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					Reducing Disproportionality in
  Suspensions and Positive
     Behavior Supports
         Suzann Wilson
         Lori Rogerson
   Des Moines Public Schools
• Over-representation in DMPS suspensions
• Over-representation in juvenile justice
  system
• Over –representation in child welfare
  system
• Polk County Diversion Project
• Minority Youth and Families Initiative
           Facilitator Training
•   Pat Parker, NRC Staff
•   DMPS Social Workers and Psychologists
•   Part One: Knowing your Stakeholders
•   Part Two: Relationship Building
•   Part Three: Conducting Focus Groups
•   Part Four: Making it Happen, Next Steps
                  Sample

•   Minority Students with 1 < Suspensions
•   Middle and High School Students
•   Parent or Guardian Permission Obtained
•   Parents of Students with 1< Suspensions
•   Representative Population
              Instrument

• Semi Structured Guide
• Questions and Probes
• Tool refined in collaboration with DMPS
  staff and University of Iowa NRC
• Consistent Across all Focus Groups
                    Questions
• Let’s start with hearing, from your point of view, what
  kinds of things school usually suspend students for?
• Describe what you think is the main reason that schools
  use suspension
• Here’s some information that the school district and
  community are particularly concerned about…
• When a students is suspended, what do they do-what
  does a day outside of school look like?
• Tell me what it’s like when someone comes back to
  school after being suspended?
• What is one suggestion you want to make to the school
  leadership for what they can do to make schools where
  African American and Latino students can succeed?
• Is there anything else?
    Focus Groups Facilitation


• Co-Facilitators
• One Facilitator/One Recorder
• Groups Ranged from 1-3 hours
         Focus Group Barriers
•   Trust
•   Frustration
•   Child Care
•   Schedules
•   Unable to Provide Compensation
            Focus Groups

• Student Focus Groups-5 high schools, 5
  middle schools and 1 alternative building
• 81 Students Participated
• Parent Focus Groups-Held in high
  schools, middle schools and community
  locations
• 16 Parents Participated
 Focus Group Data and Report
• Facilitators and Trainers
• 2 Groups
     • One to process student groups
     • One to process parent groups
• Findings and Recommendations to Generate
  Report:
  Reducing Disproportionality in Suspensions at
  Des Moines Public Schools: Findings and
  Recommendations from Focus Groups with
  Students and Parents
           (www.uiowa.edu/~nrcfcp)
           Focus Group
         Recommendations
1. It is incumbent upon the District to
   respond quickly to the request by
   participants for follow-up and feedback.
2. Suspension should be viewed as a
   process rather then as an action or
   event.
3. Teachers should go through a similar
   process.
4. District Administration and the School
   Board should participate the process.
           Focus Group
         Recommendations

5. Plans for cultural competence training
  throughout the district should be made.
6. To ensure reduction in suspensions and
  disproportionality, separate goals for
  reducing the number of suspension and
  for reducing disparate rates should be set.
  Background of PBS in DMPS

• Six years ago, buildings were asking for
  help with behavior
  – Began PBS in 1 MS and 1 Elementary
  – Training was provided for individual and
    building-wide PBS
  – PBS is now implemented in 8 MS and 22
    Elementaries
       Original Goals of PBS
• Reduce or eliminate problem behaviors
• Increase academic success; recapture lost
  number of minutes teaching and
  administrative time
• School Safety
                       Six Major Ideas
1.   Build Multiple Systems of Behavior Support
       • Different systems for different challenges
2.   Invest in Prevention
       • Build a culture of social competence
       • Define, teach, monitor, and reward appropriate behavior
       • Define, monitor and correct inappropriate behavior
3. Start with Administrative Commitment
     • Top 3 Goals, Administrator on team, 80% commitment
4.   Use Team-based Implementation
      • No new resources (working smarter)
5.   Adapt procedures to “fit” the context
       •   Implement sustainable practices and systems
6.   Collect and use information for decision-making
                  Supporting Social Competence &
                      Academic Achievement
 4 PBS
Elements                  OUTCOMES


                                               Supporting
  Supporting                                    Decision
 Staff Behavior                                 Making



                          PRACTICES



                           Supporting
                        Student Behavior
                                            Tertiary Prevention:
  CONTINUUM OF                                   Specialized
  SCHOOL-WIDE                                  Individualized
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR                         Systems for Students with
     SUPPORT                ~5%             High-Risk Behavior

                                            Secondary Prevention:
                            ~15%
                                              Specialized Group
                                           Systems for Students with
                                               At-Risk Behavior
 Primary Prevention:
 School-/Classroom-
  Wide Systems for
     All Students,
   Staff, & Settings




                       ~80% of Students
           School-wide
    Positive Behavior Support

• School-wide positive behavior support is a
  set of systemic and individualized
  strategies for achieving social and learning
  outcomes while preventing problem
  behavior.
         Does PBS also improve
    disproportionality of suspensions?
•    Prevention: we need to have behavioral supports in
     place to set up students for success
•    Teaching: we need to define behavioral expectations
     and directly teach them in all areas
•    Systems: we need supportive systems in place to
     sustain practices with administrative support

     “Suspension should be viewed as a process rather then
     as an action or event”

What does DMPS suspension data look like?
                              Number of Suspensions




                  200
                        400
                                600
                                      800
                                            1000
                                                   1200
                                                          1400
                                                                 1600
                                                                        1800




              0
       PS


        K

    Fi
       rs
         t
Se
  co
    nd

   Th
      ird
  Fo
     ur
        th

    Fi
       fth

    Si
      xt
        h
Se
  ve
    nt
       h
  Ei
    gh
      th
   N
       in
         th
   Te
                                                                               Number of Suspensions by Grade 2006-2007




      nt
         h
El
  ev
    en
        th
  Tw
     el
        th
                                        DMPS African American and Caucasian Enrollment

                        80.00%


                        70.00%


                        60.00%
Percent of Enrollment




                        50.00%


                                                                                          African American
                        40.00%
                                                                                          Caucasian


                        30.00%


                        20.00%


                        10.00%


                        0.00%
                                 2002      2003      2004      2005      2006      2007
           Percent of African-American and Caucasian Students
                               Suspended

35.00%

                                   29.60%
30.00%   27.60%
                                                             26.17%
                                                                                     24.70%
25.00%

20.00%

15.00%           12.62%                   12.98%
                                                                    12.06%                   11.43%

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%
           2003-2004                 2004-2005                 2005-2006               2006-2007
                                     Percent of Students suspended

         % of African- American Students Who Are Suspended   % of Caucasian Students Who Are Suspended
                Relative Risk Ratio
What is the risk of suspension for African
  American students, compared to the risk for
  Caucasian students?
African American students are suspended 2.16
  times compared to Caucasian students.
Relative Risk    Risk for African American Students:
Calculation:     AA Students suspended: 1,303
.2470            All AA Students: 5,275
.1143            Relative Risk: 24.7%

                 Risk for Caucasian Students:
                 Caucasian students suspended: 2,228
                 All Caucasian students: 19,488
                 Relative Risk: 11.43%
African American Students Suspended 2006-2007
                                1.56%
                               10+ Days




                     23.15%
                    <10 Days




                      75.30%
                        No
                    Suspensions
Caucasian Students Suspended 2006-2007
                            0.55%
                           10+ Days

                                   11%
                                 <10 Days




                    88.45%
                No Suspensions
What do we have in place/planned
 to address disproportionality of
         suspensions?
• PBS support
• Karega Rausch
• Plan to develop goals and to put
  recommendations in place
               PBS Support
•   31 Internal Coaches
•   12 External Coaches
•   31 Liaison Support Staff for Teams
•   10 Trainers
•   District Leadership Team
•   2 Supervisors
•   1 Coordinator
  Consultant: Karega Rausch
• Recommendations on:
  – How to infuse issues of inequity into the fabric
    of PBS
  – How to develop data systems to know if we
    are making progress
     • Measureable outcomes
  – How to create a culturally competent PBS
    system
Targeted Measurable Outcomes

• Reduce suspensions and expulsions
• Reduce disproportionality in suspensions
  and expulsions
• Reduce office referrals
• Reduce disproportionality in office referrals

				
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posted:8/11/2012
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