• There is a large tree in front of the church.
• The students are nervous.
• In the first sentence, the adjective large is used
to modify the tree, and in the second sentence,
the adjective nervous is used to modify the
• Adverbs are used to modify verbs,
adjectives and adverbs themselves.
• The children are playing happily in the
• It has been extremely cold recently.
• The taxi driver is driving very quickly on
• In the first sentence,
• the adverb happily is used to modify the
• In the second example,
• the adverb extremely is used to modify the
• In the third sentence, the adverb very is
used to modify the adverb quickly.
Forming of Adverbs
• a) Most adverbs are formed by simply adding ly to the
• Examples: warm→warmly correct→correctly ,
• b) When adjectives end in ic, the syllable al is usually
added before the ly ending.
Examples: dramatic dramatically
• c) When adjectives ends in y preceded by a consonant,
• the y is changed to i and ly is added.
• Example: busy→busily happy→happily
• d) Adjectives end in le preceded by a consonant, change
the final e into ly.
• Examples: favorable→favorably simple→simply
• The most common of the so-called a- adjectives
are afraid, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep,
awake, aware. These adjectives will primarily
show up as predicate adjectives (i.e., they come
after a linking verb).
• The children were ashamed.
• The professor remained aloof.
• He was so tired that he soon fell asleep.
Adverbs which do not use the
adjective Adverb adjective adverb
fast fast early early
hard hard straight straight
far far near near
late late high high
low low long long
Adverbs are closely related, but
have different meanings
hard Study hard or you will be failed.
hardly It hardly rains in winter in southern Taiwan.
late His wife looked at him angrily because he came back late again.
lately I haven’t seen you lately. How have you been?
near The thief held his breath when the police walked near.
nearly I have nearly finished reading the novel.
high The audience threw their hats high in the air.
highly I highly recommend this brand of shampoo.
Unit 14: Linking Verb
• A linking verb is a verb that links the
subject of the sentence to information
about that subject.
• Linking verbs must be followed by a
complement in order to make the sentence
Both of my parents are English teachers.
Joe is smart; he always does well on tests.
Linking Verbs are listed in the
be become feel grow
look remain smell seem
sound appear taste stay
Linking Verbs Or Action Verbs
• When a verb is followed by a direct object, it is
an action verb.
• When it is followed by a predicate adjective or
noun, it is a linking verb.
• Your answers did not appear to be
• The superstar appeared on the show and
• talked about his new movie.
How can we tell when verbs are
action verbs or linking verbs?
• If we can substitute the “be” verb for the
verb and the sentence is still logical, the
verb is a linking verb.
If the sentence makes no sense after being
replaced by the “be” verb, it is an action
• The people’s mood turned angry.
• In this sentence, “turned” can be replaced by
“was”; therefore, “turned” is a linking verb. “The”
adjective “angry” is used to modify the linking
• The students turned the pages quickly.
• In this sentence, “turned” can not be replaced by
“was”; therefore, “turned” is an action verb. The
adverb “quickly” is used to modify the action
• Linking verbs: Verbs should be modified
by adverbs. But the linking verbs have to
be modified by predicate adjectives.
• The soup smells strange but tastes good.
• The music sounds great.
Unit15: Adjective with -ing or ed
• A verb with an-ing form is called present
participle. It conveys an active meaning and
modifies things. A verb with an –ed form is
called past participle. It conveys a passive
meaning and modifies people.
• Example: Math always confuses me. ( a verb).
• I am always confused at math. ( a past participle)
• Math is a confusing subject for me. (a present
Unit 16: Adjectives with Prepositions
• be afraid of:
• My mother-in-law is afraid of taking an airplane.
• angry with:
• Don’t be angry with me for not having finished homework.
• annoyed with:
• His mother was annoyed with him for being so rude to his teacher.
• busy with:
• Sue is busy with her project.
• cruel to:
• The old man is cruel to animals.
• famous for:
• Chinese are famous for their hardworking and diligent.
• fond of:
• John is fond of children. He enjoys teaching in an elementary school.
• full of:
• The living room is full of guests.
• interested in:
• Mr. Smith is interested in collecting stamps.
• keen on:
• He is keen on chess. He has learned to play the chess since he was
• pleased with:
• We are pleased with our new house.
• proud of:
• I am proud of being a member of the class.
• be used to:
• Anne is used to studying in the early morning.
• sick of:
• I am sick of doing the laundry every day.
• accused of:
• The shopkeeper accused him of stealing his money.
• anxious about:
• The police are anxious about her safety.
• content with:
• I am content with my life.
• disappointed at:
• We are disappointed at the results.
• excited about:
• She is excited about wining the first prize.
• familiar with:
• Joan is getting familiar with the new job.
• jealous of:
• The employees are jealous of his success.
• qualified for:
• You are certainly qualified for the position.
• satisfied with:
• Joe’s parents are satisfied with his performance.
• tired of:
• I am tired of doing the same job every day.
• worried about:
• We are worried about Father’s health.
Unit 17: Comparative &
• When we talk about two things, we can make a
comparison between them. We can see if they
are the same or different. We use comparative
adjectives to describe the differences. When we
compare more than two things, we often use the
The forming of comparative and superlative:
• Most comparative form of adjectives is
formed with the ending er and superlative
form is formed with the ending of est+ the
• fast faster the faster
• quick quicker the quickest
• When an adjective ends in a silent e, -r is
added for the comparative form and –st+
the is add for superlative form.
• wide wider the widest
• close closer the closest
• When an adjective ends in y preceded by
a consonant, the y is changed to i before
the ending -er is added to form the
comparative and –est + the is added for
the superlative form.
• busy busier the busiest
• happy happier the happiest
• When an adjective ends in a single
consonant except for w, x or y, following a
single stressed vowel, the final consonant
is doubled before the ending er or est is
added. For example:
• fat fatter the fattest
• thin thinner the thinnest
Some adjectives have irregular comparative forms.
Their comparative forms are as follows
adjective Comparative superlative
many more most
much more most
good better best
well better best
bad worse worst
ill worse worst
little less least
late late, latter latest
far farther, further farthest, furthest
Unit 18: Gerunds
• Gerunds are the –ing form of verbs used as a noun.
Sometime they are used as subjects and sometimes
used as objects.
• Having good study habits is important for students.
• My son practices playing piano every day.
• In the first sentence, having good study habits is a
gerund and used as a subject. As a subject, the gerund
is always singular and has to be followed by the third-
person-singular form of the verb.
• In the second sentence, playing is used as the object of
the verb practice.
Words that have to be followed by gerunds:
admit avoid can’t help celebrate
delay deny discuss dislike
enjoy explain feel like finish
imagine keep mind miss
postpone practice prohibit quit
recommend regret report resist
• The Prepositions are followed by the
My father gave up smoking two years ago.
• Ben is thinking of studying abroad after
• My parents are used to going mountain
climbing on Saturday.
• We are looking forward to serving you
go is followed by the gerund
• go fishing
• go camping
• go snorkeling
• go shopping
• go canoeing
• go hiking
• We also use ing after the following words:
• see, hear, watch, notice, observe, smell, listen to,
find, feel, look at,
• I saw John crossing the road.
• I saw John cross the road.
• I heard someone playing the piano in the
• I heard someone play the piano in the classroom.
• The police found a homeless lying on the
• The police found a homeless lay on the sidewalk.
Unit 19: Infinitive
• An infinitive is a verbal consisting of the word to
plus a verb and functioning as a noun, adjective,
or adverb. The infinitive may function as a
subject, direct object, subject complement,
adjective, or adverb in a sentence.
• Everyone wants to go to the party. (object)
• His ambition is to fly an airplane. (subject
• We must study to learn. (adverb)
• In the negative sentence, the negative
word “not” precedes the infinitive.
• My parents tell me not to swim in the rivers.
• The teacher told us not to cheat on tests.
Verbs that take infinitive objects
afford decide learn plan
agree expect mean prepare
ask fail need pretend
attempt hope offer refuse
choose intend plan want
Verbs that take infinitive objects with
advise force permit tell
allow help persuade want
ask hire promise warn
choose invite remind expect
encourage need require teach
• Carol called her husband and reminded
him to buy some eggs on his way home.
Their teacher advised them to study
I invite you to come to my grandmother
Verbs can be followed either by an infinitive or
a gerund with the same meaning
love like hate continue
begin hate can’t stand continue
Verbs can be followed by either an infinitive
or a gerund with different meaning
forget +ing: forget something that happened
in the past
I forgot mailing the letter.
I mailed the letter but afterwards I didn’t
forget + to: forget to do a duty or something
I forgot to mail the letter.
I planned to mail the letter but I didn’t
• stop + ing: stopping doing something
• The doctor asked Mr. Green to stop smoking. (Not to
• stop + to: stopping doing one thing to do another thing
• Those workers must stop to take a rest. (Stop work in
order to take a rest)
• regret+ing: regret something that happened in the past
• I regretted telling her the truth. She decided to break up
• regret+ed: to inform someone of a piece of bad news
• I regret to tell you that your father died in that serious car
Unit 20: Causative Verbs
• Causative verbs show that somebody/something
is indirectly responsible for an action.
• The subject doesn't perform the action itself, but
causes someone/something else to do it instead.
• Causative verbs include have, let, make, and get
• Have: have + person + verb word
* have + thing + participle
• I had my toilet fixed this morning.
• I had a plumber fix the toilet this morning.
• Get: get + person + to + verb word
get + thing + participle
• Mrs. Green got the kids to mow the lawn.
• Mrs. Green got the lawn mowed.
• Make : make + person + verb word
make + thing + verb word
• I make this CD player work.
• I can make your son work part time on
• Let: let + person + verb word
let + thing + verb word
• You should let the students take a break.
• Would you let me use your car?
• Help: help + person + verb
• Tom has to help his father grow the corn on
Unit 22: Passive Voice
• The passive voice is used when focusing
on the person or thing affected by an
action and is formed: Passive Subject +
To Be + Past participle. The passive voice
is especially used in scientific report,
where the actor is not really important but
the process or principle being described is
of ultimate importance.
The formation of passive voice
Active Voice Passive Voice
I write a letter every week. A letter is written every week.
I am writing a letter now. A letter is being written.
I wrote a letter yesterday. A letter was written yesterday.
I will write a letter tomorrow. A letter will be written tomorrow.
I have written a letter for two
A letter has been written for two hours.
I should write a letter to
A letter should be written to Charlotte.
Unit 23: Indirect Speech
• Direct speech states the exact words that
a speaker used. When we write a direct
speech, put quotation marks before and
after the speech we are quoting.
(A) The simple present becomes
the simple past
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
“The bread is for you,” She said. She said the bread was for me.
She told me that the bread was
“ I like your new haircut,” She She said she liked my new
told me. haircut.
She told me she liked my new
“ I only buy shoes on sale,” She said she only bought shoes
Nancy said. on sales.
She said she only bought shoes
“A storm is coming” May said. May said a storm was coming.
(B) The simple past becomes the past perfect
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
“I found your key,” my husband My husband said he had found my
“ I bought a new blouse,” She said. She said she had bought a new
“ I was late this morning” He said. He said he had been late this
(C) We do not change the tense
when talking about a general
(C) We do not change the tense when
talking about a general truth
Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Ann: I swim every day. Ann says she swims every day.
Mr. Smith: Water freezes at O°C. Mr. Smith told his students that
water freezes at O°C.
Modals change in indirect speech
May said “ The wind will be May said the wind would
strong.” be strong.
They said “ You can stay They told us we could stay
with us,” with them.
“ You must leave,” he told He told us that we had to
Unit 24: Indirect Questions
• Indirect questions are polite, longer forms of
Where is the post office? (Direct question)
Could you tell me where the post office is,
please? (Indirect question)
What did you do last night? (Direct question)
I would like to know what you did last night.
• Indirect questions are formed of two parts:
a polite expression, and a question which
has no subject/verb inversion like a normal
question. For example:
• Do you know what she does?
• Here the polite expression is "Do you
know...", and the question part is "...what
• The Verb “do” is not used in indirect questions,
and question marks are not used, either.
• When does the next bus arrive?
• Do you know when the next bus arrives?
• What time does the bank open?
• Could you tell me when the bank opens?
• Where did you go shopping?
• Tell me where you went shopping?
• When reporting questions, it is especially important to
pay attention to sentence order. When reporting yes/ no
questions connect the reported question using “if”.
• Do you like Japanese food?
• I am wondering if you like Japanese food?
• Did you go to the concert?
• Please tell me if you went to the concert.
• Some common polite expressions are listed as following:
I wonder , I can't remember , Could you tell me Would
you mind telling me, Would it be possible for you to, Is
there any chance you could,
I'd like to know if, I can't remember
Unit 25: Conditional Sentence
First conditional are used to talk about the future.
“If” Clause Main Clause
If it rains tomorrow, The game will be cancelled.
If you ask me, I will help you.
If I get a promotion, I will buy you a diamond ring.
• The “if” part of first conditional is used to talk
about things that may happen in the future, we
should use present simple, and the tense in the
main clause is the future tense.
• “if” clause always comes first in a first conditional
sentence. And we put a comma (,) when the “if”
clause comes first. Comma isn’t needed when
the “if” clause comes second.
• In second conditional, the tense in the 'if'
clause is the simple past, and
would\wouldn’t +verb is used in the main
In these sentences, the time is now or any
time, and the situation is unreal. They are
not based on fact, and they refer to an
unlikely or hypothetical condition and its
“If” Clause Main Clause
If it rained, you would get wet.
If you got up you wouldn’t be late for class.
If I were you, I would give up smoking.
• Third conditional are used to talk about
things that did or didn’t happen in the past.
The tense in the 'if' clause is the past
perfect, and would\ wouldn’t have + past
participle is used in the main clause.
“If” Clause Main Clause
If the Titanic hadn’t hit an it wouldn’t have sunk.
If I had known your I would have visited you
If I had had enough I would have bought that