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Topic 2.2 Carbohydrates_ lipids and proteins

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					Topic 2.2 Carbohydrates,
lipids and proteins


  Mrs. Jackie Maldonado
Define organic
 Compound containing carbon that are
  found in living organism
   Exception
     Hydrogencarbonates
     Carbonates
     Oxides of carbon
Carbohydrates
 Made of oxygen, hydrogen and
  carbon
 Soluble in water do the presence of
  polar groups which can made H-
  bonds
  Hydroxyl group (OH)
  Aldehyde group H-C=O
  Ketone group (-C=O)
Carbohydrates
 Divided into three groups
   Monosaccharides
     Made of one sugar
       Glucose, fructose and ribose
       End with suffix –ose
       Have 3,4,5,6 or more carbons
Carbohydrates:Monosaccharides
Number of carbon   General name of the
atoms              sugar

         3                 Triose
                    Use in Calvin Cycle
         5               Pentose
                    Ribose important in
                            RNA
         6                   Hexose
                    Glucose use in respiration
Carbohydrates: Monossacharides
 Importance of glucose
   Carry to all cells
   Control by hormones insulin and
    glucagon
   Use in the process of respiration
Glucose properties
 Isomerism- can take up a number of
  different shapes
 Isomers- same chemical formula but
  different structural formula.
 See book page #26 figure 1
Structure of ribose and glucose
Carbohydrates: Disaccharides
 Made by condensation reaction of two
  monosaccharides
   Glucose + glucose  maltose + water
 Condensation reaction- build up of big
  molecules from smaller ones with the
  removal of water.
 Look at page 27 figure 2
Disaccharides:condensation
reaction
Condensation continues
Carbohydrates: Polysaccharides
 Polymers made from the
  condensation reaction of three or
  more monosaccharides
   Starch
     storage substance in plant cells
     Made from 1000 or more alpha glucose
      units attached by glycosidic bonds
     Look at page 28 figure 1
Polysaccharides condensation
Polysaccharide: Starch
 Can exist as in the
  form of an helix
 Present in plant
  cells
 Store in seeds to
  provide energy for
  the growth of the
  embryo
Polysaccharide:Glycogen
   Animal and fungi storage polysaccharide
   Made of glucose units
   Long branched chain
   1-4 glycosidic and 1-6 glycosidic bonds
Glycogen
 In humans is stored in the liver and
  muscles
Comparison of lipids and glycogen
as storage polysaccharide
Feature             Glycogen             Lipid
Stored in           Animals              Plants and animal
                                         cells
Type of storage     Short-term           Long term

Release of energy   Quick it can be      Slower store in
                    easily digested      adipose tissue
Amount of energy    Half of that         Double amount
                    produced by lipids
Solubility          More soluble in      Insoluble in water
                    water                it is hydrophobic
Hydrolysis
 Starch and glycogen can be converted back
  to glucose
 Hydrolysis-break down of polysaccharides.
  One water molecule is needed for each
  bond
 A starch with 8 glucose units needs
  7molecules of water
 How many molecules of water are needed
  for hydrolyzing a polymer of 1000 glucose
  units?
Hydrolysis
 Involved in the process of digestion of
  big molecules to smaller ones
 Cellulose: Another polysaccharide
 Polymer of glucose
 Very strong due to H-
  bonds
 Humans source of
  fiber
 Plant cells
   Made of cellulose
   Resist pressure from
    water
   Prevent bursting
More on sugar
 Read Sugar in the diet page 27
 Homework page 27 and 29. Quick
  checks

				
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posted:8/12/2012
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