THE PROPERTIES OF LANGUAGE by ewghwehws

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									THE PROPERTIES OF LANGUAGE

   Introduction to General Linguistics
               Lectured by:
 Dra. Catharini Septi Ngudi Lestari, M.Pd.
               What is Language?
A language is an arbitrary system of articulated sounds
    made use of by a group of humans as a means of
    carrying on the affairs of their society
    (Francis,1958:13).
From the definition above , it can be known:
1. Language is systematic.
2. Language is basically oral, and that the oral symbols
    represent meaning related to life situations and
    experiences
3. Language has a social function and without it
    society would not exist.
            What is Linguistics ?
•    Linguistics is the scientific study of language.
•    It deals with a particular body of material:
     spoken and written language.
•    Linguistics      is divided into five main
     branches, they are:
1.   Phonetics
2.   Phonemics
3.   Morphemics
4.   Syntax
5.   Semantics
       Definition of the Branches of
                Linguistics

1. Phonetics is a branch of linguistics dealing with
   sound features or qualities and their
   arrangement into speech sounds, or phones.
2. Phonemics is a branch of linguistics dealing with
   phones and their arrangement into groups or
   families , called phonemes.
3. Morphemics is a branch of linguistics dealing
    with speech sounds and their arrangement
    into meaningful groups called morphs. It is
    also concerned with the arrangement of
    these morphs into family called morphemes
    and their combination of morphemes into
    words.
4. Syntax is a branch of linguistics dealing with
    syntactic structures which are called phrases,
    clauses, and sentences.
5. Semantics is a branch of linguistics dealing
    with the study of meaning of language.
      The Properties of Language
•    There are six unique properties of language,
     they are:
1.   Displacement
2.   Arbitrariness
3.   Productivity
4.   Cultural Transmission
5.   Discreteness
6.   Duality
                                   Displacement
• Displacement is one of
  properties of human
  language which the human
  language – users are perfectly
  capable of production
  messages refer to past and
  future time ; and other
  location.
• Displacement is the ability of
  human language-users to
  discuss topics which are
  remote in space and time
                             Arbritrariness
• Arbitrariness is the relation between a word
  and its meaning is a matter of convention.

• Arbitrariness is there is no direct connection
  between the nature of the things or ideas and
  the words or combination of words by which
  these things or ideas are expressed
Arbritrariness
                                Productivity
Productivity is the ability of human language-
  users manipulate their linguistic resourses to
  produce new expressions and new sentences.
Productivity
Cultural Transmission
  Cultural Transmission is the
    property which relates to
    the fact that a language
    must be acquired or
    learned by each new
    generation.

  [Picture: China Town in San
     Francisco, USA]
                                Discretness
Discreteness is the sounds used in language are
  meaningfully distinct.
                                        Duality
Duality is the ability of human language-users
 describe the fact that by using a limited set of
 distinct sounds, human language-users can
 produce a very large number of sound
 combinations (words) which are distinct in
 meaning
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