Canine parvoviral enteritis by IbrahimAlkhomsy

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									      Tripoli university
faculty of veterinary medicine

  Canine parvoviral
      enteritis
        CPV

              By

  Ibrahim A. Alkhomsy
                  Definition
• Is an acute systemic illness, highly contagious
  characterized by hemorrhagic enteritis sever
  vomiting scaused by CPV-2.
• CPV one of the most common infectious
  disorders of dogs.
• Fatal disease in pups less than 6 months ....
  that not protected by maternal Ab or
  vaccination.
• In pups …. Collapse …. Shock like state ….
  Death …. Without enteric signs.
                    Etiology           CPV-2a
•    CPV-2
•    Nonenveloped, ssDNA virus.
                        CPV-1              1984
•    Family parvoviridea.
       CPV
•    Genus parvovirus.
                        CPV-2            CPV-2b
•      1970
     Size 25 nm with icosahedral capsid symmetry.
       1978
                        1980
    FPL .. 98%                            2000
    2 A.a .. VP2
                                       CPV-2c
• The virus require rapidly dividing cells for
  replication (lymphoid tissue, bone marrow
  and intestinal epithelium).
• CPV-2 extremely stable, withstand high pH
  and temperature and can persist on inanimate
  objects for 5 months or longer away from
  sunlight and disinfectant.

• Virus can be inactivated by sodium
  hypochloride (bleach) the only household
  disinfectant that kills the virus.
                Epidemiology
• The disease highly contagious specially among young
  unvaccinated dogs less than 6 months of age.
• Incidence / prevalence: high and rates vary.
• Geographical distribution: worldwide.
• Breed predilections:- rottweilers, Doberman
  pinchers and English Springer spaniels.




• Mean age and range: the illness at any age but most
  sever illness occurs in pups 6 - 16 wks of age.
              Routs of transmission
• Oral fecal rout, contact with contaminated feces,
  food pans, cage floor, vet. workers, insects, rodents.

• Infected dogs shed the virus for up to 3 wks.
• Recovered dogs act as carriers (periodical
  shedding).
• Dogs may become infected naturally and never
  develops clinical signs (adult dogs 80%).


• The illness increased when young pups harbor
  intestinal helminthes, protozoa and enteric bacteria.
• Incubation period: 4-6 days.
Pathogenesis
                Clinical finding
CPV-2 Myocarditis:
• In pups less than 6 wks age.
• Myocarditis …. Sudden death.
• Infection inutero from non vaccinated mothers or
  latrelally infected.
• Dyspnea, crying and retching.

• In pups cardiac signs precedes GIT signs.
• Acute diarrhea …. Death …. Without cardiac signs ….
  If recovered apparently …. After time …. Signs of CHF
  appears (ascites, pulmonary edema).
Parvoviral enteritis:-
• Anorexia ,
• vomiting,
• and fever 40-41 C⁰.
• Diarrhea grey yellow to bloody due to necrosis
  of intestinal epithelium (hemorrhagic
  enteritis).
• Dehydration with pale M.m.

• Hypovolemic endotoxemic shock and
  DIC.

• Animal will die if neglected after 48 -
  72 days.
                    Diagnosis
•   Clinical signs.
•   Posmortm lesions.
•   Confirmation by ELISA.
•   Histopathology.
        Treatment (supportive)
• Isolation of the infected dog from other
  healthy dogs.

• Withholding of food and water until vomiting
  has subsided.

• The infected dogs should be kept warm with
  restricted activity.
• Parentral fluid therapy: lactated ringer
  solution, 5% dextrose and potassium or
  sodium chloride with B comlex vitamin.
  ( hydration continued until vomiting and
  diarrhea subsided ).
• Antibiotic to prevent sepsis:
  – Ampicillin 10 - 20mg/kg IM, IV, SC, 3 days.
  – Gentamycin 2 mg/kg IM, SC, 3-5 days.
  – Cefazolin 22 mg/kg IM, IV, 3-5 days.
• Plasma transfusion if sever hypoprotenaemia
  with specific hyperimmune plasma 10 - 20
  ml/kg IV once or antiendotoxin sera 8.8 ml/kg
  (passive immunization).
• Therapy by anti-inflamatory drugs:
  – Flunixin meglumine 1mg/kg IV single injection.
  – Glucocorticoids/ short acting corticosteroids:
    dexamethasone sodium phosphate 2-4 mg/kg IV
    or prednisolone sodium succinate. Single injection
    for treatment of sepsis and septic endotoxemic
    shock.
• Antiemetic therapy:
  – Metoclopromide 0.2 - 0.4 mg/kg SC, PO or 1 - 2
    mg/kg IV.
  – Chlorpromazine 0.5 mg/kg IM or 0.05 mg/kg IV.
  – Low dose acepromazine (non-tranqulizer inj.) 0.02
    mg/kg inhibit vomiting center and intensity of
    intestinal Smc contraction.
         Possible complications
• Septicemia / endotoxemia.

• Secondary bacterial pneumonia.

• Intussusception.

• Cardiac failure (fibrosis).
                  Prognosis
• Guarded in severely affected pups.

• Good for dogs that receive prompt initial
  treatment and survive the initial crisis of
  illness.
                 Prevention
• Vaccination: inactivated or live attenuated
  vaccine. Three doses are recommended at
  6, 9, and 12 wks of age …. 3 - 4 wks apart ….
  Annually theirafter.

• Thorough cleaning and disinfection (dogs on
  premises). 1 : 30 dilution of bleach (5%
  sodium hypochlorite) destroys CPV-2 …. FOR
  10 minutes.
Thanks for attention

								
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