The Elements Hydrogen - Calcium Hydrogen • Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. It is the fuel that burns in stars. • It is the simplest element. • Hydrogen is a gas under standard conditions. • Hydrogen is used for rocket fuel and explosives. Helium • Helium is a gas under standard conditions and is found in all stars. • Helium is the second most abundant element in the universe. • Helium is used as a lifting gas for balloons and airships Lithium • Lithium is a lightweight metal. • Lithium is used as part of an alloy to make lightweight aircraft. • Lithium is also used in batteries and medicines for psychiatric disorders. Beryllium • Beryllium is a metal. • It is used as an alloy for aircraft, rocket fuel and in mineral form makes the gems Emerald and aquamarine. Boron • Boron is a metalloid. • Boron is mostly found in mineral form as the mineral borax. • Boron is used to harden steel and to make rocket parts because it resists heat. Carbon • Carbon is a nonmetal. • Molecules that contain carbon make up all living cells. • Carbon in different forms is used as charcoal, graphite and diamonds. Nitrogen • Nitrogen is a gas. • Nitrogen makes up the majority of our atmosphere. • Nitrogen is used to make ammonia, fertilizers and explosives. Oxygen • Oxygen is a gas. • Oxygen is the 3rd most abundant element in the universe. • We need to breath oxygen to live. It is also used in welding, and making steel. Fluorine • Fluorine is a gas. • Fluorine is the most reactive element and is rarely found alone. • Fluorine compounds are used in rat poisons, etching glass and refrigerants. Neon • Neon is a gas. • Neon is un-reactive and is therefore not a part of many molecules. • Because it glows red when a current is passed through it, it is used in lights. Sodium • Sodium is a metal. • Sodium is extremely reactive with water. • Sodium vapor is used as lighting. • Sodium compounds make up things like baking soda, table salt. Magnesium • Magnesium is a metal. • Magnesium is used to make lightweight alloys and burns with a very bright white light for fireworks. Aluminum • Aluminum is a metal. • Aluminum is used to make aluminum foil, alloys and wires. Silicon • Silicon is a metalloid. • Silicon is used in making glass, quartz. • Silicon is also used in memory chips in computers and semi- conductors. Phosphorus • Phosphorus is a non- metal. • Phosphorus is used in fireworks, detergents (brightens), fertilizers. Sulfur • Sulfur is a non-metal. • Sulfur is used in gunpowder, paper, matches, drugs (antibacterial), paint etc. Chlorine • Chlorine is a non- metal. • Chlorine is used as a disinfectant (water treatment) and combines with metals to form salts. Argon • Argon is a gas. • Argon is very un- reactive and does not form compounds. • Argon is used to fill light bulbs (oxygen would corrode the filament) Potassium • Potassium is a metal. • Potassium explodes when it comes in contact with water. • Potassium compounds are used in fertilizers. Calcium • Calcium is a metal. • Calcium is needed to make bone/teeth. • Calcium compounds are used to make chalk, cement.
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