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									•   Development Impact Evaluation
    • in Finance and Private Sector




                                      •1
Arianna Legovini
Head, Development Impact Evaluation Initiative
The World Bank


Steps in Implementing an
Impact Evaluation
                              Workshop
                    Development Impact Evaluation
                     in Finance and Private Sector
                          Dakar February 2010
                    With generous support from Gender Action Plan
Steps                       Build capacity
          Feed results                       Set learning
           into policy                         agenda




                                                    Design impact
  Analyze data
                                                     evaluation




                                                   Plan for IE
    Collect follow
                                                  implementati
       up data
                                                       on


                        Roll out       Conduct
                     intervention      baseline
Step 1. Build capacity for IE

   Objectives:
     Become informed consumers of impact evaluation
     Set the learning agenda
     Use it as an internal management tool to improve
      program over time

   How
     Training
     Learning by doing
    Step 2: Set learning agenda
   Objective:
     Get answers to relevant policy and operational
     questions
   How?
     Dialectic discussion involving key policy makers and
      program managers
     Technical facilitation to structure framework of analysis
     Focus on few critical policy (what) and operational (how
      to) questions
     Discuss agenda with authorizing environment and
      constituencies
    Cont. 2: Questions
   Operational: design-choices of program
        ▪ Institutional arrangements, Delivery mechanisms, Packages, Pricing/incentive
     Management purpose
     Use random trials to test alternatives
     Measure effects on short term outcomes (months)
      ▪ take up rates, use, adoption
     Scale up better implementation modalities

   Policy: effectiveness of program
     Accountability purpose
     Use random assignment or next best method
     Measure effects medium to long term
     Scale up/down, negotiate budget, inform
    Step 3: Design IE

   Exploit opportunities:
     Will roll-out take time?
     Is the budget allocated insufficient to cover everyone?
     Are there quantitative eligibility rules?
     If the program has universal access, does it have imperfect take-
      up?
   Set scale:
     Pilot to try out an intervention
     Large scale w. representative sample: more costly, externally
      valid
     Large scale with purposeful sample: less costly, indicative
   Do power calculation to determine minimum sample size
Cont. Step 3
   Select “best” method for each of your
    questions
     Feasible
     Requires least assumptions


   Ethics
     No to deny access to something for which there is
      irrefutable evidence
     Test interventions before scale up when you have
      no solid evidence
    Step 4: Planning
    implementation
   Budget cost items
      ▪   Staff time (PROJECT FUNDS) and training (DIME)
      ▪   Analytical services and field coordination (DIME)
      ▪   Data collection (PROJECT FUNDS)
      ▪   Discussions and dissemination (shared)
   Timeline
      ▪ Use it to organize activities, responsibilities and work
        backwards to know when to start
   Team
      ▪ Government (program manager, economist/statistician); WB
        Project team (Task manager or substitute); Research team
        (Lead researcher, co-researchers, field coordinator); Data
        collection agency
Step 5: Assignment to treatment
and control
   The smallest unit of assignment is the unit of
    intervention
     Credit: individual or group
     SME services: enterprise
     Municipal registration system: municipality
   Create listing of treatment units assigned to the
    intervention and control units that are not
   Explain assignment to responsible parties to avoid
    contamination
Step 6: Baseline data

   Quality assurance : IE team (not data collection
    agency) to
     Design questionnaire and sample
     Define terms of reference for data collection
      agency
     Train enumerators
     Conduct pilot
     Supervise data collection
   Do not collect data before your design is ready
    and agreed
Cont. Step 6: Baseline data

   Contract data collection agency
     Bureau of Statistics: Integrate with existing data
     Ministry concerned: Ministry of Agriculture/Water
      Resources/Rural Development
     Private agency
   Analyze baseline data a feed back into
    program and evaluation design if needed
   Check for balance between treatment and
    control group: do they have similar average
    characteristics?
    Step 7: Roll out intervention
   Conduct intensive monitoring of roll-out to ensure
    evaluation is not compromised
   What if treatment and control receive the
    intervention?
   What if all the control group receive some other
    intervention?
Step 8: Follow-up data
   Collect follow-up data with the same sample
    and questionnaire as baseline data
   At appropriate intervals
Step 9: Estimate program effects


   Randomization: compare average outcomes for
    treatment and control group
   Other methods: Use relevant econometric analysis ,
    test assumptions, check robustness
   Are the effects statistically significant?
     Basic statistical test tells whether differences are due to the program
      or to noisy data
   Are they significant in real terms?
     If a program is costly and its effects are small, may not be worthwhile
   Are they sustainable?
     Is the trajectory of results sustained?
Step 10: Discuss, Disseminate and
Feedback into policy
   Are you thinking about this only now?
   Discuss what are the policy implications of the results
   What actions should be taken
   How to present them to higher ups to justify
    changes/budget/scale up?
   Talk to policy-maker and disseminate to wider audience
   If no one knows about it, it won’t make a difference
   Make sure the information gets into the right policy
    discussions
     Real time discussions
     Workshops
     Reports
     Policy briefs
Final step: Iterate

   What do you need to learn next?

								
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