Data Entry and some VERY simple descriptive stats
SOME WORDS OF WARNING…
A reminder that you will be using SPSS next semester in Psyc
310, in your own research, if you serve as research assistants,
and possibly in other classes in the sciences (Bio).
We will NOT be re-teaching you the use of the program each time
– you are expected to pay attention the first time.
There will be 3-4 homework assignments associated with SPSS
… The first two will count as independent homeworks (data
entry and analysis) and there will be an in-lab “test” on a
common dataset during our last scheduled lab period which
will contribute 5% to your total class grade. Some future
‘generic’ homeworks will also include SPSS tasks, but the
ones identified on the coursepage in red are the only ‘pure-
Likely be choosing:
… “type in data” (New Dataset)
… “Open an existing data source”
Since we are creating a dataset,
select the “type in data” button
and hit “OK” at the bottom.
Once that window disappears
you will see that you are in
either the “data view” or
“variable view” page
DATA VIEW PAGE
This is where you will see
the data in its’ raw form, and
the page from which you will
be running your analyses.
The page that you are on will
be highlighted in yellow
down in the bottom left of
We need to start by defining
our variables for the
program … and for that we
need to be in “variable view”.
… Click on the tab for variable
view to switch over
VARIABLE VIEW PAGE
As you can see – we are going to define our characteristics by what
Kind of data we have (NOIR) and put in labels so that we can
understand the printouts.
Each of these
one data column
on the data view
It is easiest if you
know all the data
you will have to
so when you set
this up, it is
Quiz Average for
Exam Average for
We will pull a chunk of A data grouping
our data from my answering this
classpage …. And some question: “What was
of it you will be making the higher percentage –
up. quiz or exam?” (Quiz or
First though What
kind of data do we Your ranking of which
have? name you like best
(rank from 1-10)
Quiz Average for student
WHAT KIND OF (0-100)
Exam Average for
What kind of questions
would we be able to ask/ A data grouping
answer with the data answering this question:
that we have? “What was the higher
percentage – quiz or
exam?” (Quiz or Exam)
We can organize the data … Nominal
any way that we’d like to
(e.g. by the most Your ranking of which
important to least name you like best (rank
important) as long as it from 1-10)
We will organize by type … Ratio
of data (NOIR)
Start by entering a name that ‘captures’ what our nominal variable stands for
“Highscore” --- Note only use one word
Remember that in our experiments – these will likely be the IV’s
Notice that when you hit enter – a number of other columns get filled in.
These may not be correct for what we need (the computer cannot read
your mind) – if you don’t enter the data in correctly, mistakes WILL be
made in the analyses. So next, click on the “MEASURE” icon
Next, go to the “Values” column and click on it and a new screen pops up
Add in a Code for Value (must Finish adding all
be numeric). And a label you values/ labels then click
will understand Click on “ADD” OK
As with the Nominal data:
First Enter in a Name for the variable in column 1: RANKING
Then go to the “Measure column” and select ORDINAL
There isn’t any other step as there are no groups to label
Our last 3 pieces of data are all Interval/Ratio (remember that mathematically,
these are going to be treated the same and do not need special separations for
Set up the last 3 – QUIZ, EXAM, and GPA.
This time, however, we do not have to make ANY adjustments in the
“Measure” column. So just hit enter, then move to the next.
Now we’re ready to enter the data, go down to the
bottom left and click on the “data view” button
The 5 lines of data we entered are now our column headings in the data view
page. Now we enter our data….
ONE THING THOUGH – we will enter in the value
labels (1,2) in column 1 rather than the words Quiz,
All data except for the “Ranking” and GPA comes from the webpage I sent.
Enter the data.
This actually is an accident… but
this would fall under the category
of “Hmm, I should have thought
about that when I was designing
the project. I now need a rule to
deal with this.
However, SPSS (if left alone) will
run the analysis excluding this
piece of data whenever Col 1 info is
Now enter in your scores for the ranking and GPA – they need to fall into the
appropriate parameters (a GPA cannot be 7.23). But make up the data.
Here’s the data I have (yours will
look a little different in col 2 and 5).
Let’s say we want to clean up the
data a little bit
In the ranking column, it
doesn’t make sense to have decimal
points (nor in the first column)
** We’ll head back to the Variable
view by clicking on the tab at the
bottom, and changing some of those
boxes we didn’t use the first time.
Decimals = Change the values here to change what shows up on the data page
Change Highscore and Ranking to “0” decimals
Columns = the number of characters in the column headings
Align = just like in word to make things more readable to you
Now – why don’t we save what we have.
Use either the icon or pull-down menu “file” and save
This is just an annoyance that shows up after each action – close or ignore if
it isn’t an analysis.
NOW LET’S MAKE SOME CHANGES
Imagine that, to our surprise, we forgot an entire column of data (or in this case we
had data that only became available later).
How do we change what we have?
Let’s say our new piece of data is an overall class ranking (their ranking in the entire
class or 20XX) not their ranking in this class – and that data is helpful to us.
(1) Because it is ranked data – we want to keep it next to the other ordinal
data so we have to insert a column.
(2) Because we used the label ‘ ranking ’ when we entered the data – it is
more likely to confuse the two columns we have so we want to change the column
names. Remember that these two are both rankings – but are ranking VERY different
(3) Because the rankings are from the entire class (of let’s say 200 people) the
rankings seem incomplete and we need to re-rank the scores.
(4) One student dropped the class (or we were forced to drop her because of
the tied percentage) – so we need to replace her scores with another student
INSERTING A COLUMN
First off – switch back to “variable view.” Go to the pull-down menu under “EDIT”
and select the “insert variable” option.
As usually happens when you use an “insert function,” the column may have been placed in
the wrong place (you want it after the original “ranking”)
To delete a row – click on the very first column on that line (the numbers) and the row will be
selected. When it is highlighted – hit the delete key.
Place the cursor on quiz and insert variable again – so SPSS automatically inserts ABOVE
The name is highlighted so we need to give it a name and change the scale to
1) Change the name to “20XX_rank”
2) Change the final column to “Ordinal”
3) Rename variable 2 from ‘Ranking’ to “NameRank”
4) Remove the decimals option for the new column
Here is the new data. Notice that the other columns moved in response to
our changes on the other page. We now need to remove the one piece of
faulty data – the one with the tied exam/quiz score.
Select the row of data by clicking on the number all the way to the left and
Now enter in the data for Uzume (we will assume that she has the same
“name ranking” as did Freya
Here are the overall class rankings
With a small dataset like this, we
can easily do the rankings yourself.
With a large dataset (and
numerable, potential tied rankings
etc.), it might be better to let the
computer do this for us.
Select the column by
clicking on the column heading
(turns blue), go up under the
“TRANSFORM” pull-down menu –
select “rank cases” and you’ll get
what shows up on the next page…
(1) Select column to be ranked
(2) Shift it over to the
“variable(s)” box by clicking
on the arrow
(3) Double check the order in
which the ranking is to be
done – Assign rank 1 to
(4) Finally, click on “Ok” button
New column has
been created for us
I cleaned mine up by deleting
the original data column
(remember that this an act of
finality – once lost the data is
I then moved the newly ranked
column over (and took out the
NOW …. Let’s do some statistics!
We are going to
… all the various
… a set of
(1) Select all 3 of our Interval/Ratio variable and shift them into Variable(s)
(2) Select the
to bring up all of
By doing this…
we do not have
to run the
(3) Select the options shown and then hit
“continue” and you’ll be taken to an output
window with the statistics done
Quiz Exam GPA
N Valid 10 10 10
Missing 0 0 0
Mean 75.1300 74.6700 2.8000
Median 74.1500 74.5000 2.8400
Mode 58.80a 75.90 1.73a
Std. Deviation 9.72603 9.00704 .67082
Skewness -.046 .078 -.134
Std. Error of Skew .687 .687 .687
Kurtosis -.482 -.592 -.928
Std. Error of Kurtosis 1.334 1.334 1.334
Range 30.40 29.10 2.08
Sum 751.30 746.70 28.00
a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown
You CAN of course – print things up …. BUT PLEASE REMEMBER …
you could also just keep the info on your computer and save a few trees.
Print only what you need to turn in.
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 58.8 1 10.0 10.0 10.0
64.2 1 10.0 10.0 20.0
70.8 1 10.0 10.0 30.0
71.7 1 10.0 10.0 40.0
73.3 1 10.0 10.0 50.0
75 1 10.0 10.0 60.0
77.5 1 10.0 10.0 70.0
82.5 1 10.0 10.0 80.0
88.3 1 10.0 10.0 90.0
89.2 1 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 10 100.0 100.0
Good news! You’re now ready to do the first of the computer
Check the webpage for due date and requirement.