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THE USE OF MAGNAPAC IN DAIRY NUTRITION Jose Luis Ecija NOREL & NATURE Nutrition Technical training - Shanghai Yanhua LACTATION CURVE WHY TO USE ENERGY? An excessive loss of weight during the first 100 days of lactation gives rise to a series of problems, of which the following can be highlighted: * FALL IN MILK PRODUCTION after the lactation peak * FERTILITY DISORDERS: lowering conception rate * High risk of suffering METABOLIC ILLNESSES (KETOSIS) * NEGATIVE ENERGY BALANCE by high energy requirements for milk production POTENTIAL STRATEGIES TO INCREASE ENERGY CONTENT We shall consider three strategies to increase the energy consumption: 1. INCREASE DRY MATTER COMSUMPTION 2. INCREASE CONCENTRATES AMOUNT IN FEED 3. INCREASE ENERGY DENSITY IN THE OVERALL RATION OR IN THE CONCENTRATE 1) First solution To increase the dry matter consumption: •Disadvantage: During the first two months of lactation the animal’s ingestion capacity is limited by: - Space occupied by the reproductive system - Hormonal change related with calving - Adaptation lack of rumen bacteria to new diet 2) Second solution To increase the proportion of concentrates in the ration: * Disadvantage: Acidosis Cereals Propionic Rumen pH acid in rumen decreases ↓ % fat milk Ruminal Lower fibre ↓ appetite digestion ACIDOSIS ↓ production Consequently, the incorporation of large amounts of concentrates in the total ration of ruminants should be limited to 50%-60% of the total amount of dry material, the rest of the food being forage. Otherwise, we can give rise to: *Ruminal acidosis. *Reduced acetic/propionic ratio. *Loss of appetite. *Fall in milk production *Lower fat content in milk. Recommendations: Forage/Concentrates = 40:60 Non-fibrous carbohydrates = 35-40% 3) Third solution Increase energy density in the overall ration or in the concentrate INCREASING FAT LEVELS IN THE RATION (2.25 times more energy than cereals) Supply less cereals in the ration Supply more forage Maintenance of ruminal pH (6-7) Less acidosis EQUILIBRATED DEVELOP OF RUMINAL MICROFLORA Adequate VFA relation in order to maximise milk production and milk fat percentage * Disadvantage: - Physical coatin of fibre - Toxic effect on cellulolytic flora - Physical coating of microorganisms, reducing the superficial active enzymes - Reduction in the absorption of cations * Recommendations: In the light of the foregoing, the NRC (American rationing system) recommends adding a minimum of fat to the ration, equivalent to 3% of the total dry substance ingested by a cow per day (if it eats 21 kg of DS = 21x3/100 = 0.63 kg), but limiting the fat to a maximum of 5% (21x5/100 = 1.05 kg) in order to avoid a mibrobic flora unbalance in the belly. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FATS ON THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF RUMINANTS ANIMAL FAT, LARD, VEGETABLE FAT CONSEQUENCE NECESSITY OF ENERGY WITHOUT ALTERING RUMEN FERMENTATIONS AND RUMINAL MICRO ORGANISMS USE OF BY – PASS FATS MAGNAPAC MAGNAPAC, or calcium soap made from palm oil fatty acids, is the only totally reliable source of protected fat in the production of feed for ruminantes. It is an efficient, economic way of increasing energy intake in dairy cows. There is no problem with acidosis or fertility. It helps to maintain high yields and a more balanced milking curve. MAGNAPAC FATTY ACID CALCIUM SALTS Normally known as CALCIUM SOAPS These are formed by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids jointed to calcium ions to form salts Their protection mechanism is based on the acidity of the level where they are found, what is named pH. Magnapac remains linked in a neutral pH, whereas it is dissociated in an acid pH. It is made from a chemical reaction of saponification: Fatty Acid + Calcium SALT BY – PASS FATS -- MAGNAPAC PASS THROUGH RUMEN WITHOUT FLORA ALTERATION WHEN REACHED ABOMASUM: BREAKING INTO FATTY ACIDS EASY ABSORPTION AT DUODENUM LEVEL RESULT INCREASE OF ENERGY SUPPLIED IN DIET KEEP THE BACTERIAL PHYSIOLOGY IN RUMEN PROVIDE A HEALTHY STATUS TO COW DIGESTIVE TRACT a) RUMEN When they reach the rumen, the neutral pH (pH = 6.5-6.8) of the medium keeps the salts united; they are insoluble in the ruminal liquid and, as in the previous case, are not attacked by the microflora in the belly and do not interrupt normal activity: they are inert or by-pass in the rumen. b) ABOMASUM On reaching the abomasum, they encounter an acid pH (pH = 2- 3) and are immediately dissociated into calcium and fatty acids. At this point, calcium soaps lose the characteristic which makes them inert: their insolubility. As we shall see below, this is of considerable importance for their absorption in the intestine. c) SMALL INTESTINE The free fatty acids that arrive from the abomasum do not need to be digested in the intestine (as do the saturated fats). Moreover, the composition of these products in virtually equal parts of saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic) and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic) means that the overall fusion point is nearly 38, resulting in their union with the gastric juices in the intestine being carried out with maximum efficiency. This allows the fatty acids from the calcium soaps to be absorbed with an efficiency bordering on 95%, avoiding loss of fat in the faeces and the elimination of cations, which are so necessary for the animal. FATTY ACID CALCIUM SALTS (Magnapac) MAGNAPAC Digestibility = 90 - 95 % *** SPECIFICATIONS *** Gross Fat: 84 % Myiristic C14:0 1.5 % 50 % Humidity: 3.5 % Palmitic C16:0 44 % SATURATED Ashes: 12.5 % Stearic C18:0 5% Calcium: 9% Oleic C18:1 40 % 50 % UNSATURATED Linoleic C18:2 9.5 % The results of MAGNAPAC BODY CONDITION: It is better as weight loss decreases MILK PRODUCTION: It is higher the whole production cycle since there is no weight loss to be recovered – 10% mean increase METABOLIC PROBLEMS: Ketosis, Acidosis, etc. can be easily avoided as no body tissues are mobilised to fill the milk great requirements and specially the fat percentage FERTILITY RATE: Higher conception rates are achieved at first service as consequence of better body condition FIBER DIGESTIBILITY: It allows to obtain the most of the forage BUTTERFAT PERCENTAGE: As fat content increases at mean two points The advantages of MAGNAPAC SOLID FAT: The addition of 50% unsaturated fatty acid of the supplemented fat does not create any problem in the ration. EASY HANDLING: As a solid fat, no specific equipmet is required to provide it. FURTHER STORAGE: More than 15 months can be packed EASY PELLETING: No heat is need to add Magnapac FREE DISTRIBUTION IN FARM: Magnapac is accepted by TMR feeding system RECOMMENDED DOSAGE: 500 G / COW / DAY MAGNAPAC’s energy value MAGNAPAC presents an energy value that makes it possible to adapt the estimated ration: Magnapac fat content = 84 % Gross Energy: GE = 840 g/Kg x 9.33 Mcal/Kg = 7.837 Mcal/Kg Digestibility Coefficient: DC = 90% Digestible Energy: DE = ME = 7.837 x 0.9 = 7.053 Mcal/Kg Net Energy of lactation: NEl = 7.053 Mcal/Kg x 0.82 = 5.783 Mcal/Kg UFL = 3.34 UFL/Kg = 24.1 MJ/Kg MAGNAPAC’s dosage The recommended quantities per cow and day vary according to the production level, the moment of the lactation period and the presence or absence of other free supplemented fat in the ration. The most recommended dosages are: - Medium yielding cows (3000 – 4000 litres): 250 – 350 g / cow / day - High yielding cows: 350 – 500 g / cow / day up to 1 Kg The use of the product is recommended the first 100 days of lactation, but for its great advantages in keeping body condition and milk fat percentage, it should be necessary to use along the whole cycle. TRIALS WITH MAGNAPAC 1. SPAIN - High yielding lactating cows – 8000 litres - Diet based on corn silage and forage - Trial developed in Tona (Tarragona) 2. CHINA - Medium yielding cows – 5000 litres - Diet based on corn and corn silage - Trial developed in Dairy Products Plant of Nan Tong City TRIAL nº 1: Feed Composition Trial was developed during first 120 days of early lactation. Control MAGNAPAC Corn silage 12,5 12,5 Alfalfa silage 6 6 Alfalfa Hay 2 2 Beet 8 8 Forage 11 11 MAGNAPAC 0 0.8 TRIAL nº 1: Feeding value Control MAGNAPAC Dry matter 21.7 21.7 NEl, MJ 149 157 Crude P 4.043 3.976 By-pass P 1.387 1.350 Crude Fat 896 1.532 By-pass Fat - 672 TRIAL nº 1: Results Control MAGNAPAC Nº Cows 39 39 Production on last 8.029 8.080 lactation Milk Production 31.5 33.6 Milk Production 4% fat 28.5 30.2 + 2.1 Milk fat 3.35 3.34 l/cow/day Milk fat (Kg/day) 1.06 1.12 Milk Protein 3.21 3.07 Milk Protein (Kg/day) 1.01 1.03 Milk Production at 305 8.654 9.267 days corrected TRIAL nº 2: Feed Composition The experiment was developed during first 90 days of lactation. The amount of concentrate feed was 7.5 kg for both groups. The forage included 15 kg of corn silage, 1.5 kg of alfalfa hay and 10 kg of beer lees. Soybean Wheat Cotton Cotton Calcium Salt Feed MAGNAPAC % of the concentrate Corn meal bran meal seed diphosphate additive g/cow/day TEST GROUP 45 17 13 14 5 3 2 1 500 CONTROL GROUP 45 17 13 14 5 3 2 1 0 TRIAL nº 2: Results CONTROL TEST differences Nº of cows 50 50 Average nº of births 2.5 2.5 Initial average 23.56 ± 1.47 23.58 ± 1.51 milk production (Kg) Final average 23.51 ± 1.34 26.43 ± 1.38 + 2.92 milk production (Kg) Initial average Milk fat 3.26 3.23 Milk protein 2.92 2.91 Final average Milk fat 3.25 3.26 + 0.03 Milk protein 2.91 2.93 + 0.02 Initial body weight 558.8 565.2 Final body weight 557.7 574.7 + 1.7% (9.5 kg) TRIAL nº 2: Results Cows from Test group produced 2.92 litres per day more than control group. MilK fat increased 0.03 points per litre than control group, due to higher amount of supplemented fat in the overall ration. Milk protein increased 0.02 points per litre than control group. Body condition kept better in cows supplemented with MAGNAPAC, because of no body tissues were required to supply fat at mammary gland. Test group increased its body weght in 9.5 kg during the 90 days of the trial, even they get fatter than the initial weight at calving. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION QUESTIONS…??
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