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Ontario I. Intro II. The Land III. Loyalists & Other Immigrants IV. Pioneering & Wheat V. Changes in the Land VI. The Countryside after 1850 VII. Industry after 1850 VIII. Logging IX. Colonization X. Conclusion Discussion Questions » Week 8 To what extent was the environment to blame for the postbellum poverty of the South? » Week 9 How did Thoreau’s work and thinking differ from that of the Hudson’s School’s in their understanding of the human place in nature? The Land » Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands » Deciduous Forest » Ojibwa » Rice Lake » Treaties Toronto Purchase, 1806 Surveys » Private property & capitalism » Township system » Less human, less ecological » Hierarchical Society » Gov. Guy Carleton Land Allocation, Essa Township, Home District Loyalists » American Revolution » 8-10,000 loyalists to Quebec (Upper Canada) » John Graves Simcoe » Richard Cartwright » “Late Loyalists” Loyalist Resettlement in Nova Scotia & Quebec Pioneering & Wheat » Scattered Settlement » Assault on the Forest » Burning, chopping & girdling » Potash » Wheat-fallow-wheat » Ontario & the Market Revolution? » Population grows 6X after 1825 » Almost all land claimed by 1850 Changing Countryside Land Distribution, 1851 Changes in the Land » From forest to farmland » Simplified ecology » Climate & groundwater » Fish & rivers Railways Buildings and Structures » Georgian » Victorian Georgian Houses Victorian Gothic Styling Late Victorian & Arts & Crafts North Bay Countryside Small Towns Small Towns Functional Town Centres Georgian Style Kingston City Hall Classical (Georgian) Style for Legal Buildings Osgoode Hall, Toronto Italianate & 2nd Empire Styles Gothic Revival Style Parliament Hill Industrial Buildings and Landscapes Heavy Industry » Great Lakes as industrial heartland » Toronto & Hamilton – heavy industry » Quebec – household goods, food » Factory production » Shoes 49 craft manufacturies, 1846 Sewing machine Sessions, Carpenter and Co. -- 510 employees in 1870 Heavy Industry » Hamilton » Metal-works, soap, tanneries, meat packers » Hamilton Harbour » 360 gallons H2SO4 per week » sewage Logging » Ottawa Valley » Fisheries Act, 1865 Colonization » Ottawa-Huron tract » Logging versus resettlement » The appeal of countryside & farming Colonization Roads Colonization » “extensive valleys of fertile lands lie behind the rocky hills which skirt the northerly shore of Lake Huron” » Ottawa & Opeongo Rd » Bobcaygeon Rd » Northern railway to Gravenhurst by 1875 » Muskoka Navigation Company » “My heart is in Muskoka” Questions » Why did settlers bring such severe & rapid changes to the ecology of southern Ontario? What about this ecology aided in this process? » Why was the history of areas north of the Great Lakes - St. Lawrence lowlands so different?
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