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					  Cosmology and Astrophysics
(and Elementary Particle Physics
       in the 21st Century)

            Rocky Kolb
                      My personal views*
• A few generalities
• Particle-Astro  EPP
• EPP  Particle-Astro
• The role of National Laboratories
• Particle-Astro @ Fermilab (illustrates potential and issues)
• The world outside of 60510
• Structural questions
        • What is (and what is not) Particle-Astro?
        • When does a suite of projects become a program?
        • How should projects be prioritized & managed?
        • What is the right slice of Particle Astro in the EPP Pie?

* My views are not endorsed by DOE, NASA, NSF, or Fermilab; but they should be.
“When we try to
pick out anything
by itself, we find
it hitched to
everything else in
the universe.”
        – John Muir
                  A few generalities
• Many EPP questions are also Cosmic Questions
   – Barish/Bagger Report
   – Physics of the Universe
   – Beyond Einstein
   – Quarks to the Cosmos
   – Quantum Universe

• Recognition at the funding agencies
   – interagency committees and task forces
   – jointly funded projects

• Legacy in nuclear astrophysics

• Particle-Astro now expensive enough to be respectable – many
  projects are too large for a university group or consortium.
                Particle-Astro  EPP
Some historical examples:
  • Limits on neutrino properties: Nn, mn, tn, mn
  • Limits on axions from red giants and mass density
  • First signals of physics beyond standard model
      – neutrino oscillations (atmospheric, solar)
      – inflation (physics at mass scale  ewk)
      – non-baryonic dark matter (physics at mass scale  ewk?)
      – vacuum energy and acceleration (physics at all scales)

Possible Futures:
   • Cosmic rays beyond GKZ cutoff
   • Mass scale and properties of inflaton potential
   • Direct or indirect detection of dark matter
   • Properties of dark matter from clustering
   • Mass-energy density of the vacuum
   • Axion detection
                Particle-Astro  EPP
Non Science:
             to a closely aligned field of science
             to the public

             smaller cheaper faster projects (by EPP standards)
               EPP  Particle-Astro
Some historical examples:
     asymptotic freedom and T  TQCD
     grand unified theories and inflation
     proton decay and baryogenesis
     Nn and nucleosynthesis
     Higgs mass limits rule out EWK baryogenesis (?)
     Phase transitions and topological defects
     Neutrino oscillations and leptogenesis

Possible Futures:
      SUSY and dark matter
      Strings and dark energy
      Higgs mass and baryogenesis/phase transitions
      Extra dimensions
      Theory of Everything should tell us something
                EPP  Particle-Astro
Non Science:
             in large data sets (also space science), e.g., SDSS
             in industrial-scale projects, e.g., Pierre Auger Project

             many talented EPP experimentalists to Particle-Astro

              Particle-Astro growing part of shrinking budget pie
                                    EPP  Particle-Astro
                                                      Cold Thermal Relics
Relative abundance

                     1010          freeze out                             X

                     1015                                     equilibrium
                                                                       M /T
                                1           101            102                103
                                X  sA1 (independent of mass)
            EPP  Particle-Astro
                                X  s S
Cold thermal relics        X                 X
     X  sA1
                           q                 q

      X  s A                 X q  X q
 X                q

 X                q
     X  X qq            q    X  s P

                           q                 X
                               qq  X  X
              EPP  Particle-Astro

• SUSY LSP (neutralino)
• Direct detection (sS)
  More than a dozen experiments

• Indirect detection (sA)
  Annihilation in sun, Earth, galactic center, subclumps, . . .
   neutrinos, positrons, antiprotons, g rays, . . .

• Production at accelerators (sP)
               EPP  Particle-Astro
• The details of the relic
abundance depend on the details
of the SUSY model (spin,
co-annihilation, LSP couplings, …)

• Low-energy SUSY has more
than 100 parameters

• Analyses: MSSM, pMSSM,

• Why should dark side be simpler
than bright side (Lykken)?

• No guarantee that LHC alone will
unravel details
                      EPP  Particle-Astro


0.100  h2  0.300
0.094  h2  0.129

Ellis et al., Phys.Lett. B565 176, (2003)
               EPP  Particle-Astro

• neutrinos                                 (hot dark matter)
• sterile neutrinos, gravitinos          (warm dark matter)
• LSP (neutralino, axino, …)               (cold dark matter)
• LKP (lightest Kaluza-Klein particle)
• axions, axion clusters
• solitons (Q-balls; B-balls; Odd-balls, Screw-balls….)
• supermassive wimpzillas
         Mass range                Interaction strength range
106 eV (1040 g) axions           Noninteracting: wimpzillas
108 M   (1025 g) axion clusters   Strongly interacting: B balls
      The Role of National Laboratories

• If National Laboratories did not exist, would they be invented for
Particle-Astro projects?

• Complexity of Particle-Astro projects beyond universities or
university consortia

• Same role played by NASA centers (Goddard, JPL, …)
Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab
      Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab
• Particle Astrophysics and the Fermilab (EPP) mission

• Rules of engagement

• Fermilab Particle Astrophysics Projects
   – Theoretical Astrophysics
   – Sloan Digital Sky Survey
   – Pierre Auger Project
   – Cryogenic Dark Matter Search
   – Dark Energy Survey

• Particle Astrophysics Center
      Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab

Fermilab Mission statement:
   Fermilab advances the understanding of the fundamental
   nature of matter and energy by providing leadership and
   resources for qualified researchers to conduct basic research
   at the frontiers for high energy physics and related fields.

Fermilab Long Range Plan (May 2004):
   Fermilab should substantially expand its leadership role in
   Particle Astrophysics, which provides probes of fundamental
   physics that complement accelerator experiments.
      Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab
                        Rules of engagement

• Participate in projects requiring National Laboratory

• Participate in strength

• Participate with universities and other labs

• Participate where science overlaps with Fermilab mission

• Participate when techniques and talents of staff relevant

• Participate in the science
      Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab
          Theoretical Astrophysics Group (since 1983)

• Lederman and Schramm  Kolb and Turner
• Presently 10-15 theoretical astrophysicists
              4 FNAL staff (+1 in September)
              4 postdocs
              1 Schramm fellow
• Partially (~1/4) funded by a NASA Astrophysics Theory grant
• Since inception, over 1000 papers
• Goals: science, support of Lab projects, world-wide impact
             Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab
                      Theoretical Astrophysics Group (since 1983)

1.    Alex Szalay, Professor Johns Hopkins University               19.   James Gelb, Assistant Professor UT, Arlington
2.    Neil Turok, Professor DAMTP, University of Cambridge          20.   Robert Caldwell, Assistant Professor Dartmouth College
3.    Andreas Albrecht, Professor University of California, Davis   21.   Stephane Colombi, Scientist Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris
4.    Keith A. Olive, Professor University of Minnesota             22.   Igor Tkachev, Researcher CERN
5.    David Seckel, Associate Professor Bartol Research Institute   23.   Andrew Heckler, Assistant Dean, Ohio State University
6.    Lars G. Jensen, Associate Professor North Dakota State        24.   Yun Wang, Assistant Professor University of Oklahoma
7.    Richard F. Holman, Professor Carnegie-Mellon University       25.   Istvan Szapudi, Assistant Professor University of Hawaii
8.    David P. Bennett, Associate Professor Notre Dame              26.   Antonio Riotto, Professor INFN, Padova
9.    Marcelo Gleiser, Professor Dartmouth College                  27.   Will Kinney, Assistant Professor SUNY Buffalo
10.   Albert Stebbins, Scientist II Fermilab                        28.   Lam Hui, Associate Professor, Columbia University
11.   Edmund J. Copeland, Professor University of Sussex            29.   Ewan Stewart, Assistant Professor Korea Advanced Inst.
12.   Angela V. Olinto, Associate Professor University of Chicago   30.   Zoltan Haiman, Assistant Professor Columbia University
13.   Dongsu Ryu, Professor Chungnam University, Korea              31.   Pasquale Blasi, Faculty Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri
14.   Scott Dodelson, Scientist II Fermilab                         32.   Idit Zehavi, Assistant Professor Case Western Reserve
15.   Ruth A. Gregory, Academic Staff University of Durham          33.   Ravi Sheth, Assistant Professor University of Penn
16.   David Salopek, Senior Researcher UBC                          34.   Patrick Greene, Assistant Professor UT, San Antonio
17.   Esteban Roulet, Visiting Professor Valencia, Spain            35.   John Beacom, Assistant Professor Ohio State University
18.   Fay Dowker, Lecturer Queen Mary University of London          36.   Nicole Bell, Assistant Professor, University of Melbourne
       Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab
              Sloan Digital Sky Survey – E885 (since 1991)

                                                    120MPix camera    2.5m telescope
• About 150 scientists
• Participants
   University of Chicago
   Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
   Institute for Advanced Study
   Japan Participation Group
   Johns Hopkins University
   Korean Scientist Group (KSG)
   Los Alamos National Laboratory
   Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy/Heidelberg
   Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics/Garching
   New Mexico State University                           640 fiber
   University of Pittsburgh
   University of Portsmouth, Princeton University
   United States Naval Observatory
   University of Washington

• Funding from Sloan Foundation, DOE, NSF,
  NASA, USNO, Monbusho, Universities, Max Planck
      Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab

• Funding from Sloan Foundation, DOE, NSF,
  NASA, USNO, Monbusho, Universities, Max Planck

Particle-Astro projects (like EPP) are international

Funding partnership of US government agencies, private, and

Management, oversight issues
      Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab
          Sloan Digital Sky Survey – E885 (since 1991)

• Its 5-year mission: map  p steradians in 5 colors, find the
  redshift of  106 galaxies and  200,000 quasars

• Understand the role of dark
  matter in shaping structure

• Today: imaging 100%;
         spectro  70%

• Metric of success: SDSS-II:
  Sloan and NSF ($5.4M)
    – Legacy (extend SDSS-I)
    – SEGUE (galactic merging)
    – SN (low/intermediate redshift)
         Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab
                   Pierre Auger Project – E881 (since 1995)

• About 250 scientists
• Participants                       1600 surface detectors       Hybrid scheme
  Argentina        UCLA
  Italy            Michigan Tech
  Australia        Case Western
  Mexico           Minnesota
  Bolivia          Chicago
  Poland           Nebraska
  Brazil           Colorado
  Slovenia         New Mexico
  Czech Republic   Colorado State
  Spain            Northeastern
  France           Columbia
  United Kingdom   Ohio State
  Germany          Fermilab
  USA              Argonne
  Greece           Utah
  Vietnam          Louisiana State

• Funding from DOE & NSF
  US ~ 25% & 13 agencies abroad
                                                              24 fluorescence detectors
• URA manages
      Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab
             Pierre Auger Project – E881 (since 1995)

• Its mission: spectrum,

                                    Still bugs
  source, and composition of
  highest energy cosmic rays

• Already world’s largest
  array - 30,000 km2 of
  pampas in Argentina

• Build, calibrate, take data,

• 38 papers at ICRC
      Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab

• About 250 scientists
• Funding from DOE & NSF
  US ~ 25% & 13 agencies abroad

Note size

Located offshore

US not majority support
       Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab
         Cryogenic Dark Matter Search – E891 (since 1996)

• About 50 scientists
• Participants
   UC Santa Barbara
   Case Western Reserve
   Colorado (Denver)
   Santa Clara
   UC Berkeley

• Funding from DOE & NSF                Located in Soudan mine
                                        (co-located w/ MINOS)
      Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab
       Cryogenic Dark Matter Search – E891 (since 1996)
• Its mission: direct
  detection of dark matter
                                                  DAMA NaI/1-
• Best limit in the world by a                    4 3s region
  factor of 4

• Probing significant regions
  of MSSM model space

• Light-mass region largely
  ruled out                       Soudan limits

• Another factor of 3-4
  at hand in Soudan
      Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab

• Another factor of 3-4
  at hand in Soudan

What then?

Planning for next step in direct detection of dark matter?
       Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab
                              New Initiatives
Dark Energy Survey:
       • 5000 deg2 survey of the southern galactic cap
               • constrain w to ~ 5%, begin to constrain
• CTIO Blanco 4-m telescope
               • 2.2 deg. FOV camera $22.5M
       • 2005-2009 Construction
       • 2009-2014 Operations

• Joint NASA/DOE dark energy space mission
• Lot of action, little money
• R&D lead by LBNL
• Fermilab admitted to SNAP in 2004

On the horizon:
• Auger North
• SuperCDMS
      Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab

How do we (FNAL) plan future initiatives?

Is our suite of projects optimal?
       Particle Astrophysics @ Fermilab
• Intellectual center to unify and focus the astrophysics program,
  enhance effectiveness and recruiting power

• Framework to germinate, develop, advance future efforts

• Internationally recognized center for Particle Astrophysics

• Interdivisional

• Membership open to all Fermilab employees working on
  existing astrophysics projects and new initiatives

• Assist Users community involved in Center programs
            The world outside of 60510

• Exciting Particle-Astro projects where Fermilab is not involved
   ICE3, LSST, Veritas, CMB, GLAST, …

• All have some of the issues of FNAL projects

• Some have unique issues

• One size does not fit all
                  Define Particle Astro
• The grey area

• “I know it when I see it.”

                               Astro       Astro
                Projects  Program

• There is no roadmapping procedure for Particle-Astro

• There are many great projects, does this make a program?

• Is it perceived as a coherent program or mishmash of projects?
           Management and Priorities

• Particle-Astro program is diverse (great strength, but…).

• There is no Particle-Astro PAC!

• Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos did not prioritize

• Will Eleven Science Questions for the New Century be revisited?

• How to set balance accelerator vs. other
              The Particle-Astro Slice
• Remarkable time in Particle-Astro:
   Auger, Ice3, JDEM, LSST, CDMS, SDSS, Veritas, WMAP,

• EPP contribution has been substantial

• Money is the limitation for number of projects (true for EPP?)

• Particle-Astro could consume much larger fraction of EPP
people and budget
   – MOS (Auger North, SuperCDMS, LSST, JDEM, …)
   – Gravitational Wave Physics (LISA, LIGO, …)
   – Stronger presence in space science (Con-X, CMBPOL, …)
   – Next generation telescopes (TMT, GMT, …)

• How should proper balance be set?
               The Particle-Astro Slice

• Balance should be set
  by science opportunities

                          astro & non-
                          accelerator         accelerator

• Balance must be set by budget opportunities

• Must be able to change dynamically

• Need realistic science-driven priorities (revisited periodically)

• ILC is the 1000-kg gorilla

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