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POLLUTION

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					POLLUTION
A. Hazardous Wastes – solid, liquid or
   gaseous wastes that are potentially
   harmful to humans and the
   environment, even in low [ ].
   1. reactive wastes – can explode/
   react violently
2. corrosive wastes – can corrode
   (eat through) other materials
  (battery acid, lye, etc.)
3. ignitable wastes – can burst into flames at
  low temp
4. toxic wastes – chemicals that are
   poisonous (cause birth defects,
   cancer, etc)
5. radioactive wastes – waste giving
    off radiation (short half-life vs. long
    half-life)
•   6. medical wastes – old medicines,
    syringes, lab specimens,
    blood/tissue samples, etc.
7. Chemical pollutants
   a. inorganic
         i. heavy metals  metals w/ high
             atomic masses (Hg, Pb, Cd, As, Ni,
                Cr)
            -- store in fat of organisms and
                build through the food web
            -- cause brain, liver and kidney
                damage, birth defects
         ii. Pesticides, herbicides, etc  birth
                defects, cancers, lupus, various
                system damage
iii. Nutrients  noncarbon
     elements needed for plant
     growth (PO4 and NO3)
   -- excess nutrients lead to algae
blooms (eutrophication) which
eventually deplete the water of
O2.
b. organic chemicals
     i. petroleum products
           - LNAPL – light non-aqueous
     phase liquids  float on water
     (recoverable and easier to
     clean up)
           i.e. oil, gasoline
- DNAPL – dense non-
aqueous phase liquids  sink
in water (harder to clean, basically
not recoverable)
          i.e. TCE, solvents
c. thermal pollution – a large increase
      in water temp due to human activity
 -- often from the release of water from
    power plants (not cooled enough)

				
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posted:8/10/2012
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